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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937948/textures-as-probes-of-visual-processing
#1
Jonathan D Victor, Mary M Conte, Charles F Chubb
Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic stimuli that have the greatest biological relevance. Key questions that are well suited for analysis via visual textures include the nature and structure of perceptual spaces, modulation of early visual processing by task, and the transformation of sensory stimuli into patterns of population activity that are relevant to perception...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929312/the-effect-of-hand-position-on-perceived-finger-orientation-in-left-and-right-handers
#2
Lindsey E Fraser, Laurence R Harris
In the absence of visual feedback, the perceived orientation of the fingers is systematically biased. In right-handers these biases are asymmetrical between the left and right hands in the horizontal plane and may reflect common functional postures for the two hands. Here we compared finger orientation perception in right- and left-handed participants for both hands, across various hand positions in the horizontal plane. Participants rotated a white line on a screen optically superimposed over their hand to indicate the perceived position of the finger that was rotated to one of seven orientations with the hand either aligned with the body midline, aligned with the shoulder, or displaced by twice the shoulder-to-midline distance from the midline...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929237/underground-anemotactic-orientation-in-leaf-cutting-ants-perception-of-airflow-and-experience-dependent-choice-of-airflow-direction-during-digging
#3
Florian Halboth, Flavio Roces
Air exchange between the large nests of Atta vollenweideri leaf-cutting ants and the environment strongly relies on a passive, wind-induced ventilation mechanism. Air moves through nest tunnels and airflow direction depends on the location of the tunnel openings on the nest mound. We hypothesized that ants might use the direction of airflow along nest tunnels as orientation cue in the context of climate control, as digging workers might prefer to broaden or to close tunnels with inflowing or outflowing air in order to regulate nest ventilation...
September 19, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926937/food-shopping-and-acquisition-behaviors-in-relation-to-bmi-among-residents-of-low-income-communities-in-south-carolina
#4
Angela D Liese, Xiaonan Ma, Brent Hutto, Patricia A Sharpe, Bethany A Bell, Sara Wilcox
Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922984/cortical-auditory-evoked-potential-caep-and-behavioural-measures-of-auditory-function-in-a-child-with-a-single-sided-deafness
#5
Oscar M Cañete, Suzanne C Purdy, Michel Neeff, Colin R S Brown, Peter R Thorne
OBJECTIVES: To study the changes in behavioural and cortical responses over time in a child with single-sided deafness fitted with a cochlear implant (CI). METHODS: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in noise (+5 dB signal-to-noise ratio) were recorded and auditory skills were assessed using tests of sound localization, spatial speech perception in noise, and self-ratings of auditory abilities (Listening inventory for education, LIFE and Speech, spatial and qualities of hearing questionnaire, SSQ parental version)...
September 19, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922512/interaction-of-spatial-and-non-spatial-cues-in-auditory-stream-segregation-in-the-european-starling
#6
Naoya Itatani, Georg M Klump
Integrating sounds from the same source and segregating sounds from different sources in an acoustic scene is an essential function of the auditory system. Naturally, the auditory system simultaneously makes use of multiple cues. Here, we investigate the interaction between spatial cues and frequency cues in stream segregation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using an objective measure of perception. Neural responses to streaming sounds were recorded while the bird was performing a behavioral task that results in a higher sensitivity during a one-stream than a two-stream percept...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916259/what-we-see-when-we-read-visualization-and-vividness-in-reading-fictional-narratives
#7
REVIEW
Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910641/thoughts-and-sensations-twin-galaxies-of-the-inner-space-the-propensity-to-mind-wander-relates-to-spontaneous-sensations-arising-on-the-hands
#8
George A Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task...
