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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433440/spatial-compounding-technique-to-obtain-rotation-elastogram-a-feasibility-study
#1
AliArshad Kothawala, Sowmiya Chandramoorthi, N Ravi Kiran Reddy, Arun Kumar Thittai
The perception of stiffness and slipperiness of a breast mass on palpation is used by physicians to assess the level of suspicion of a lesion as being malignant or benign. However, most current ultrasound elastography imaging methods provide only stiffness-related information. There is no existing approach that provides information about the local rigid body rotation undergone by only a loosely bonded, asymmetrically oriented lesion subjected to a small quasi-static compression. The inherent poor lateral resolution in ultrasound imaging poses a limitation in estimating the local rigid body rotation...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432316/how-visual-experience-impacts-the-internal-and-external-spatial-mapping-of-sensorimotor-functions
#2
Virginie Crollen, Geneviève Albouy, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Tactile perception and motor production share the use of internally- and externally-defined coordinates. In order to examine how visual experience affects the internal/external coding of space for touch and movement, early blind (EB) and sighted controls (SC) took part in two experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to perform a Temporal Order Judgment task (TOJ), either with their hands in parallel or crossed over the body midline. Confirming previous demonstration, crossing the hands led to a significant decrement in performance in SC but did not affect EB...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426729/cultural-differences-in-room-size-perception
#3
Aurelie Saulton, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa, Trevor J Dodds
Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio) and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423413/human-perception-of-subresolution-fineness-of-dense-textures-based-on-image-intensity-statistics
#4
Masataka Sawayama, Shin'ya Nishida, Mikio Shinya
We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420286/probing-the-characteristics-of-colour-motion-binding-and-its-dependence-on-persistent-surface-segregation
#5
Gabriel J Vigano, Ryan T Maloney, Colin W G Clifford
Identifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of visual feature binding is a remaining challenge in the science of perception. Within the feature-binding literature, disparate findings have suggested the existence of more than one feature-binding mechanism with differing temporal resolutions. For example, one surprising result is that temporal alternations between two different feature pairings of colour and motion (e.g., orange dots moving left with blue dots moving right) support accurate conjunction discrimination at alternation frequencies of around 10 Hz and greater...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418327/auditory-and-cognitive-factors-associated-with-speech-in-noise-complaints-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Eric C Hoover, Pamela E Souza, Frederick J Gallun
BACKGROUND: Auditory complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are common, but few studies have addressed the role of auditory temporal processing in speech recognition complaints. PURPOSE: In this study, deficits understanding speech in a background of speech noise following MTBI were evaluated with the goal of comparing the relative contributions of auditory and nonauditory factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: A matched-groups design was used in which a group of listeners with a history of MTBI were compared to a group matched in age and pure-tone thresholds, as well as a control group of young listeners with normal hearing (YNH)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414500/location-coding-account-versus-affordance-activation-account-in-handle-to-hand-correspondence-effects-evidence-of-simon-like-effects-based-on-the-coding-of-action-direction
#7
Antonello Pellicano, Iring Koch, Ferdinand Binkofski
An increasing number of studies have shown a close link between perception and action, which is supposed to be responsible for the automatic activation of actions compatible with objects' properties, such as the orientation of their graspable parts. It has been observed that left and right hand responses to objects (e.g., cups) are faster and more accurate if the handle orientation corresponds to the response location than when it does not. Two alternative explanations have been proposed for this handle-to-hand correspondence effect: location coding and affordance activation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414023/effect-of-spatial-and-temporal-stimulus-parameters-on-the-maturation-of-global-motion-perception
#8
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
There are discrepancies with respect to the age at which adult-like performance is reached on tasks assessing global motion perception. This is in part because performance in children depends on stimulus parameters. We recently showed that five-year-olds demonstrated adult-like performance over a range of speeds when the speed ratio was comprised of longer spatial and temporal displacements; but displayed immature performance when the speed ratio was comprised of shorter displacements. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect of these global motion stimulus parameters across a broader age range in order to estimate the age at which mature performance is reached...
