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spatial perception

Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ella Z Lattenkamp, Samuel Kaiser, Rožle Kaučič, Martina Großmann, Klemen Koselj, Holger R Goerlitz
Sensory systems experience a trade-off between maximizing the detail and amount of sampled information. This trade-off is particularly pronounced in sensory systems that are highly specialized for a single task and thus experience limitations in other tasks. We hypothesised that combining sensory input from multiple streams of information may resolve this trade-off and improve detection and sensing reliability. Specifically, we predicted that perceptive limitations experienced by animals reliant on specialised active echolocation can be compensated for by the phylogenetically older and less specialised process of passive hearing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Thomas Wesarg, Bettina Voss, Frederike Hassepass, Rainer Beck, Antje Aschendorff, Roland Laszig, Susan Arndt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the wearing position of an off-the-ear-processor (OTE) on speech perception in quiet and noise. PATIENTS: The study group consisted of 16 adult subjects with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss, 2 of them unilaterally, and 14 bilaterally provided with cochlear implants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Speech perception in quiet and noise was measured for frontal presentation with the recipients behind-the-ear processor CP810 or CP910 and the OTE processor Kanso (Cochlear Limited, Sydney, Australia)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Garrett M Street, Igor V Erovenko, Jonathan T Rowell
The ideal free distribution (IFD) requires that individuals can accurately perceive density-dependent habitat quality, while failure to discern quality differences below a given perception threshold results in distributions approaching spatial uniformity. Here, we investigate the role of population growth in restoring a nonideal population to the IFD. We place a simple model of discrete patch choice under limits to the resolution by which patch quality is perceived and include population growth driven by that underlying quality...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Patricia Dore, Ardian Dumani, Geddes Wyatt, Alex J Shepherd
This study explored associations between local and global shape perception on coloured backgrounds, colour discrimination, and non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). Five background colours were chosen for the local and global shape tasks that were tailored for the cone-opponent pathways early in the visual system (cardinal colour directions: L-M, loosely, reddish-greenish; and S-(L+M), or tritan colours, loosely, blueish-yellowish; where L, M and S refer to the long, middle and short wavelength sensitive cones). Participants also completed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM100) to determine whether performance on the local and global shape tasks correlated with colour discrimination overall, or with performance on the L-M and tritan subsets of the FM100 test...
March 9, 2018: Vision Research
Coline Jeantet, Stéphanie Caharel, Raymund Schwan, Joëlle Lighezzolo-Alnot, Vincent Laprevote
JEANTET, C., Caharel, S., Schwan, R., Lighezzolo-Alnot, J., and Laprevote, V. Factors influencing spatial frequencies extraction in faces: a review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2017. Spatial frequency is an elementary aspect of visual perception. Moreover, faces elicit distinct responses by the human visual system when compared to other visual objects. This review examines the factors influencing spatial frequency processing in faces. Visual perception of a face results from the interaction between the physical properties of the stimulus and the human visual system...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jonathan P Wiens, Gary R Goldstein, Mark Andrawis, Mijin Choi, Jennifer W Priebe
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Multiple definitions of centric relation (CR) have evolved over time that may have created confusion or impeded understanding. A recent attempt to achieve a singular definition by surveying the members of the Academy of Prosthodontics (AP) did not achieve majority consensus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify those aspects or attributes within the existing definitions of CR in which there was agreement or disagreement among the members of the AP...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Allan B James, Stuart Sullivan, Hugh G Nimmo
How plants perceive and respond to temperature remains an important question in the plant sciences. Temperature perception and signal transduction may occur through temperature-sensitive intra-molecular folding of primary mRNA transcripts. Recent studies suggested a role for retention of the first intron in the 5'UTR of the clock component LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) in response to changes in temperature. Here we identified a set of haplotypes in the LHY 5'UTR, examined their global spatial distribution and obtained evidence that haplotype can affect temperature-dependent splicing of LHY transcripts...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Magdalena Chechlacz
In 1909 Rezsö Bálint published an extraordinary case study of a man with complex visuospatial deficits resulting from bilateral parietal lesions. Despite some controversies over the nature of reported symptoms, in 1954 Hecaen and Ajuriaguerra conceived the term "Bálint syndrome," not only to honor Bálint's influential work but to firmly conceptualize this striking neurologic disorder. Nowadays it is largely agreed that, while Bálint syndrome may result from multiple etiologies, it is principally diagnosed based on the presence of three symptoms: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular apraxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella
This chapter reviews clinical and scientific approaches to optic ataxia. This double historic track allows us to address important issues such as the link between Bálint syndrome and optic ataxia, the alleged double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia, and the use of optic ataxia to argue for a specific vision-for-action occipitoposterior parietal stream. Clinical cases are described and reveal that perceptual deficits have been long shown to accompany ataxia. Importantly, the term ataxia appears to be misleading as patients exhibit a combination of visual and nonvisual perceptual, attentional, and visuomotor guidance deficits, which are confirmed by experimental approaches...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt
