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spatial perception

Briana L Kennedy, Daniel Pearson, David J Sutton, Tom Beesley, Steven B Most
People's ability to perceive rapidly presented targets can be disrupted both by voluntary encoding of a preceding target and by spontaneous attention to salient distractors. Distinctions between these sources of interference can be found when people search for a target in multiple rapid streams instead of a single stream: voluntary encoding of a preceding target often elicits subsequent perceptual lapses across the visual field, whereas spontaneous attention to emotionally salient distractors appears to elicit a spatially localized lapse, giving rise to a theoretical account suggesting that emotional distractors and subsequent targets compete spatiotemporally during rapid serial visual processing...
November 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Karin M Bausenhart, Katrina R Quinn
When participants judge multimodal audiovisual stimuli, the auditory information strongly dominates temporal judgments, whereas the visual information dominates spatial judgments. However, temporal judgments are not independent of spatial features. For example, in the kappa effect, the time interval between two marker stimuli appears longer when they originate from spatially distant sources rather than from the same source. We investigated the kappa effect for auditory markers presented with accompanying irrelevant visual stimuli...
November 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Hillary A Snapp, Michael E Hoffer, Xuezhong Liu, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of current contralateral routing of signal technology (CROS) to bone-anchored implants in experienced bone-anchored implant users with unilateral severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss. DESIGN: Prospective, within-subject repeated-measures comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Adult, English-speaking patients (n = 12) with severe-profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss implanted with a bone-anchored implant for the indication of single-sided deafness...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Kaushambi Roy, Sandeep Kumar, Stewart A Bloomfield
Coherent spike activity occurs between widely separated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in response to a large, contiguous object, but not to disjointed objects. Since the large spatial separation between the RGCs precludes common excitatory inputs from bipolar cells, the mechanism underlying this long-range coherence remains unclear. Here, we show that electrical coupling between RGCs and polyaxonal amacrine cells in mouse retina forms the synaptic mechanism responsible for long-range coherent activity in the retina...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mel W Khaw, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
The notion of subjective value is central to choice theories in ecology, economics, and psychology, serving as an integrated decision variable by which options are compared. Subjective value is often assumed to be an absolute quantity, determined in a static manner by the properties of an individual option. Recent neurobiological studies, however, have shown that neural value coding dynamically adapts to the statistics of the recent reward environment, introducing an intrinsic temporal context dependence into the neural representation of value...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Ginebreda, L Sabater-Liesa, A Rico, A Focks, D Barceló
Rivers extend in space and time under the influence of their catchment area. Our perception largely relies on discrete spatial and temporal observations carried out at certain sites located throughout the catchment (monitoring networks, MN). However, MNs are constrained by (a) the distribution of sampling sites, (b) the dynamics of the variable considered and (c) the river hydrological conditions. In this study, all three aspects were captured and quantified by applying a spatial autocorrelation modeling approach...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nelli H Salminen, Simon J Jones, Gestur B Christianson, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Binaural hearing, the ability to detect small differences in the timing and level of sounds at the two ears, underpins the ability to localize sound sources along the horizontal plane, and is important for decoding complex spatial listening environments into separate objects - a critical factor in 'cocktail-party listening'. For human listeners, the most important spatial cue is the interaural time difference (ITD). Despite many decades of neurophysiological investigations of ITD sensitivity in small mammals, and computational models aimed at accounting for human perception, a lack of concordance between these studies has hampered our understanding of how the human brain represents and processes ITDs...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
Amir Kheradmand, Ariel Winnick
We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such "orientation constancy" is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The ability to discern the target of another person's gaze is critical for social and linguistic development, but functions atypically in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multi-pronged approach allowed us to deconstruct this complex ability, to uncover the fundamental bases of this impairment. We analyzed performance on a novel gaze perception task with classical psychophysical metrics (precision and accuracy), principal component analysis (in the analysis of spatial biases), and Bayesian computational modeling (in the analysis of individual subjects' use of contextual salience cues)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shinya Harada, Hiroyuki Mitsudo
Slant contrast refers to a stereoscopic phenomenon in which the perceived slant of a test object is affected by the disparity of a surrounding inducer object. Slant contrast has been proposed to involve cue conflict, but it is unclear whether this idea is useful in explaining slant contrast at short stimulus presentations (<1 s). We measured both slant contrast and perceived inducer slant while varying the presentation duration (100-800 ms) of stereograms with several spatial configurations. In three psychophysical experiments, we found that (a) both slant contrast and perceived inducer slant increased as a function of stimulus duration, and (b) slant contrast was relatively stable across different test and inducer shapes at each short stimulus duration, whereas perceived inducer slant increased when cue conflict was reduced...