September 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906240/listening-effort-measured-in-adults-with-normal-hearing-and-cochlear-implants
#9
Ann E Perreau, Yu-Hsiang Wu, Bailey Tatge, Diana Irwin, Daniel Corts
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined listening effort in individuals with hearing loss to determine the extent of the impairment. Regarding cochlear implants (CIs), results suggest that listening effort is improved using bilateral CIs compared to unilateral CIs. Few studies have investigated listening effort and outcomes related to the hybrid CI. PURPOSE: Here, we compared listening effort across three CI groups, and to a normal-hearing control group. The impact of listener traits, that is, age, age at onset of hearing loss, duration of CI use, and working memory capacity, were examined relative to listening effort...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900225/the-neural-basis-of-spatial-vision-losses-in-the-dysfunctional-visual-system
#10
Jinfeng Huang, Yifeng Zhou, Caiyuan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Chunmeng Luan, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Human vision relies on correct information processing from the eye to various visual areas. Disturbances in the visual perception of simple features are believed to come from low-level network (e.g., V1) disruptions. In the present study, we modelled monocular losses in spatial vision through plausible multiple network modifications in early visual coding. We investigated perceptual deficits in anisometropic amblyopia and used the monocular tilt illusion as a probe of primary visual cortex orientation coding and inhibitory interactions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894832/visual-effects-on-the-subjective-visual-vertical-and-subjective-postural-head-vertical-during-static-roll-tilt
#11
Atsushi Tamura, Yoshiro Wada, Akihiro Kurita, Takeshi Matsunobu, Takuo Inui, Akihiro Shiotani
OBJECTIVES: Tilt perception is part of the perception of spatial orientation. It is determined not only by the allocentric gravity axis, but also by a second allocentric axis induced by visual information as well as by the egocentric body (head) axis induced by somatosensory information. The aim of this study was to quantify roll-tilt perception using the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the newly developed subjective postural head vertical (SPHV) and to investigate the visual effects on both during static roll-tilt...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890594/living-near-to-attractive-nature-a-well-being-indicator-for-ranking-dutch-danish-and-german-functional-urban-areas
#12
Michiel N Daams, Paolo Veneri
While nature is widely acknowledged to contribute to people's well-being, nature based well-being indicators at city-level appear to be underprovided. This study aims at filling this gap by introducing a novel indicator based on the proximity of city-residents to nature that is of high-amenity. High-amenity nature is operationalized by combining unique systematic data on people's perceptions of what are the locations of attractive natural areas with data on natural land cover. The proposed indicator departs from the usual assumption of equal well-being from any nature, as it approximates the 'actual' subjective quality of nature near people's homes in a spatially explicit way...
2017: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887900/atypical-brain-responses-to-auditory-spatial-cues-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Veema Lodhia, Michael J Hautus, Blake W Johnson, Jon Brock
The auditory processing atypicalities experienced by many individuals on the autism spectrum disorder might be understood in terms of difficulties parsing the sound energy arriving at the ears into discrete auditory "objects." Here we asked whether autistic adults are able to make use of two important spatial cues to auditory object formation - the relative timing and amplitude of sound energy at the left and right ears. Using electroencephalography, we measured the brain responses of 15 autistic adults and 15 age-and verbal-IQ-matched control participants as they listened to dichotic pitch stimuli - white noise stimuli in which interaural timing or amplitude differences applied to a narrow frequency band of noise typically lead to the perception of a pitch sound that is spatially segregated from the noise...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886440/pills-in-paradise-exploring-international-lifestyle-and-retirement-migrants-perceptions-of-the-pharmaceutical-sector-on-cozumel-island-mexico
#14
Leon Hoffman, Valorie A Crooks, Jeremy Snyder
International lifestyle and retirement migration is a growing phenomenon, yet little is known about migrants' experiences of health care in destination countries. This includes use of and access to pharmaceutical selling establishments. This article explores international lifestyle and retirement migrants' experiences and perceptions of the local pharmaceutical sector on Cozumel Island, Mexico. Qualitative data, collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 26), finds that participants are concerned with accessibility, quality and communication within the island's pharmaceutical sector...
