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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220427/quantitative-evaluation-of-plant-actin-cytoskeletal-organization-during-immune-signaling
#1
Yi-Ju Lu, Brad Day
High spatial and temporal resolution microscopy-based methods are valuable tools for the precise real-time imaging of changes in cellular organization in response to stimulus perception. Here, we describe a quantitative method for the evaluation of the plant actin cytoskeleton during immune stimulus perception and the activation of defense signaling. As a measure of the biotic stress-induced changes in actin filament organization, we present methods for analyzing changes in actin filament organization following elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219257/gestalt-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#2
Patrycja Kałamała, Aleksandra Sadowska, Wawrzyniec Ordziniak, Adam Chuderski
Four experiments investigated whether conforming to Gestalt principles, well known to drive visual perception, also facilitates the active maintenance of information in visual working memory (VWM). We used the change detection task, which required the memorization of visual patterns composed of several shapes. We observed no effects of symmetry of visual patterns on VWM performance. However, there was a moderate positive effect when a particular shape that was probed matched the shape of the whole pattern (the whole-part similarity effect)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#3
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213117/involuntary-orienting-of-attention-to-a-sound-desynchronizes-the-occipital-alpha-rhythm-and-improves-visual-perception
#4
Wenfeng Feng, Viola S Störmer, Antigona Martinez, John J McDonald, Steven A Hillyard
Directing attention voluntarily to the location of a visual target results in an amplitude reduction (desynchronization) of the occipital alpha rhythm (8-14 Hz), which is predictive of improved perceptual processing of the target. Here we investigated whether modulations of the occipital alpha rhythm triggered by the involuntary orienting of attention to a salient but spatially non-predictive sound would similarly influence perception of a subsequent visual target. Target discrimination was more accurate when a sound preceded the target at the same location (validly cued trials) than when the sound was on the side opposite to the target (invalidly cued trials)...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207899/human-cortical-neural-correlates-of-visual-fatigue-during-binocular-depth-perception-an-fnirs-study
#5
Tingting Cai, Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Shijing Wu, Xinge Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°). By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO) responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS) were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203354/the-graphesthesia-paradigm-drawing-letters-on-the-body-to-investigate-the-embodied-nature-of-perspective-taking
#6
Gabriel Arnold, Malika Auvray
In this study, we investigated whether adopting a head-centered perspective on the body is an embodied process by means of the graphesthesia task. This task consists of interpreting ambiguous tactile symbols from different spatial perspectives. The results revealed that symbols were more easily recognized when the mental rotation of the head toward the stimulated surface corresponded to physically possible, as opposed to impossible, body movements. Performance also decreased with increasing the amount of body movements that would be necessary to physically rotate the head...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203350/separate-and-simultaneous-adjustment-of-light-qualities-in-a-real-scene
#7
Ling Xia, Sylvia C Pont, Ingrid Heynderick
Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers able to interactively adjust the light properties on a "probe object" to its surrounding real scene? Image ambiguities can result in perceptual interactions between light properties. Such interactions formed a major problem for the "readability" of the illumination direction and diffuseness on a matte smooth spherical probe...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202396/do-low-spatial-frequencies-explain-the-extremely-fast-saccades-towards-human-faces
#8
Nathalie Guyader, Alan Chauvin, Muriel Boucart, Carole Peyrin
The visual perception of human faces by man is fast and efficient compared to that of other categories of objects. Using a saccadic choice task, recent studies showed that participants were able to initiate fast reliable saccades in just 100 to 110 ms toward an image of a human face, when this was presented alongside another image without a face. This extremely fast saccadic reaction time is barely predicted using classical models of visual perception. Thus, the present research investigates whether this result might be explained by the low spatial frequency content of images...
