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Emission tomography

Jane Maestri Brittain, Lars Christian Gormsen, Eric von Benzon, Kim Francis Andersen
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) are related rheumatic diseases which are occasionally present concomitantly. PMR is characterized by synovitis and bursitis. In LVV, inflammation of the blood vessel wall is seen. Both disorders can be difficult to diagnose since patients often present non-specific symptoms and results of blood tests. The non-specific symptoms cannot always be distinguished from symptoms indicating an occult malignancy. We present a case of PMR and LVV in a Scandinavian man visualized on [18 F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) with the presentation of typically affected sites of joints and arteries and with the same imaging modality ruling out occult malignancy...
April 22, 2018: Diagnostics
Masataka Wada, Yoshihiro Noda, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Jun Ku Chung, Kyosuke Sawada, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Sakiko Tsugawa, Takahiro Miyazaki, Bun Yamagata, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Shinichiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve is the acquired capacity reflecting a functional brain adaptability/flexibility in the context of aging. Educational attainment is thought to be among the most important factors that contribute to cognitive reserve. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among duration of education and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related neuroimaging biomarkers such as amyloid-β deposition, glucose metabolism, and brain volumes in each stage of AD...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dalong Ni, Dawei Jiang, Hyung-Jun Im, Hector F Valdovinos, Bo Yu, Shreya Goel, Todd E Barnhart, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
Radiolabeled nanoprobes for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has received special attention over the past decade, allowing for sensitive, non-invasive, and quantitative detection of different diseases. The rapidly renal clearable nanomaterials normally suffer from a low accumulation in the tumor through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect due to the rapidly reduced concentration in the blood circulation after renal clearance. It is highly important to design radiolabeled nanomaterials which can meet the balance between the rapid renal clearance and strong EPR effect within a suitable timescale...
April 12, 2018: Biomaterials
Masanao Mohri, Toshiya Ichinose, Naoyuki Uchiyama, Kouichi Misaki, Iku Nambu, Yasushi Takabatake, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: Hyperperfusion syndrome associated with aneurysm surgery is rare. The occurrence of the syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass has not been described previously. Herein, we present a case of the syndrome occurring after trapping with high-flow bypass of an unruptured giant paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 68-year-old woman with progressive loss of vision in her left eye. After a diagnosis of a left giant ICA aneurysm, she underwent successful trapping with high-flow bypass...
April 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alessio Adamiano, Michele Iafisco, Monica Sandri, Martina Basini, Paolo Arosio, Tamara Canu, Giovanni Sitia, Antonio Esposito, Vincenzo Iannotti, Giovanni Ausanio, Eirini Fragogeorgi, Maritina Rouchota, George Loudos, Alessandro Lascialfari, Anna Tampieri
The identification of alternative biocompatible magnetic NPs for advanced clinical application is becoming an important need due to raising concerns about iron accumulation in soft issues associated to the administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Here, we report on the performance of previously synthetized iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) NPs as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI contrast abilities of FeHA and Endorem® (dextran coated iron oxide NPs) were assessed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry and their performance in healthy mice was monitored by a 7 Tesla scanner...
April 21, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Clara Fonteneau, Jérome Redoute, Frédéric Haesebaert, Didier Le Bars, Nicolas Costes, Marie-Françoise Suaud-Chagny, Jérome Brunelin
A single transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) session applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) can be associated with procognitive effects. Furthermore, repeated DLPFC tDCS sessions are under investigation as a new therapeutic tool for a range of neuropsychiatric conditions. A possible mechanism explaining such beneficial effects is a modulation of meso-cortico-limbic dopamine transmission. We explored the spatial and temporal neurobiological effects of bifrontal tDCS on subcortical dopamine transmission during and immediately after the stimulation...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Eniola Falomo, Roberta M Strigel, Richard Bruce, Alejandro Munoz Del Rio, Catherine Adejumo, Frederick Kelcz
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and outcomes of incidental breast lesions detected on nonbreast specific cross-sectional imaging examinations. A retrospective review of the medical records was performed to identify all patients without a known history of breast cancer, who had an incidentally discovered breast lesion detected on a nonbreast imaging examination performed at our institution between September 2008 and August 2012 for this IRB-approved, HIPAA compliant study. Outcomes of the incidental lesions were determined by follow-up with dedicated breast imaging (mammography, breast ultrasound, and/or breast MRI) or results of biopsy, if performed...
