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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331244/perception-of-faunal-circadian-rhythms-depends-on-sampling-technique
#1
Raül Triay-Portella, Aitor Escribano, José G Pajuelo, Fernando Tuya
Ecologists aim at disentangling how species vary in abundance through spatial and temporal scales, using a range of sampling techniques. Here, we investigated the circadian rhythm of seagrass-associated decapod crustaceans through three sampling techniques. Specifically, we compared the abundance, biomass and structure of seagrass-associated decapod assemblages between the day and night using a hand net, an airlift pump and baited traps. At night, the hand-net consistently collected a larger total abundance and biomass of decapods, what resulted in significant diel differences, which were detected for the total biomass, but not for the total abundance, when decapods were sampled through an airlift pump...
January 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329375/heterogeneous-redistribution-of-facial-subcategory-information-within-and-outside-the-face-selective-domain-in-primate-inferior-temporal-cortex
#2
Naohisa Miyakawa, Kei Majima, Hirohito Sawahata, Keisuke Kawasaki, Takeshi Matsuo, Naoki Kotake, Takafumi Suzuki, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Isao Hasegawa
The inferior temporal cortex (ITC) contains neurons selective to multiple levels of visual categories. However, the mechanisms by which these neurons collectively construct hierarchical category percepts remain unclear. By comparing decoding accuracy with simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG), local field potentials (LFPs), and multi-unit activity in the macaque ITC, we show that low-frequency LFPs/ECoG in the early evoked visual response phase contain sufficient coarse category (e.g., face) information, which is homogeneous and enhanced by spatial summation of up to several millimeters...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328177/projected-image-correction-technology-research-on-autonomous-perception-anisotropic-surfaces
#3
Fan Yang, Cheng Han, Bao-Xing Bai, Chao Zhang
In this paper, a projection correction method is proposed for autonomous-perception depth anisotropic surfaces, in order to improve the adaptive perceptual projection of the projection equipment under different circumstances. During the parameter calibration process of a projector-camera system with low recognition precision, as well as low noise resistance at angular points, an angular-point subpixel detection algorithm based on color information guidance was proposed to effectively improve the identification precision of the angular-point detection...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321562/perception-during-double-step-saccades
#4
E Zimmermann, M C Morrone, P Binda
How the visual system achieves perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements is a long-standing question in neuroscience. It has been proposed that an efference copy informs vision about upcoming saccades, and this might lead to shifting spatial coordinates and suppressing image motion. Here we ask whether these two aspects of visual stability are interdependent or may be dissociated under special conditions. We study a memory-guided double-step saccade task, where two saccades are executed in quick succession...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321249/facing-each-other-mammal-mothers-and-infants-prefer-the-position-favouring-right-hemisphere-processing
#5
Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Yegor Malashichev
The right hemisphere plays a crucial role in social processing. Human mothers show a robust left cradling/holding bias providing greater right-hemispheric involvement in the exchange of social information between mother and infant. Here, we demonstrate that a similar bias is evident in face-to-face spatial interactions in marine and terrestrial non-primate mammals. Walruses and Indian flying foxes showed a significant population-level preference for the position which facilitates the use of the left visual field in both mother and infant...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320944/effects-of-varying-reverberation-on-music-perception-for-young-normal-hearing-and-old-hearing-impaired-listeners
#6
Paul N Reinhart, Pamela E Souza
Reverberation enhances music perception and is one of the most important acoustic factors in auditorium design. However, previous research on reverberant music perception has focused on young normal-hearing (YNH) listeners. Old hearing-impaired (OHI) listeners have degraded spatial auditory processing; therefore, they may perceive reverberant music differently. Two experiments were conducted examining the effects of varying reverberation on music perception for YNH and OHI listeners. Experiment 1 examined whether YNH listeners and OHI listeners prefer different amounts of reverberation for classical music listening...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317538/growth-is-required-for-perception-of-water-availability-to-pattern-root-branches-in-plants
#7
Neil E Robbins, José R Dinneny
Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311603/attentional-gain-is-modulated-by-probabilistic-feature-expectations-in-a-spatial-cueing-task-erp-evidence
#8
Anna Marzecová, Antonio Schettino, Andreas Widmann, Iria SanMiguel, Sonja A Kotz, Erich Schröger
Several theoretical and empirical studies suggest that attention and perceptual expectations influence perception in an interactive manner, whereby attentional gain is enhanced for predicted stimuli. The current study assessed whether attention and perceptual expectations interface when they are fully orthogonal, i.e., each of them relates to different stimulus features. We used a spatial cueing task with block-wise spatial attention cues that directed attention to either left or right visual field, in which Gabor gratings of either predicted (more likely) or unpredicted (less likely) orientation were presented...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306707/biased-temporal-order-judgments-in-chronic-neglect-influenced-by-trunk-position
#9
Christopher Rorden, Dongyun Li, Hans-Otto Karnath
Numerous studies have reported that temporal order perception is biased in neurological patients with extinction and neglect. These individuals tend to perceive two objectively simultaneous stimuli as occurring asynchronously, with the ipsilesional item being perceived as appearing prior to the contralesional item. Likewise, they report that two stimuli occurred simultaneously in situations where the contralesional item is presented substantially prior to the ipsilesional item. Therefore, they exhibit a biased point of subjective simultaneity (PSS)...
