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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081575/what-arthroscopic-skills-need-to-be-trained-before-continuing-safe-training-in-the-operating-room
#1
Gabrielle Tuijthof, Federico Cabitza, Vincenza Ragone, Riccardo Compagnoni, Pietro Randelli
The purpose of this study was to generate consensus among experienced surgeons on "what skills a resident should possess before continuing safe training in the operating room (OR)." An online survey of 65 questions was developed and distributed to surgeons in the European community. A total of 216 responded. The survey included 15 questions regarding generic and specific skills; 16 on patient and tissue manipulation, 11 on knowledge of pathology and 6 on inspection of e-anatomical structures; 5 methods to prepare residents; and 12 on specific skills exercises...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080111/generalized-movement-representation-in-haptic-perception
#2
Lucile Dupin, Vincent Hayward, Mark Wexler
The extraction of spatial information by touch often involves exploratory movements, with tactile and kinesthetic signals combined to construct a spatial haptic percept. However, the body has many tactile sensory surfaces that can move independently, giving rise to the source binding problem: when there are multiple tactile signals originating from sensory surfaces with multiple movements, are the tactile and kinesthetic signals bound to one another? We studied haptic signal combination by applying the tactile signal to a stationary fingertip while another body part (the other hand or a foot) or a visual target moves, and using a task that can only be done if the tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079495/on-the-principle-of-temporal-diminution-in-serial-photography
#3
Ludwig Mach
In some cases our sensory organs are no longer capable of rendering processes in the external world perceptible to us. Their inadequacy expresses itself, for example, in phenomena that involve the kind of expansion of space and time in which the conditions for summary perception are no longer at all present. The resources that aid our immediate sense perception in these circumstances will thus be charged with the task of expanding or diminishing space and time to the extent that the contiguity and succession of events is comprehensible to us...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073940/vividness-of-visual-imagery-depends-on-the-neural-overlap-with-perception-in-visual-areas
#4
Nadine Dijkstra, Sander Bosch, Marcel A J van Gerven
: Research into the neural correlates of individual differences in imagery vividness point to an important role of the early visual cortex. However, there is also great fluctuation of vividness within individuals, such that only looking at differences between people necessarily obscures the picture. In this study we show that variation in moment-to-moment experienced vividness of visual imagery, within human subjects, depends on the activity of a large network of brain areas, including frontal, parietal and visual areas...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073552/ciguatera-fish-poisoning-incidence-health-costs-and-risk-perception-on-moorea-island-society-archipelago-french-polynesia
#5
Ewen Morin, Clémence Gatti, Tamatoa Bambridge, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073076/spastic-diplegia-in-preterm-born-children-executive-function-impairment-and-neuroanatomical-correlates
#6
Maria Chiara Di Lieto, Paola Brovedani, Chiara Pecini, Anna Maria Chilosi, Vittorio Belmonti, Franco Fabbro, Cosimo Urgesi, Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Silvia Perazza, Elisa Sicola, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings. AIMS: This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification...
January 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070793/object-location-binding-across-a-saccade-a-retinotopic-spatial-congruency-bias
#7
Anna Shafer-Skelton, Colin N Kupitz, Julie D Golomb
Despite frequent eye movements that rapidly shift the locations of objects on our retinas, our visual system creates a stable perception of the world. To do this, it must convert eye-centered (retinotopic) input to world-centered (spatiotopic) percepts. Moreover, for successful behavior we must also incorporate information about object features/identities during this updating - a fundamental challenge that remains to be understood. Here we adapted a recent behavioral paradigm, the "spatial congruency bias," to investigate object-location binding across an eye movement...
