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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538994/predictive-feature-remapping-before-saccadic-eye-movements
#1
Dongjun He, Ce Mo, Fang Fang
Saccadic eye movements cause rapid and dramatic displacements of the retinal image of the visual world, yet our conscious perception of the world remains stable and continuous. A popular explanation for this remarkable ability of our visual system to compensate for the displacements is the predictive feature remapping theory. The theory proposes that, before saccades, the representation of a visual stimulus can be predictively transferred from neurons that initially encode the stimulus to neurons whose receptive fields will encompass the stimulus location after the saccade...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535411/the-effectiveness-of-the-computerized-visual-perceptual-training-program-on-individuals-with-down-syndrome-an-fmri-study
#2
Yi-Ting Wan, Ching-Sui Chiang, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Yee-Pay Wuang
This study investigated the effectiveness of the Computerized Visual Perception Training (CVPT) program on individuals with Down syndrome (DS, mean age=13.17±4.35years, age range: 6.54-20.75 years). All participants have mild intellectual disability classified by the standard IQ measures (mean=61.2, ranges from 55 to 68). Both the Test of Visual Perceptual Skill- Third Edition (TVPS-3) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to evaluate the training outcomes. Results of TVPS-3 and fMRI showed that DS group had visual perceptual deficits and abnormal neural networks related to visual organization...
May 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534870/time-compressed-preplay-of-anticipated-events-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#3
Matthias Ekman, Peter Kok, Floris P de Lange
Perception is guided by the anticipation of future events. It has been hypothesized that this process may be implemented by pattern completion in early visual cortex, in which a stimulus sequence is recreated after only a subset of the visual input is provided. Here we test this hypothesis using ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure BOLD activity at precisely defined receptive field locations in visual cortex (V1) of human volunteers. We find that after familiarizing subjects with a spatial sequence, flashing only the starting point of the sequence triggers an activity wave in V1 that resembles the full stimulus sequence...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533459/camouflage-through-colour-change-mechanisms-adaptive-value-and-ecological-significance
#4
REVIEW
Rafael C Duarte, Augusto A V Flores, Martin Stevens
Animals from a wide range of taxonomic groups are capable of colour change, of which camouflage is one of the main functions. A considerable amount of past work on this subject has investigated species capable of extremely rapid colour change (in seconds). However, relatively slow colour change (over hours, days, weeks and months), as well as changes arising via developmental plasticity are probably more common than rapid changes, yet less studied. We discuss three key areas of colour change and camouflage...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532350/corollary-discharge-and-oculomotor-proprioception-cortical-mechanisms-for-spatially-accurate-vision
#5
Linus D Sun, Michael E Goldberg
A classic problem in psychology is understanding how the brain creates a stable and accurate representation of space for perception and action despite a constantly moving eye. Two mechanisms have been proposed to solve this problem: Herman von Helmholtz's idea that the brain uses a corollary discharge of the motor command that moves the eye to adjust the visual representation, and Sir Charles Sherrington's idea that the brain measures eye position to calculate a spatial representation. Here, we discuss the cognitive, neuropsychological, and physiological mechanisms that support each of these ideas...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531806/standard-body-space-relationships-fingers-hold-spatial-information
#6
Daniele Romano, Francesco Marini, Angelo Maravita
The representation of the body in the brain is constantly updated to allow optimal sensorimotor interactions with the external world. In addition to dynamic features, body representation holds stable features that are still largely unknown. In the present work we explored the hypothesis that body parts have preferential associations with relative spatial locations. Specifically, in three experiments, we found consistent preferential associations between the index finger and the top position, and between the thumb and the bottom position...
May 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529174/inhibitory-rtms-of-secondary-somatosensory-cortex-reduces-intensity-but-not-pleasantness-of-gentle-touch
#7
Laura K Case, Claire M Laubacher, Emily A Richards, Primavera Spagnolo, Håkan Olausson, MCatherine Bushnell
Research suggests that the discriminative and affective aspects of touch are processed differently in the brain. Primary somatosensory cortex is strongly implicated in touch discrimination, whereas insular and prefronal regions have been associated with pleasantness aspects of touch. However, the role of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) is less clear. In the current study we used inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily deactivate S2 and probe its role in touch perception...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526516/comparing-the-effect-of-temporal-delay-on-the-availability-of-egocentric-and-allocentric-information-in-visual-search
#8
Keira Ball, Yan Birch, Alison Lane, Amanda Ellison, Thomas Schenk
Frames of reference play a central role in perceiving an object's location and reaching to pick that object up. It is thought that the ventral stream, believed to subserve vision for perception, utilises allocentric coding, while the dorsal stream, argued to be responsible for vision for action, primarily uses an egocentric reference frame. We have previously shown that egocentric representations can survive a delay; however, it is possible that in comparison to allocentric information, egocentric information decays more rapidly...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523503/hierarchical-cluster-analysis-to-aid-diagnostic-image-data-visualization-of-ms-and-other-medical-imaging-modalities
#9
Arul N Selvan, Laura M Cole, Lynne Spackman, Sarah Naylor, Chris Wright
Perceiving abnormal regions in the images of different medical modalities plays a crucial role in diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. In medical images to visually perceive abnormalities' extent and boundaries requires substantial experience. Consequently, manually drawn region of interest (ROI) to outline boundaries of abnormalities suffers from limitations of human perception leading to inter-observer variability. As an alternative to human drawn ROI, it is proposed the use of a computer-based segmentation algorithm to segment digital medical image data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520737/outdoor-spatial-spraying-against-dengue-a-false-sense-of-security-among-inhabitants-of-hermosillo-mexico
#10
Pablo A Reyes-Castro, Lucía Castro-Luque, Rolando Díaz-Caravantes, Kathleen R Walker, Mary H Hayden, Kacey C Ernst