February 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195546/naturopaths-in-ontario-canada-geographic-patterns-in-intermediately-sized-metropolitan-areas-and-integration-implications
#9
Stephen P Meyer
Evaluating conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with respect to integration opportunities (such as patient referrals and professional knowledge sharing) and possible geographic implications is novel. This research utilizes nearest neighbour and local spatial autocorrelation statistical analyses and surveys directed towards Doctors of Naturopathic Medicine (NDs) and their patients to better understand the geographic patterns of NDs and potential integration qualities. While the statistical tests reveal that the offices of NDs and Doctors of Medicine (MDs) display clustered patterns in intermediately-sized census metropolitan areas in Ontario and that the majority of NDs are near MDs, proximity is not manifesting in discernible integration tendencies between NDs and MDs...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#10
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195004/physiological-modeling-for-detecting-degree-of-perception-of-a-color-deficient-person
#11
T Rajalakshmi, Shanthi Prince
Physiological modeling of retina plays a vital role in the development of high-performance image processing methods to produce better visual perception. People with normal vision have an ability to discern different colors. The situation is different in the case of people with color blindness. The aim of this work is to develop a human visual system model for detecting the level of perception of people with red, green and blue deficiency by considering properties like luminance, spatial and temporal frequencies...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192711/urban-and-non-urban-differences-in-community-living-and-participation-among-individuals-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#12
Greg Townley, Eugene Brusilovskiy, Mark S Salzer
Despite a wealth of studies examining the relationship between urbanicity (i.e., living in an urban area) and psychological distress, there is a paucity of research examining the relationship between urbanicity, community living, and community participation of adults with serious mental illnesses. This study addresses this knowledge gap by assessing urban and non-urban differences in community participation, sense of community, mental health stigma, and perceptions of the neighborhood environment among individuals with serious mental illnesses living independently throughout the United States...
January 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191987/it-s-out-of-my-hands-grasping-capacity-may-not-influence-perceived-object-size
#13
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (2011) found that the perceived size of graspable objects was scaled by perceived grasping capacity. However, it is possible that this effect occurred because object size was estimated on the same trial as grasping capacity. This may have led to a conflation of estimates of perceived action capacity and spatial properties. In 5 experiments, we tested Linkenauger et al.'s claim that right-handed observers overestimate the grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand, and that this, in turn, leads them to underestimate the size of objects to-be-grasped in their right hand relative to their left hand...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190682/perception-of-active-head-rotation-in-patients-with-severe-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#14
Shinobu Kaibe, Manabu Okita, Hideto Kaba
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere damage, and is characterized by a failure to perceive and report stimuli in the contralesional side of space. To test the reference shift hypothesis that contralesional spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients is attributed to a rightward deviation of the egocentric reference frame, we measured the final angular position to which controls and left-side neglect patients actively turned their head toward the left in response to a verbal instruction given from each of three locations-right, left, and front-in two conditions, with and without visual feedback...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188853/drifting-while-stepping-in-place-in-old-adults-association-of-self-motion-perception-with-reference-frame-reliance-and-ground-optic-flow-sensitivity
#15
Catherine P Agathos, Delphine Bernardin, Konogan Baranton, Christine Assaiante, Brice Isableu
Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based, egocentric frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179553/mouth-and-voice-a-relationship-between-visual-and-auditory-preference-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus
#16
Lin L Zhu, Michael S Beauchamp
Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually-presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178755/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uavs-for-surveying-marine-fauna-assessing-detection-probability
#17
Amanda Hodgson, David Peel, Natalie Kelly
Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light-aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human-risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a re-evaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals...
February 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176214/exploring-the-contributions-of-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memory-to-priming-of-pop-out
#18
JeeWon Ahn, Trisha N Patel, Simona Buetti, Alejandro Lleras
Priming of pop-out (PoP) refers to the facilitation of performance that occurs when a target-defining feature is repeated across consecutive trials in a pop-out oddball search task. The underlying mechanism of PoP has been poorly understood and raises important questions about how our visual system is guided by past experiences, even during bottom-up processing. Lee, Mozer, and Vecera (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1059-1071, 2009) demonstrated that PoP remained unaffected by a concurrent non-spatial visual working memory (VWM) load, and they concluded that PoP occurs through feature gain modulation, essentially eliminating the contribution of memory representations in VWM to PoP...
February 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169155/the-visual-kinetic-depth-effect-is-altered-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
K D White, F M Skidmore, J Hammond, K M Heilman
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have visual-perceptual disorders. The goal of this study was to learn if they can develop a three dimensional (3D) percept that depends on the kinetic depth effect; that is, the viewer's ability to spatially integrate over time images that are moving along many trajectories. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PD and 12 healthy matched controls were presented with stimuli that were comprised of a circular region of randomly placed dots that moved as orthographic projections of a sphere...
January 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162897/opposite-effects-of-recent-history-on-perception-and-decision
#20
Matthias Fritsche, Pim Mostert, Floris P de Lange
Recent studies claim that visual perception of stimulus features, such as orientation, numerosity, and faces, is systematically biased toward visual input from the immediate past [1-3]. However, the extent to which these positive biases truly reflect changes in perception rather than changes in post-perceptual processes is unclear [4, 5]. In the current study we sought to disentangle perceptual and decisional biases in visual perception. We found that post-perceptual decisions about orientation were indeed systematically biased toward previous stimuli and this positive bias did not strongly depend on the spatial location of previous stimuli (replicating previous work [1])...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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