The vestibular cortex differs in various ways from other sensory cortices. It consists of a network of several distinct and separate temporoparietal areas. Its core region, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), is located in the posterior insula and retroinsular region and includes the parietal operculum. The entire network is multisensory (in particular, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory). The peripheral and central vestibular systems are bilaterally organized; there are various pontomesencephalic brainstem crossings and at least two transcallosal connections of both hemispheres, between the PIVC and the motion-sensitive visual cortex areas, which also mediate vestibular input...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alberto Gallace, Valeria Bellan
Pain is a very relevant function for our survival and its alteration leads to important consequences for people's lives. In the last decades, researchers have started to investigate pain from a neurocognitive and neuropsychologic perspective, showing some important similarities and differences with other cognitive and perceptual functions. The complexity of pain perception, due to its multicomponential nature, has led to the need to interpret pain within a multisensory frame of reference. That is, this function and its neural foundation cannot be fully understood without taking into consideration the processing of other information that is concurrently presented together with noxious stimuli...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Diva Lugassy, Yafi Levanon, Raphael Pilo, Asaf Shelly, Gal Rosen, Avi Meirowitz, Tamar Brosh
Dentists must be skilled when using dental mirrors. Working with mirrors requires spatial perception, bimanual coordination, perceptual learning and fine motor skills. Many studies have attempted to determine the predictors of manual skills among pre-clinical students, but consensus has yet to be reached. We hypothesized that valid and reliable occupational therapy test performance regarding indirect vision would differ between dental students and junior dentists and would explain the variance in manual skill performance in pre-clinical courses...
2018: PloS One
Emiel Cracco, Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Oliver Genschow, Davide Rigoni, Lize De Coster, Ina Radkova, Eliane Deschrijver, Marcel Brass
Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Matthew Masapollo, Linda Polka, Lucie Ménard, Lauren Franklin, Mark Tiede, James Morgan
Masapollo, Polka, and Ménard (2017) recently reported a robust directional asymmetry in unimodal visual vowel perception: Adult perceivers discriminate a change from an English /u/ viseme to a French /u/ viseme significantly better than a change in the reverse direction. This asymmetry replicates a frequent pattern found in unimodal auditory vowel perception that points to a universal bias favoring more extreme vocalic articulations, which lead to acoustic signals with increased formant convergence. In the present article, the authors report 5 experiments designed to investigate whether this asymmetry in the visual realm reflects a speech-specific or general processing bias...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Taly Bonder, Daniel Gopher, Yaffa Yeshurun
The present study examined the mutual influence of cortical neuroenhancement and allocation of spatial attention on perception. Specifically, it explored the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on visual acuity measured with a Landolt gap task and attentional precues. The exogenous cues were used to draw attention either to the location of the target or away from it, generating significant performance benefits and costs. Anodal tDCS applied to posterior occipital area for 15 min improved performance during stimulation, reflecting heightened visual acuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Li Zhaoping, Joëlle Ackermann
In a random-dot stereogram, the percept of object surfaces in a three-dimensional scene is generated by images presented to left and right eyes that comprise interocularly corresponding random black and white dots. The spatial disparities between the corresponding dots determine the depths of object surfaces. If the dots are anticorrelated, such that a black dot in one monocular image corresponds to a white dot in the other, disparity-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) respond as if their preferred disparities become nonpreferred and vice versa, thereby reversing the disparity signs reported to higher visual areas...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Régis Trapeau, Marc Schönwiesner
Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured voxel-wise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Diego Marques do Carmo, Márcio Holsbach Costa
This work presents an online approximation method for the multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) noise reduction technique with preservation of the noise interaural level difference (ILD) for binaural hearing-aids. The steepest descent method is applied to a previously proposed MWF-ILD cost function to both approximate the optimal linear estimator of the desired speech and keep the subjective perception of the original acoustic scenario. The computational cost of the resulting algorithm is estimated in terms of multiply and accumulate operations, whose number can be controlled by setting the number of iterations at each time frame...
February 22, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Tracy M Centanni, Elizabeth S Norton, Anne Park, Sara D Beach, Kelly Halverson, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Nadine Gaab, John DE Gabrieli
A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading instruction who varied in their reading ability. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure responses to individual letters, false fonts, and faces in left and right fusiform gyri...
March 5, 2018: Developmental Science
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