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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#1
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741248/lessons-learned-from-arsenic-mitigation-among-private-well-households
#2
REVIEW
Yan Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. RECENT FINDINGS: This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions...
July 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741099/spatial-specificity-of-tactile-enhancement-during-reaching
#3
Dimitris Voudouris, Katja Fiehler
Tactile signals on a hand that serves as movement goal are enhanced during movement planning and execution. Here, we examined how spatially specific tactile enhancement is when humans reach to their own static hand. Participants discriminated two brief and simultaneously presented tactile stimuli: a comparison stimulus on the left thumb or little finger from a reference stimulus on the sternum. Tactile stimuli were presented either during right-hand reaching towards the left thumb or little finger or while holding both hands still (baseline)...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733833/neuroanatomy-of-pain-deficiency-and-cross-modal-activation-in-calcium-channel-subunit-cacn-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-3-knockout-mice
#4
Julia Landmann, Franziska Richter, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, N Jon Shah, Joseph Classen, G Gregory Neely, Angelika Richter, Josef M Penninger, Ingo Bechmann
The phenotype of calcium channel subunit (CACN) α2δ3 knockout (KO) mice includes sensory cross-activation and deficient pain perception. Sensory cross-activation defines the activation of a sensory cortical region by input from another modality due to reorganization in the brain such as after sensory loss. To obtain mechanistic insight into both phenomena, we employed a comprehensive battery of neuroanatomical techniques. While CACNα2δ3 was ubiquitously expressed in wild-type mice, it was absent in α2δ3 KO animals...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#5
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729820/auditory-mismatch-negativity-in-response-to-changes-of-counter-balanced-interaural-time-and-level-differences
#6
Christian F Altmann, Ryuhei Ueda, Shigeto Furukawa, Makio Kashino, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama
Interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD) both signal horizontal sound source location. To achieve a unified percept of our acoustic environment, these two cues require integration. In the present study, we tested this integration of ITD and ILD with electroencephalography (EEG) by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN can arise in response to spatial changes and is at least partly generated in auditory cortex. In our study, we aimed at testing for an MMN in response to stimuli with counter-balanced ITD/ILD cues...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#7
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718763/a-theory-of-working-memory-without-consciousness-or-sustained-activity
#8
Darinka Trübutschek, Sébastien Marti, Andrés Ojeda, Jean-Rémi King, Yuanyuan Mi, Misha Tsodyks, Stanislas Dehaene
Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717274/three-dimensional-versus-two-dimensional-laparoscopy-in-urology-a-randomized-study
#9
Suresh B Patankar, Gururaj R Padasalagi
INTRODUCTION: Conventional two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy systems have the drawback of poor depth perception and spatial orientation. Three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic systems have stereoscopic vision in which depth perception is achieved by different unique images received by each eye. We evaluated 3D laparoscopy in comparison with conventional 2D laparoscopy in urological procedures in a prospective randomized study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 19 month study period, 108 patients scheduled to undergo various urological procedures were randomized to either conventional 2D or 3D laparoscopy (2D n = 53; 3D n = 55)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714719/temporal-ventriloquism-effect-in-european-starlings-evidence-for-two-parallel-processing-pathways
#10
Gesa Feenders, Yoko Kato, Katharina M Borzeszkowski, Georg M Klump
The brain constantly has to interpret stimuli from a range of modalities originating from the same or different objects to create unambiguous percepts. The mechanisms of such multisensory processing have been intensely studied with respect to the time window of integration or the effect of spatial separation. However, the neural mechanisms remain elusive with respect to the role of alerting effects and multisensory integration. We addressed this issue by choosing a test paradigm where we could manipulate potentially alerting stimuli and simultaneously activating stimuli independently: We measured the temporal ventriloquism effect in European starlings by using the temporal order judgment paradigm with subjects judging the temporal order of the lighting of 2 spatially separated lights...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714712/spatial-cues-influence-the-visual-perception-of-gender
#11
Sarah Ariel Lamer, Max Weisbuch, Timothy D Sweeny
Spatial localization is a basic process in vision, occurring reliably when people encounter an object or person. Yet the role of spatial-location in the visual perception of people is poorly understood. We explored the extent to which spatial-location distorts the perception of gender. Consistent with evidence that the perception of objects is constrained by their location in visual scenes, enhancing perception for objects in their typical location (e.g., Biederman et al., 1982), we hypothesized that people would see relatively greater femininity in faces that appeared lower in space...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713174/fusing-multiple-neuroimaging-modalities-to-assess-group-differences-in-perception-action-coupling
#12
Jordan Muraskin, Jason Sherwin, Gregory Lieberman, Javier O Garcia, Timothy Verstynen, Jean M Vettel, Paul Sajda
In the last few decades, non-invasive neuroimaging has revealed macro-scale brain dynamics that underlie perception, cognition and action. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging target two capabilities; 1) increased spatial and temporal resolution of measured neural activity, and 2) innovative methodologies to extract brain-behavior relationships from evolving neuroimaging technology. We target the second. Our novel methodology integrated three neuroimaging methodologies and elucidated expertise-dependent differences in functional (fused EEG-fMRI) and structural (dMRI) brain networks for a perception-action coupling task...