January 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070789/priming-facial-gender-and-emotional-valence-the-influence-of-spatial-frequency-on-face-perception-in-asd
#8
Steven Vanmarcke, Johan Wagemans
Adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed two priming experiments in which they implicitly processed a prime stimulus, containing high and/or low spatial frequency information, and then explicitly categorized a target face either as male/female (gender task) or as positive/negative (Valence task). Adolescents with ASD made more categorization errors than typically developing adolescents. They also showed an age-dependent improvement in categorization speed and had more difficulties with categorizing facial expressions than gender...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070305/calling-at-the-highway-the-spatiotemporal-constraint-of-road-noise-on-pacific-chorus-frog-communication
#9
Danielle V Nelson, Holger Klinck, Alexander Carbaugh-Rutland, Codey L Mathis, Anita T Morzillo, Tiffany S Garcia
Loss of acoustic habitat due to anthropogenic noise is a key environmental stressor for vocal amphibian species, a taxonomic group that is experiencing global population declines. The Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) is the most common vocal species of the Pacific Northwest and can occupy human-dominated habitat types, including agricultural and urban wetlands. This species is exposed to anthropogenic noise, which can interfere with vocalizations during the breeding season. We hypothesized that Pacific chorus frogs would alter the spatial and temporal structure of their breeding vocalizations in response to road noise, a widespread anthropogenic stressor...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069542/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-transition-from-action-preparation-to-execution
#10
Valentina Sulpizio, Giuliana Lucci, Marika Berchicci, Gaspare Galati, Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesco Di Russo
Flexible and adaptive behavior requires the ability to contextually stop inappropriate actions and select the right one as quickly as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that three brain regions, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (iFg), the anterior insula (aIns), and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPs), play an important role in several processing phases of perceptual decision tasks, especially in the preparation, perception and action phases, respectively. However, little is known about hemispheric differences in the activation of these three areas during the transition from perception to action...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069490/sexual-segregation-of-forage-patch-use-support-for-the-social-factors-and-predation-hypotheses
#11
Michael T Biggerstaff, Marcus A Lashley, M Colter Chitwood, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
Nearly all species of sexually dimorphic ungulates sexually segregate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including the social-factors hypothesis (SFH) and the predation hypothesis (PH). Interestingly, previous studies have accepted and rejected each hypothesis within and across species but few studies have simultaneously tested both hypotheses in the same population. In August 2011 and 2012 using 7,680 photographs taken with camera traps in standardized forage patches, we tested two predictions of the SFH: 1) foraging efficiency of both sexes would decrease when foraging rate in mixed-sex groups relative to single-sex groups, and 2) activity patterns (i...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057458/the-inferior-parietal-lobule-and-temporoparietal-junction-a-network-perspective
#12
Kajsa M Igelström, Michael S A Graziano
Information processing in specialized, spatially distributed brain networks underlies the diversity and complexity of our cognitive and behavioral repertoire. Networks converge at a small number of hubs - highly connected regions that are central for multimodal integration and higher-order cognition. We review one major network hub of the human brain: the inferior parietal lobule and the overlapping temporoparietal junction (IPL/TPJ). The IPL is greatly expanded in humans compared to other primates and matures late in human development, consistent with its importance in higher-order functions...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054908/binaural-interference-and-the-effects-of-age-and-hearing-loss
#13
Bruna S S Mussoi, Ruth A Bentler
BACKGROUND: The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. PURPOSE: To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054276/detecting-distortions-of-peripherally-presented-letter-stimuli-under-crowded-conditions
#14
Thomas S A Wallis, Saskia Tobias, Matthias Bethge, Felix A Wichmann
When visual features in the periphery are close together they become difficult to recognize: something is present but it is unclear what. This is called "crowding". Here we investigated sensitivity to features in highly familiar shapes (letters) by applying spatial distortions. In Experiment 6, observers detected which of four peripherally presented (8 deg of retinal eccentricity) target letters was distorted (spatial 4AFC). The letters were presented either isolated or surrounded by four undistorted flanking letters, and distorted with one of two types of distortion at a range of distortion frequencies and amplitudes...
January 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045222/correspondent-functional-topography-of-the-human-left-inferior-parietal-lobule-at-rest-and-under-task-revealed-using-resting-state-fmri-and-coactivation-based-parcellation
#15
Jiaojian Wang, Sangma Xie, Xin Guo, Benjamin Becker, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Tianzi Jiang
The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044013/contributions-of-low-and-high-level-properties-to-neural-processing-of-visual-scenes-in-the-human-brain
#16
REVIEW
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044011/auditory-and-visual-scene-analysis-an-overview
#17
Hirohito M Kondo, Anouk M van Loon, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Brian C J Moore
We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039860/a-right-ear-bias-of-auditory-selective-attention-is-evident-in-alpha-oscillations
#18
Lisa Payne, Chad S Rogers, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory selective attention makes it possible to pick out one speech stream that is embedded in a multispeaker environment. We adapted a cued dichotic listening task to examine suppression of a speech stream lateralized to the nonattended ear, and to evaluate the effects of attention on the right ear's well-known advantage in the perception of linguistic stimuli. After being cued to attend to input from either their left or right ear, participants heard two different four-word streams presented simultaneously to the separate ears...
December 31, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039760/differential-patterns-of-2d-location-versus-depth-decoding-along-the-visual-hierarchy
#19
Nonie J Finlayson, Xiaoli Zhang, Julie D Golomb
Visual information is initially represented as 2D images on the retina, but our brains are able to transform this input to perceive our rich 3D environment. While many studies have explored 2D spatial representations or depth perception in isolation, it remains unknown if or how these processes interact in human visual cortex. Here we used functional MRI and multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate the relationship between 2D location and position-in-depth information. We stimulated different 3D locations in a blocked design: each location was defined by horizontal, vertical, and depth position...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034340/topographic-processing-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-preserved-perception-but-impaired-memory-of-scenes
#20
Solja K Klargaard, Randi Starrfelt, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing - that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants included nine individuals with developmental prosopagnosia and 18 matched controls. The group with developmental prosopagnosia had no difficulty with topographic perception, but was reliably poorer in the retention of topographic information...
December 30, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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