December 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305601/what-determines-the-object-level-visual-masking-the-bottom-up-role-of-topological-change
#10
Yan Huang, Lixia He, Wenbo Wang, Qianli Meng, Tiangang Zhou, Lin Chen
Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur on an object level without a close spatiotemporal proximity of target and mask. An influential account for OSM is "object updating," which espouses that OSM occurs when the target is updated by the mask as they share a single object representation. However, it is unclear what attribute determines whether the mask shares the same object representation as the target. We hypothesize that topological property determines whether a new object representation is built, and hence topological perception modulates object-level masking...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302902/current-topics-regarding-the-function-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-memory-system
#11
Robert E Clark
The first clear insight that the medial temporal lobe of the human brain was in fact a system of anatomically connected structures that were organized into a memory system came in 1957 from the observations by Brenda Milner of the noted amnesic patient H.M. Subsequent work in humans, monkeys, and rodents has identified all of the components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that formed the memory system. Currently, work is ongoing to identify the specific contributions each structure in the medial temporal lobe makes towards the formation and storage of long-term declarative memory...
January 5, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301873/visually-driven-maps-in-area-3b
#12
Esther Kuehn, Patrick Haggard, Arno Villringer, Burkhard Pleger, Martin I Sereno
Sensory perception relies on the precise neuronal encoding of modality-specific environmental features in primary sensory cortices. Some studies have reported the penetration of signals from other modalities even into early sensory areas. So far, no comprehensive account of maps induced by "foreign sources" exists. We addressed this question using surface-based topographic mapping techniques applied to ultra-high resolution fMRI neuroimaging data, measured in female participants. We show that fine-grained finger maps in human primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are somatotopically activated not only during tactile mechanical stimulation, but also when viewing the same fingers being touched...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298446/effect-of-cochlear-implantation-on-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#13
Margaret T Dillon, Emily Buss, Meredith A Rooth, English R King, Ellen J Deres, Craig A Buchman, Harold C Pillsbury, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVE: Patients with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in 1 ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear, known as unilateral hearing loss (UHL) or single-sided deafness (SSD), may experience improved quality of life with the use of a cochlear implant (CI) in the affected ear. Quality of life assessment before and after implantation may reveal changes to aspects of hearing beyond those explicitly evaluated with behavioral measures. METHODS: The present report completed 2 experiments investigating quality of life outcomes in CI recipients with UHL...
January 4, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295924/motion-parallax-in-electric-sensing
#14
Federico Pedraja, Volker Hofmann, Kathleen M Lucas, Colleen Young, Jacob Engelmann, John E Lewis
A crucial step in forming spatial representations of the environment involves the estimation of relative distance. Active sampling through specific movements is considered essential for optimizing the sensory flow that enables the extraction of distance cues. However, in electric sensing, direct evidence for the generation and exploitation of sensory flow is lacking. Weakly electric fish rely on a self-generated electric field to navigate and capture prey in the dark. This electric sense provides a blurred representation of the environment, making the exquisite sensory abilities of electric fish enigmatic...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285647/spatial-and-frequency-specificity-of-the-ventriloquism-aftereffect-revisited
#15
Patrick Bruns, Brigitte Röder
Exposure to audiovisual stimuli with a consistent spatial misalignment seems to result in a recalibration of unisensory auditory spatial representations. The previous studies have suggested that this so-called ventriloquism aftereffect is confined to the trained region of space, but yielded inconsistent results as to whether or not recalibration generalizes to untrained sound frequencies. Here, we reassessed the spatial and frequency specificity of the ventriloquism aftereffect by testing whether auditory spatial perception can be independently recalibrated for two different sound frequencies and/or at two different spatial locations...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285515/area-pec-neurons-use-a-multiphasic-pattern-of-activity-to-signal-the-spatial-properties-of-optic-flow
#16
Milena Raffi, Alessandro Piras, Roberta Calzavara, Salvatore Squatrito
The cortical representation of visual perception requires the integration of several-signal processing distributed across many cortical areas, but the neural substrates of such perception are largely unknown. The type of firing pattern exhibited by single neurons is an important indicator of dynamic circuitry within or across cortical areas. Neurons in area PEc are involved in the spatial mapping of the visual field; thus, we sought to analyze the firing pattern of activity of PEc optic flow neurons to shed some light on the cortical processing of visual signals...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282652/task-irrelevant-sounds-influence-both-temporal-order-and-apparent-motion-judgments-about-tactile-stimuli-applied-to-crossed-and-uncrossed-hands
#17
Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Patrick Bruns
It has been suggested that judgments about the temporal-spatial order of successive tactile stimuli depend on the perceived direction of apparent motion between them. Here we manipulated tactile apparent-motion percepts by presenting a brief, task-irrelevant auditory stimulus temporally in-between pairs of tactile stimuli. The tactile stimuli were applied one to each hand, with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported the location of the first stimulus (temporal order judgments: TOJs) while adopting both crossed and uncrossed hand postures, so we could scrutinize skin-based, anatomical, and external reference frames...
December 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282595/perceptual-experience-norms-for-506-russian-nouns-modality-rating-spatial-localization-manipulability-imageability-and-other-variables
#18
Alex Miklashevsky
A number of new psycholinguistic variables has been proposed during the last years within embodied cognition framework: modality experience rating (i.e., relationship between words and images of a particular perceptive modality-visual, auditory, haptic etc.), manipulability (the necessity for an object to interact with human hands in order to perform its function), vertical spatial localization. However, it is not clear how these new variables are related to each other and to such traditional variables as imageability, AoA and word frequency...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282487/temporal-ventriloquism-along-the-path-of-apparent-motion-speed-perception-under-different-spatial-grouping-principles
#19
Cansu Ogulmus, Merve Karacaoglu, Hulusi Kafaligonul
The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279722/current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#20
REVIEW
Leif Erik Walther
Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière's disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
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