September 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886035/temporal-causal-inference-with-stochastic-audiovisual-sequences
#15
Shannon M Locke, Michael S Landy
Integration of sensory information across multiple senses is most likely to occur when signals are spatiotemporally coupled. Yet, recent research on audiovisual rate discrimination indicates that random sequences of light flashes and auditory clicks are integrated optimally regardless of temporal correlation. This may be due to 1) temporal averaging rendering temporal cues less effective; 2) difficulty extracting causal-inference cues from rapidly presented stimuli; or 3) task demands prompting integration without concern for the spatiotemporal relationship between the signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883471/potential-systematic-interception-errors-are-avoided-when-tracking-the-target-with-one-s-eyes
#16
Cristina de la Malla, Jeroen B J Smeets, Eli Brenner
Directing our gaze towards a moving target has two known advantages for judging its trajectory: the spatial resolution with which the target is seen is maximized, and signals related to the eyes' movements are combined with retinal cues to better judge the target's motion. We here explore whether tracking a target with one's eyes also prevents factors that are known to give rise to systematic errors in judging retinal speeds from resulting in systematic errors in interception. Subjects intercepted white or patterned disks that moved from left to right across a large screen at various constant velocities while either visually tracking the target or fixating the position at which they were required to intercept the target...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878616/interim-results-of-a-multicenter-trial-with-the-new-electronic-subretinal-implant-alpha-ams-in-15-patients-blind-from-inherited-retinal-degenerations
#17
Katarina Stingl, Ruth Schippert, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Dorothea Besch, Charles L Cottriall, Thomas L Edwards, Florian Gekeler, Udo Greppmaier, Katja Kiel, Assen Koitschev, Laura Kühlewein, Robert E MacLaren, James D Ramsden, Johann Roider, Albrecht Rothermel, Helmut Sachs, Greta S Schröder, Jan Tode, Nicole Troelenberg, Eberhart Zrenner
Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy). Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878462/effect-of-task-oriented-activities-on-hand-functions-cognitive-functions-and-self-expression-of-elderly-patients-with-dementia
#18
Bo-Young Son, Yo-Soon Bang, Min-Ji Hwang, Eun-Ju Oh
[Purpose] This study investigates the effects of task-oriented activities on hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression of the elderly with dementia, and then identify the influencing factors on self-expression in sub-factors of dependent variables. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly persons were divided into two groups: intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The interventions were applied to the subjects 3 times a week, 50 minutes per each time, for a total of five weeks. We measured the jamar hand dynamometer test for grip strength, the jamar hydraulic pinch gauge test for prehension test, nine-hole pegboard test for coordination test, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric Population for cognitive function, and self-expression rating scale for self-expression test...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877209/unmet-healthcare-needs-in-homeless-women-with-children-in-the-greater-paris-area-in-france
#19
Cécile Vuillermoz, Stéphanie Vandentorren, Ruben Brondeel, Pierre Chauvin
BACKGROUND: Despite their poor health status, homeless women encounter many barriers to care. The objectives of our study were to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women and to analyse associated relationships with the following factors: financial and spatial access to care, housing history, migration status, healthcare utilisation, victimization history, caring for children, social network and self-perceived health status. METHODS: We used data from 656 homeless women interviewed during the ENFAMS representative survey of sheltered homeless families, conducted in the Paris region in 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874096/the-benefits-of-bimodal-aiding-on-extended-dimensions-of-speech-perception-intelligibility-listening-effort-and-sound-quality
#20
Elke M J Devocht, A Miranda L Janssen, Josef Chalupper, Robert J Stokroos, Erwin L J George
The benefits of combining a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in opposite ears on speech perception were examined in 15 adult unilateral CI recipients who regularly use a contralateral HA. A within-subjects design was carried out to assess speech intelligibility testing, listening effort ratings, and a sound quality questionnaire for the conditions CI alone, CIHA together, and HA alone when applicable. The primary outcome of bimodal benefit, defined as the difference between CIHA and CI, was statistically significant for speech intelligibility in quiet as well as for intelligibility in noise across tested spatial conditions...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
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