January 1, 2017: Perception
Daniel P Bliss, Jerome J Sun, Mark D'Esposito
Recent experiments have shown that visual cognition blends current input with that from the recent past to guide ongoing decision making. This serial dependence appears to exploit the temporal autocorrelation normally present in visual scenes to promote perceptual stability. While this benefit has been assumed, evidence that serial dependence directly alters stimulus perception has been limited. In the present study, we parametrically vary the delay between stimulus and response in a spatial delayed response task to explore the trajectory of serial dependence from the moment of perception into post-perceptual visual working memory...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michele Fornaciai, Joonkoo Park
Numerosity perception involves a complex cascade of processing stages comprising an early sensory representation stage followed by a later stage providing a conceptual representation of numerical magnitude. While much recent work has focused on understanding how nonnumerical spatial features (e.g., density, area) influence numerosity perception in this processing cascade, little is known about how the spatiotemporal properties of the stimuli affect numerosity processing. Whether numerosity information is integrated over space and time in the processing cascade is an important question as it can provide insights into how the system dedicated for numerosity interacts with other perceptual systems...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Alessia Tonelli, Luigi F Cuturi, Monica Gori
Size perception can be influenced by several visual cues, such as spatial (e.g., depth or vergence) and temporal contextual cues (e.g., adaptation to steady visual stimulation). Nevertheless, perception is generally multisensory and other sensory modalities, such as auditory, can contribute to the functional estimation of the size of objects. In this study, we investigate whether auditory stimuli at different sound pitches can influence visual size perception after visual adaptation. To this aim, we used an adaptation paradigm (Pooresmaeili et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Moran M Israel, Pierre Jolicoeur, Asher Cohen
It is well established that processes of perception and action interact. A key question concerns the role of attention in the interaction between perception-action processes. We tested the hypothesis that spatial attention is shared by perception and action. We created a dual-task paradigm: In one task, spatial information is relevant for perception (spatial-input task) but not for action, and in a second task, spatial information is relevant for action (spatial-output task) but not for perception. We used endogenous pre-cueing, with two between-subjects conditions: In one condition the cue was predictive only for the target location in the spatial-input task; in a second condition the cue was predictive only for the location of the response in the spatial-output task...
November 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Thomas Burgoine, John A Gallis, Pablo Monsivais
BACKGROUND: we assessed manager perceptions of food security and obesity in young children attending nurseries across England, assessing spatial differences by area-level deprivation. METHODS: we conducted an adjusted multinomial logistic regression and an adjusted geographically weighted logistic regression examining the odds of a manager perceiving obesity, food insecurity, or both as a problem among children in care measured via a mailed survey. RESULTS: 851 (54...
November 2017: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Joke De Pauw, Willem De Hertogh, Rudy Mercelis, Wim Saeys, Ann Hallemans, Sarah Michiels, Steven Truijen, Patrick Cras
Idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) is a focal dystonia characterized by an abnormal tilted or twisted head position. This abnormal head position could lead to a distorted perception of the visual vertical and spatial orientation. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether the perception of the visual vertical is impaired in patients with CD. The subjective visual vertical test (SVV) was measured in 24 patients with CD and 30 controls. The SVV test is conducted in a completely darkened room...
November 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Pablo Ripollés, Teppo Särkämö, Vera Leo, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Seppo Soinila
Acquired amusia provides a unique opportunity to investigate the fundamental neural architectures of musical processing due to the transition from a functioning to defective music processing system. Yet, the white matter (WM) deficits in amusia remain systematically unexplored. To evaluate which WM structures form the neural basis for acquired amusia and its recovery, we studied 42 stroke patients longitudinally at acute, 3-month, and 6-month post-stroke stages using DTI [tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and deterministic tractography (DT)] and the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA)...
October 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Thomas J McDougall, Bao N Nguyen, Allison M McKendrick, David R Badcock
Previous studies have found evidence for reduced cortical inhibition in aging visual cortex. Reduced inhibition could plausibly increase the spatial area of excitation in receptive fields of older observers, as weaker inhibitory processes would allow the excitatory receptive field to dominate and be psychophysically measureable over larger areas. Here, we investigated aging effects on spatial summation of motion direction using the Battenberg summation method, which aims to control the influence of locally generated internal noise changes by holding overall display size constant...
November 8, 2017: Vision Research
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