April 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411410/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-audiovisual-synchrony-judgments-in-older-adults
#9
Yu Man Chan, Michael Julian Pianta, Stefan Bode, Allison Maree McKendrick
Older adults have altered perception of the relative timing between auditory and visual stimuli, even when stimuli are scaled to equate detectability. To help understand why, this study investigated the neural correlates of audiovisual synchrony judgments in older adults using electroencephalography (EEG). Fourteen younger (18-32 year old) and 16 older (61-74 year old) adults performed an audiovisual synchrony judgment task on flash-pip stimuli while EEG was recorded. All participants were assessed to have healthy vision and hearing for their age...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#10
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410866/backward-masking-interrupts-spatial-attention-slows-downstream-processing-and-limits-conscious-perception
#11
Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410393/counting-distance-effects-of-egocentric-distance-on-numerical-perception
#12
Nurit Gronau, Anna Izoutcheev, Tsafnat Nave, Avishai Henik
Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408890/assessing-the-role-of-the-unity-assumption-on-multisensory-integration-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
There has been longstanding interest from both experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists in the potential modulatory role of various top-down factors on multisensory integration/perception in humans. One such top-down influence, often referred to in the literature as the 'unity assumption,' is thought to occur in those situations in which an observer considers that various of the unisensory stimuli that they have been presented with belong to one and the same object or event (Welch and Warren, 1980)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407064/the-influence-of-eye-closure-on-somatosensory-discrimination-a-trade-off-between-simple-perception-and-discrimination
#14
Theresa Götz, David Hanke, Ralph Huonker, Thomas Weiss, Carsten Klingner, Stefan Brodoehl, Philipp Baumbach, Otto W Witte
We often close our eyes to improve perception. Recent results have shown a decrease of perception thresholds accompanied by an increase in somatosensory activity after eye closure. However, does somatosensory spatial discrimination also benefit from eye closure? We previously showed that spatial discrimination is accompanied by a reduction of somatosensory activity. Using magnetoencephalography, we analyzed the magnitude of primary somatosensory (somatosensory P50m) and primary auditory activity (auditory P50m) during a one-back discrimination task in 21 healthy volunteers...
April 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405352/modelling-human-perception-processes-in-pedestrian-dynamics-a-hybrid-approach
#15
A Colombi, M Scianna
In this paper, we present a hybrid mathematical model describing crowd dynamics. More specifically, our approach is based on the well-established Helbing-like discrete model, where each pedestrian is individually represented as a dimensionless point and set to move in order to reach a target destination, with deviations deriving from both physical and social forces. In particular, physical forces account for interpersonal collisions, whereas social components include the individual desire to remain sufficiently far from other walkers (the so-called territorial effect)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405183/abnormal-size-dependent-modulation-of-motion-perception-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#16
Olga V Sysoeva, Ilia A Galuta, Maria S Davletshina, Elena V Orekhova, Tatiana A Stroganova
Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398132/on-the-reality-of-illusory-conjunctions
#17
Juan Botella, Manuel Suero, Juan I Durán
The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396907/target-bottom-up-strength-determines-the-extent-of-attentional-modulations-on-conscious-perception
#18
Fabiano Botta, Estrella Ródenas, Ana B Chica
A sufficient level of alerting, bottom-up stimulus strength, and attention have been proposed as important pre-requisites for conscious perception (Dehaene et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 10:204-211, 2006). The combination of different levels of each of these processes might differentially bias the access to consciousness, so that the impact of a specific factor on conscious access would depend on the levels of the other factors. To explore this possibility, we measured how the interaction between different levels of (phasic and tonic) alerting, stimulus bottom-up activation, and endogenous spatial attention, influences conscious perception...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396293/the-impact-of-ultra-high-field-mri-on-cognitive-and-computational-neuroimaging
#19
Federico De Martino, Essa Yacoub, Valentin Kemper, Michelle Moerel, Kamil Uludag, Peter De Weerd, Kamil Ugurbil, Rainer Goebel, Elia Formisano
The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395561/acoustic-and-perceptual-effects-of-magnifying-interaural-difference-cues-in-a-simulated-binaural-hearing-aid
#20
Tobias de Taillez, Giso Grimm, Birger Kollmeier, Tobias Neher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of an algorithm designed to enhance or magnify interaural difference cues on speech signals in noisy, spatially complex conditions using both technical and perceptual measurements. To also investigate the combination of interaural magnification (IM), monaural microphone directionality (DIR), and binaural coherence-based noise reduction (BC). DESIGN: Speech-in-noise stimuli were generated using virtual acoustics. A computational model of binaural hearing was used to analyse the spatial effects of IM...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
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