BACKGROUND: Government-administered adulticiding is frequently conducted in response to dengue transmission worldwide. Anecdotal evidence suggests that spraying may create a "false sense of security" for residents. Our objective was to determine if there was an association between residents' reporting outdoor spatial insecticide spraying as way to prevent dengue transmission and both their reported frequency of dengue prevention practices and household entomological indices in Hermosillo, Mexico...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516394/linguistic-asymmetry-egocentric-anchoring-and-sensory-modality-as-factors-for-the-observed-association-between-time-and-space-perception
#11
Eunice E Hang Choy, Him Cheung
Temporal and spatial representations have been consistently shown to be inextricably intertwined. However, the exact nature of time-space mapping remains unknown. On the one hand, the conceptual metaphor theory postulates unilateral, asymmetric mapping of time onto space, that is, time is perceived in spatial terms but the perception of space is relatively independent of time. On the other hand, a theory of magnitude assumes bilateral and symmetric interactions between temporal and spatial perceptions. In the present paper, we argue that the concepts of linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality provide potential explanations for why evidences favoring both asymmetry and symmetry have been obtained...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513921/chitin-induced-and-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-cerk1-phosphorylation-dependent-endocytosis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-lysin-motif-containing-receptor-like-kinase5-lyk5
#12
Jan Erwig, Hassan Ghareeb, Michaela Kopischke, Ronja Hacke, Alexandra Matei, Elena Petutschnig, Volker Lipka
To detect potential pathogens, plants perceive the fungal polysaccharide chitin through receptor complexes containing lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs). To investigate the ligand-induced spatial dynamics of chitin receptor components, we studied the subcellular behaviour of two Arabidopsis thaliana LysM-RLKs involved in chitin signalling, CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) and LYSIN MOTIF-CONTAINING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE5. We performed standard and quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy on stably transformed A...
May 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#13
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#14
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503140/gravity-as-a-strong-prior-implications-for-perception-and-action
#15
Björn Jörges, Joan López-Moliner
In the future, humans are likely to be exposed to environments with altered gravity conditions, be it only visually (Virtual and Augmented Reality), or visually and bodily (space travel). As visually and bodily perceived gravity as well as an interiorized representation of earth gravity are involved in a series of tasks, such as catching, grasping, body orientation estimation and spatial inferences, humans will need to adapt to these new gravity conditions. Performance under earth gravity discrepant conditions has been shown to be relatively poor, and few studies conducted in gravity adaptation are rather discouraging...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499486/intra-osseous-local-anaesthetic-patellar-pain-catheter-suppresses-osteoarthritic-patello-femoral-pain
#16
Dominik C Meyer, José A Aguirre, Karl Wieser, Sandro F Fucentese, Stephan Wirth, Christian Gerber, Stefan Rahm
BACKGROUND: The source of pain in patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the origin of pain using intraosseous pain catheters and to show early results with an osteotomy that is potentially denervating and hydrostatic pressure-relieving. METHODS: Five patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis and pain with straight downward patellofemoral compression were included. All underwent arthroscopic placement of two 0...
May 9, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496425/verbalizations-affect-visuomotor-control-in-hitting-objects-to-distant-targets
#17
Raimey Olthuis, John Van Der Kamp, Simone Caljouw
There is a long-standing proposal for the existence of two neuroanatomically and functionally separate visual systems; one supported by the dorsal pathway to control action and the second supported by the ventral pathway to handle explicit perceptual judgments. The dorsal pathway requires fast access to egocentric information, while the ventral pathway primarily requires allocentric information. Despite the evidence for functionally distinct systems, researchers have posited important interactions. This paper examines evidence to what degree the interaction becomes more important when target-identity, the perception of which is supported by the ventral stream, is verbalized during the execution of a target-directed far-aiming movement...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495637/veridical-stimulus-localization-is-linked-to-human-area-v5-mt-activity
#18
Anna K Bonkhoff, Eckart Zimmermann, Gereon R Fink
How the brain represents visual space is an unsolved mystery. Spatial localization becomes particularly challenging when visual information processing is briefly disrupted, as in the case of saccadic eye movements, blinks, or visual masks. As we have recently reported, a compression of visual space, illustrated by displacements of shortly flashed stimuli, can be observed in the temporal vicinity of masking stimuli during ocular fixation (Zimmermann et al., 2013). We here aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying these displacements using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492999/physical-activity-improves-cognition-possible-explanations
#19
REVIEW
Blanka Koščak Tivadar
Good cognitive abilities (CA) enable autonomy, improve social inclusion and act preventively. Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and, at the same time, it reduces the decline of CA and stimulates neurogenesis. So PA in connection with cognitive training, nutrition and social interaction has a positive effect on general CA and the central nervous system, the central executor, memory and attention, and reduces the likelihood of developing dementia. Our objective was to examine which sort and intensity of PA is preferred...
May 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489538/a-perception-driven-approach-to-supervised-dimensionality-reduction-for-visualization
#20
Yunhai Wang, Kang Feng, Xiaowei Chu, Jian Zhang, Chi-Wing Fu, Michael Sedlmair, Xiaohui Yu, Baoquan Chen
Dimensionality reduction (DR) is a common strategy for visual analysis of labeled high-dimensional data. Low-dimensional representations of the data help, for instance, to explore the class separability and the spatial distribution of the data. Widely-used unsupervised DR methods like PCA do not aim to maximize the class separation, while supervised DR methods like LDA often assume certain spatial distributions and do not take perceptual capabilities of humans into account. These issues make them ineffective for complicated class structures...
May 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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