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Emission tomography

Yingbing Wang, Otto Rapalino, Pedram Heidari, Jay Loeffler, Helen A Shih, Kevin Oh, Umar Mahmood
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Response criteria of glioblastoma after chemoradiation do not account for metabolic changes that occur after treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of positron emission tomography imaging with C11 Methionine (MET-PET) for detecting changes that occur after chemoradiation therapy and the value of molecular biomarkers for predicting magnitude of metabolic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients undergoing standard chemoradiation treatment were enrolled in this prospective imaging study with MET-PET scan performed within 3 days following surgical resection and again at 4 weeks after completion of chemoradiation...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Laurens E Swart, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Roelf Valkema, Carolina A M Schurink, Ricardo P J Budde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Averilicia Passah, Saurabh Arora, Nishikant Avinash Damle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ismet Sarikaya, A H Elgazzar, M A Alfeeli, P N Sharma, A Sarikaya
Objective: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been increasingly used in myocardial viability imaging. In routine PET viability studies, oral glucose and intravenous insulin loading is commonly utilized. In an optimal study, glucose and insulin loading is expected to cause FDG uptake both in hibernating and normal myocardium. However, in routine studies it is not uncommon to see absent or reduced FDG uptake in normal myocardium. In this retrospective study we further analyzed our PET viability images to evaluate FDG uptake status in myocardium under the oral glucose and intravenous insulin loading protocol that we use in our hospital...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Mueez U Din, Teemu Saari, Juho Raiko, Nobu Kudomi, Stefanie F Maurer, Minna Lahesmaa, Tobias Fromme, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Martin Klingenspor, Olof Solin, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
Human studies suggest that a meal elevates glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, in postprandial state the thermogenic activity and the metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in BAT remain unclear. Using indirect calorimetry combined with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), we showed that whole-body and BAT thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) increases after the ingestion of a mixed carbohydrate-rich meal, to the same extent as in cold stress. Postprandial NEFA uptake into BAT is minimal, possibly due to elevated plasma insulin inhibiting lipolysis...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Thao T Nguyen, Natascha G E Lange, Anne L Nielsen, Anders Thomassen, Helle Døssing, Christian Godballe, Max Rohde
PURPOSE: To examine whether addition of 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) would improve prediction of thyroid cancer in patients with FNAB-derived follicular neoplasm or atypia, classified according to focal, multifocal, diffuse, or no FDG uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with FNAB-derived follicular neoplasm or atypia planned for surgery from September 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively included and considered for analysis...
June 16, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Akira Toriihara, Hiromitsu Daisaki, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Makoto Kobayashi, Shogo Furukawa, Katsuya Yoshida, Jun Isogai, Ukihide Tateishi
PURPOSE: To evaluate potential of a semiquantitative method using standardized uptake value (SUV) in 123 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) compared with specific binding ratio (SBR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we performed a phantom study to validate the accuracy of measuring SUV. 52 patients (25 male, 27 female; mean age of 75.1-year-old; 40 and 12 patients with neurodegenerative diseases with or without presynaptic dopaminergic deficits, respectively) were enrolled in a retrospective study...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Jatta S Takkinen, Francisco R López-Picón, Anna K Kirjavainen, Rea Pihlaja, Anniina Snellman, Tamiko Ishizu, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Olof Solin, Juha O Rinne, Merja Haaparanta-Solin
Contradictory findings on the role of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 R) during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been reported. Here, we evaluated the CB1 R brain profile in an AD mouse model using longitudinal positron emission tomography with an inverse agonist for CB1 R, [18 F]FMPEP-d2 . APP/PS1-21 and wild-type (n = 8 in each group) mice were repeatedly imaged between 6 to 15 months of age, accompanied by brain autoradiography, western blot, and CB1 R immunohistochemistry with additional mice...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Niels Peter Rønnow Sand, Karsten Tange Veien, Søren Steen Nielsen, Bjarne Linde Nørgaard, Pia Larsen, Allan Johansen, Søren Hess, Lone Deibjerg, Majed Husain, Anders Junker, Kristian Korsgaard Thomsen, Allan Rohold, Lisette Okkels Jensen
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the per-patient diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT ) with that of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a fractional flow reserve (FFR) value of ≤0.80 as the reference for diagnosing at least 1 hemodynamically significant stenosis in a head-to-head comparison of patients with intermediate coronary stenosis as determined by coronary CTA. BACKGROUND: No previous study has prospectively compared the diagnostic performance of FFRCT and myocardial perfusion imaging by SPECT in symptomatic patients with intermediate range coronary artery disease (CAD)...
