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spatial perception

Danielle Douglas, Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Zahraa Chorghay, Edward B O'Neil, Morgan D Barense, Andy C H Lee
Surprisingly little is known about how the brain combines spatial elements to form a coherent percept. Regions that may underlie this process include the hippocampus (HC) and parahippocampal place area (PPA), regions central to spatial perception but whose role in spatial coherency has not been explored. Participants were scanned with functional MRI while they judged whether Escher-like scenes were possible or impossible. Univariate analyses revealed differential HC and PPA involvement, with greater HC activity during spatial incoherency detection and more PPA activity during spatial coherency detection...
October 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Martin Dobricki, Paul Pauli
Almost all living species regularly explore environments that they experience as pleasant, aversive, arousing or frightening. We postulate that such exploratory behavior and emotional experience both are regulated based on the interdependent perception of one's body and stimuli that collectively define a spatial context such as a cliff. Here we examined this by testing if the interaction of the sensory input on one's gait and the sensory input on the spatial context is modulating both the emotional experience of the environment and its exploration through head motion...
October 2016: Heliyon
John M Hudson, Petra Mj Pollux
The Cognitive Daisy is an innovative assessment system created to provide healthcare staff with an instant snapshot of the cognitive status of older adults in residential care. The Cognitive Daisy comprises a flower head consisting of 15 colour coded petals depicting information about: visual-spatial perception, comprehension, communication, memory and attention. This study confirmed the practicality of the Cognitive Daisy protocol for assessing cognition in a sample of 33 older adults living in residential care and endorsed the use of the Cognitive Daisy as a tool for recognising the cognitive status of care home residents...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
David P McGovern, Kevin S Walsh, Jason Bell, Fiona N Newell
Both spatial and temporal context influence our perception of visual stimuli. For instance, both nearby moving stimuli and recently viewed motion can lead to biases in the perceived direction of a moving stimulus. Due to similarities in the spatial tuning properties of these spatial and temporal context-dependent effects, it is often assumed that they share a functional goal in motion processing and arise from common neural mechanisms. However, the psychophysical evidence concerning this assumption is inconsistent...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Maurice Filo, Fadi Karameh, Mariette Awad
The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs...
October 17, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
John E Stone, William R Sherman, Klaus Schulten
Immersive molecular visualization provides the viewer with intuitive perception of complex structures and spatial relationships that are of critical interest to structural biologists. The recent availability of commodity head mounted displays (HMDs) provides a compelling opportunity for widespread adoption of immersive visualization by molecular scientists, but HMDs pose additional challenges due to the need for low-latency, high-frame-rate rendering. State-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations produce terabytes of data that can be impractical to transfer from remote supercomputers, necessitating routine use of remote visualization...
May 2016: IEEE International Symposium on Parallel & Distributed Processing, Workshops and Phd Forum: [proceedings]
Po-Chih Kuo, Yi-Ti Chen, Yong-Sheng Chen, Li-Fen Chen
Decoding the neural representations of pain is essential to obtaining an objective assessment as well as an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. The complexities involved in the subjective experience of pain make it difficult to obtain a quantitative assessment from the induced spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity of high dimensionality. Most previous studies have investigated the perception of pain by analyzing the amplitude or spatial patterns in the response of the brain to external stimulation...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Jessica K Witt, Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Allison A M Bielak
The action-specific approach to perception claims that a person's ability to act directly influences perceptual processes related to spatial vision. For example, a person's ability to block a moving ball impacts perceptual judgments of the ball's speed. However, an alternative explanation is that action rather than perception influences judgments. Here, we explore this distinction directly. Our method produces two distinct effects, one that is clearly a judgment-based effect and is based on the outcome of the trial (trial-outcome effect) and one that is under debate as to whether or not it is perceptual and is based on the ease with which the ball can be blocked (paddle-size effect)...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anna Oleszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pisanski, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Agnieszka Sorokowska
The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i...