January 2017: Proceedings of the IEEE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710677/cerebellar-contributions-to-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Maximilian Cierpka, Nadine D Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Mike M Schmitgen, Nenad Vasic, Karel Frasch, Robert Christian Wolf
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms. Despite increasing evidence for cerebellar involvement in affective, attentive, and cognitive functions including language processing and perception, investigations of cerebellar contributions to auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are lacking. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3T, we investigated the data of 20 patients with schizophrenia and 14 matched healthy controls...
July 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709682/hemifield-coding-in-ventral-object-sensitive-areas-evidence-from-visual-hemiagnosia
#14
Johannes Rennig, Hans-Otto Karnath, Sonja Cornelsen, Helmut Wilhelm, Marc Himmelbach
Electrophysiological monkey and human neuroimaging studies have reported a lateralization of signal processing in object perception. However, it is unclear whether these results point to a unique topographically organized signal processing in either hemisphere, or if these results represent a rather negligible spatial organization of otherwise redundant object perception systems in both hemispheres. We tested a group of 10 patients with lesions to ventral object processing regions and spared primary visual functions with lateral presentations of different categories of object stimuli...
June 28, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705690/color-weight-photometry
#15
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Karl Gegenfurtner
We study the "color weight" for a number of rather different paradigms. In well researched heterochromatic photometry methods we find that the "weights" determined by settings of naive observers are closely determined by the CIE luminance functional. This is very different for tasks that involve mid- and high-level aspects of perception. In several cases we find equipollence for the display red, green and blue channels. Moreover, in such cases the very nonlinear maximum-rule fits the data rather better than a linear functional...
July 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704969/urban-green-space-perception-and-its-contribution-to-well-being
#16
Gyula Kothencz, Ronald Kolcsár, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Péter Szilassi
Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702834/the-recalibration-of-tactile-perception-during-tool-use-is-body-part-specific
#17
Luke E Miller, Andrew Cawley-Bennett, Matthew R Longo, Ayse P Saygin
Two decades of research have demonstrated that using a tool modulates spatial representations of the body. Whether this embodiment is specific to representations of the tool-using limb or extends to representations of other body parts has received little attention. Several studies of other perceptual phenomena have found that modulations to the primary somatosensory representation of the hand transfers to the face, due in part to their close proximity in primary somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we investigated whether tool-induced recalibration of tactile perception on the hand transfers to the cheek...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701936/an-adaptation-induced-repulsion-illusion-in-tactile-spatial-perception
#18
Lux Li, Arielle Chan, Shah M Iqbal, Daniel Goldreich
Following focal sensory adaptation, the perceived separation between visual stimuli that straddle the adapted region is often exaggerated. For instance, in the tilt aftereffect illusion, adaptation to tilted lines causes subsequently viewed lines with nearby orientations to be perceptually repelled from the adapted orientation. Repulsion illusions in the nonvisual senses have been less studied. Here, we investigated whether adaptation induces a repulsion illusion in tactile spatial perception. In a two-interval forced-choice task, participants compared the perceived separation between two point-stimuli applied on the forearms successively...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701558/modulation-frequency-as-a-cue-for-auditory-speed-perception
#19
Irene Senna, Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Unlike vision, the mechanisms underlying auditory motion perception are poorly understood. Here we describe an auditory motion illusion revealing a novel cue to auditory speed perception: the temporal frequency of amplitude modulation (AM-frequency), typical for rattling sounds. Naturally, corrugated objects sliding across each other generate rattling sounds whose AM-frequency tends to directly correlate with speed. We found that AM-frequency modulates auditory speed perception in a highly systematic fashion: moving sounds with higher AM-frequency are perceived as moving faster than sounds with lower AM-frequency...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701536/spatially-tuned-normalization-explains-attention-modulation-variance-within-neurons
#20
Amy M Ni, John H R Maunsell
Spatial attention improves perception of attended parts of a scene, a behavioral enhancement accompanied by modulations of neuronal firing rates. These modulations vary in size across neurons in the same brain area. Models of normalization explain much of this variance in attention modulation with differences in tuned normalization across neurons (Lee and Maunsell 2009; Ni et al. 2012). However, recent studies suggest that normalization tuning varies with spatial location both across and within neurons (Ruff et al...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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