June 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Adam R Dyas, Robert W King, Asem F Ghanim, Robert J Cerfolio
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to compare the clinical to the pathologic stage in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Review of a prospective database from one surgeon. Patients had NSCLC, chest tomography (CT) and most had positron emissions tomography (PET). Those with suggested N1, N2, central tumors and/or tumors > 5 cm underwent mediastinoscopy and/or endobronchial ultrasound and, if N2 negative, underwent resection with complete thoracic lymphadenectomy...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Leyla Moghaddasi, Eva Bezak
PURPOSE: Improvements in personalized therapy are made possible by the advances in molecular biology that led to developments in molecular imaging, allowing highly specific in vivo imaging of biological processes. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most specific and sensitive imaging technique for in vivo molecular targets and pathways, offering quantification and evaluation of functional properties of the targeted anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work is an integrative research review that summarizes and evaluates the accumulated current status of knowledge of recent advances in PET imaging for cancer diagnosis and treatment, concentrating on novel radiotracers and evaluating their advantages and disadvantages in cancer characterization...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sina Hafizi, Elisa Guma, Alex Koppel, Tania Da Silva, Michael Kiang, Sylvain Houle, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, M Mallar Chakravarty, Romina Mizrahi
Psychosis is associated with abnormal structural changes in the brain including decreased regional brain volumes and abnormal brain morphology. However, the underlying causes of these structural abnormalities are less understood. The immune system, including microglial activation, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Although previous studies have suggested a connection between peripheral proinflammatory cytokines and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, no in-vivo studies have investigated whether microglial activation is also linked to brain structure alterations previously observed in schizophrenia and its putative prodrome...
June 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
David C Westerly, Reza A Behbahani, Brian Kavanagh, Arthur Liu, Moyed Miften, Natalie J Serkova, Quentin Diot
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging remains limited by the cost associated with on-site production of short half-life, positron emitting isotopes. In this work, we examine the use of a pulse line ion accelerator (PLIA) to accelerate protons for single-dose PET isotope production. METHODS: Time-domain electromagnetic field and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were performed for a 1.5 m PLIA structure modeled in CST Microwave Studio and Particle Studio software...
June 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Caitlin E D'Souza, Anteneh M Feyissa
Antibodies against the 65-kDa isoform of the intracellular enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65), have been found in patients with limbic encephalitis and drug-resistant autoimmune epilepsy. We report a 22-year-old female who presented with new-onset seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Video-EEG captured unique, independent bitemporal-onset focal seizures with impaired awareness and ictal asystole. An autoimmune epilepsy panel revealed elevated GAD65 antibodies in the serum (225 nmol/l) and CSF (2.78 nmol/l), while [18 F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography showed bitemporal hypometabolism (left > right)...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Manuela Matesan, Santhosh Gaddikeri, Katelan Longfellow, Robert Miyaoka, Saeed Elojeimy, Shana Elman, Shu-Ching Hu, Satoshi Minoshima, David Lewis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Computer-based analysis of Dopamine transporter imaging (DaTscan) can aid in image interpretation. In this study, we examined the distribution of putamen-to-caudate ratios (PCRs) obtained by using a clinically available semiquantification method. METHODS: Medical records of 32 patients (M:16) with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 22) or Parkinson's plus syndromes (PPS) (n = 10) based on clinical follow-up, were retrospectively reviewed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
John M Floberg, Kathryn J Fowler, Dominique Fuser, Todd A DeWees, Farrokh Dehdashti, Barry A Siegel, Richard L Wahl, Julie K Schwarz, Perry W Grigsby
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the spatial relationship of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18 F]FDG-PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) derived from magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion imaging on a voxel level using simultaneously acquired PET/MR data. We performed an institutional retrospective analysis of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer who received a pre-treatment simultaneously acquired [18 F]FDG-PET/MR...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Hanne A Eide, Ingerid Skjei Knudtsen, Vandana Sandhu, Ayca M Løndalen, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Azadeh Abravan, Elin H Kure, Trond V Bogsrud, Odd Terje Brustugun, Jon Amund Kyte, Eirik Malinen, Åslaug Helland
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Daniel Harding, Bernard Prendergast
Infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous condition whose incidence is rising. Despite advances in surgery and diagnostic methods, one-year mortality has not changed and it remains at 30%. Patients with prosthetic valve and intra-cardiac device-related endocarditis are being seen more frequently and this condition is difficult to diagnose with conventional microbiological and imaging techniques. The modified Duke criteria lack sensitivity in this group and should be supplemented with newer imaging techniques, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
2018: F1000Research
Nur Hursoy, Melahat Kul, Ayse Erden
Adrenal gland disorders can be asymptomatic and detected incidentally via imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Fusion anomaly is a condition that can be attributed to errors in the developmental process and may be detected via these imaging modalities. We present a case of butterfly adrenal gland in a 61-year-old man with CT and magnetic resonance images. In our patient, this anomaly is also accompanied by unilateral renal agenesis and a diaphragmatic defect...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Futao Cui, Minggang Su, Han Zhang, Rong Tian
Chordomas are rare, slow-growing, locally aggressive bone tumors arising from embryonic remnants of the notochord. Distant metastases most commonly involve the lung, liver, axial skeleton, skin, and lymph nodes. Humeral metastases are extremely rare. We report the case of a recurrent chordoma with humeral metastasis, complicated with pathologic fracture. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed multiple hypermetabolic skeletal lesions, corresponding to the symptoms...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
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