October 13, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Matthew D Hilchey, Jay Pratt, John Christie
Decades of research using Posner's classic spatial cueing paradigm has uncovered at least two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) in the aftermath of an exogenous, peripheral orienting cue. One prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that relate to perception- and action- oriented processes, respectively. Another prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that depend on object- and space- based representation, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
A Nakajima, M Ishida, T Fujimori, Y Wakamoto, S Sawai
Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in graded profiles that are sufficiently stable and precise to test theoretical predictions regarding the accuracy and efficiency of chemotaxis and the underlying mechanism of stimulus perception. However, because the gradient is fixed in a direction orthogonal to the laminar flow and thus the chamber geometry, conventional devices are limited for the study of cell re-orientation to gradients that move or change directions...
October 13, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Yi Lu, Hui Cai, Sheila J Bosch
AIM: This study examined how the spatial characteristics of patient beds, which are influenced by patient room design and nursing unit configuration, affect patients' perceptions about privacy. BACKGROUND: In the hospital setting, most patients expect a certain degree of privacy but also understand that their caregivers need appropriate access to them in order to provide high-quality care. Even veteran healthcare designers may struggle to create just the right balance between privacy and accessibility...
October 12, 2016: HERD
Erin A Brosey, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in body perception are common in psychotic disorders. The insula and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) are involved in body ownership and spatial perception suggesting that abnormal structure of these regions might be related to the expression of perceptual aberrations in psychosis. METHODS: 58 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 40 healthy subjects completed the Chapman Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 8, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Ute Berndt, Bernd Leplow, Robby Schoenfeld, Tilmann Lantzsch, Regina Grosse, Christoph Thomssen
INTRODUCTION: It is generally accepted that estrogens play a protective role in cognitive function. Therefore, it can be expected that subtotal estrogen deprivation following aromatase inhibition will alter cognitive performance. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we investigated 80 postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Memory and spatial cognition were compared across 4 treatment groups: tamoxifen only (TAM, n = 22), aromatase inhibitor only (AI, n = 22), TAM followed by AI ('SWITCH group', n = 15), and patients with local therapy (LT) only (surgery and radiation, n = 21)...
August 2016: Breast Care
Lauren Marussich, Kun-Han Lu, Haiguang Wen, Zhongming Liu
Despite wide applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to mapping brain activation and connectivity in cortical gray matter, it has rarely been utilized to study white-matter functions. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of fMRI data within the white matter acquired from humans in the resting state or watching a naturalistic movie. By using independent component analysis and hierarchical clustering, resting-state fMRI data in the white matter were denoised and decomposed into spatially independent components, further assembled into hierarchically organized axonal fiber bundles...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
Arata Hidano, Tim E Carpenter, Mark A Stevenson, M Carolyn Gates
Many countries implement regionalisation as a measure to control economically important livestock diseases. Given that regionalisation highlights the difference in disease risk between animal subpopulations, this may discourage herd managers in low-risk areas from purchasing animals from high-risk areas to protect the disease-free status of their herds. Using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand as a case example, we develop a novel network simulation model to predict how much the frequency of cattle movements between different disease control areas (DCAs) could theoretically change if herd managers adopted the safest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the lowest risk of bTB), if herd managers adopted the riskiest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the greatest risk of bTB), or if herd managers made trade decisions completely at random (purchasing cattle without consideration for bTB disease risk)...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Gabriela Rizzo Soares Rizzati, Marcelo Ortolani Fogaroli, Rodrigo Thomazi Rodrigues, Priscila Watson Ribeiro, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rafael Dalle Molle da Costa, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Adriana Bastos Conforto, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects that are presented in the spatial hemisphere that is contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere of the brain. USN has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Noninvasive brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has been used in people who have been affected by USN after stroke...
October 3, 2016: Trials
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Older adults are usually more easily distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli than younger ones. In addition, there is evidence that it takes them more time to overcome a distracting event. Here, the distracting effect of irregular switches in speaker location was studied in 22 younger and 22 older adults in a speech perception task. The participants responded to target words that were presented either from a frequent location (standard trials) or a rare location (deviant trials). Behavioral performance measures, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and EEG synchronization (intertrial coherence [ITC]) were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Psychology and Aging
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