April 23, 2018: Breast Journal
Yared Tekabe, Qing Li, Geping Zhang, Jordan Johnson, Ann Marie Schmidt, Marina Backer, Joseph Backer, Lynne L Johnson
PURPOSE: To compare targeted imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors vs. αv β3 integrins in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral artery disease. PROCEDURES: Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (8- to 10-week old) (n = 24) underwent left femoral artery ligation. The right leg served as control. Five days later, mice were injected with either VEGF receptor targeting [99m Tc]DOTA-PEG-scVEGF ([99m Tc]scV) (n = 8) or with αv β3 -targeting tracer [99m Tc]HYNIC-cycloRGD ([99m Tc]RGD) (n = 8) and underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) x-ray computed tomography imaging...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Antoine Verger, Gabriele Stoffels, Norbert Galldiks, Philipp Lohmann, Antje Willuweit, Bernd Neumaier, Stefanie Geisler, Karl-Josef Langen
PURPOSE: Cis-4-[18 F]fluoro-D-proline (D-cis-[18 F]FPro) has been shown to pass the intact blood-brain barrier and to accumulate in areas of secondary neurodegeneration and necrosis in the rat brain while uptake in experimental brain tumors is low. This pilot study explores the uptake behavior of D-cis-[18 F]FPro in human brain tumors after multimodal treatment. PROCEDURES: In a prospective study, 27 patients with suspected recurrent brain tumor after treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy (SRC) were investigated by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using D-cis-[18 F]FPro (22 high-grade gliomas, one unspecified glioma, and 4 metastases)...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Catherine Gebhard, Michael Messerli, Christine Lohmann, Valerie Treyer, Susan Bengs, Dominik C Benz, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Ken Kudura, Elia von Felten, Moritz Schwyzer, Oliver Gaemperli, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: In light of growing cardiovascular mortality rates observed in young women, sexual dimorphism in cardiac autonomic nervous control is gaining increasing attention. Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were retrospectively analysed in a propensity-matched cohort of 1932 consecutive patients undergoing myocardial perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography (MPI-SPECT)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hengyi Chen, Rongbing Jin, Yubo Wang, Li Li, Kunlin Li, Yong He
Sarcoidosis has significant heterogeneity involving multiple organs; treatment of the disease is a significant therapeutic challenge due to the difficulties in accurately monitoring disease activity and estimating prognosis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG-PET/CT) plays an important role in assessing the metabolic activity. However, there is not enough evidence about the influence of this method in the clinical management and prognosis prediction for sarcoidosis...
2018: BioMed Research International
Muharrem Yunce, Stephen Selinger, William Krimsky, Daniel P Harley
Primary malignant melanoma of the lung (PMML) is a rare malignancy that exhibits aggressive behavior and has a very poor prognosis. We are reporting on a case of PMML in an otherwise healthy 22-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history and an unremarkable family history. The patient initially presented with a 2-month history of a cough and an unexplained 22-lb weight loss. His initial chest X-ray demonstrated opacification of the right lower lobe (RLL) of his lung and a subsequent computerized tomography scan (CT scan) of his lung revealed a large mass occupying most of his RLL (Figure 1)...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of immuno-compromised humans caused by the ubiquitous environmental mold Aspergillus . Biomarker tests for the disease lack sensitivity and specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy is slow, insensitive, and undesirable in critically ill patients. A computed tomogram (CT) of the chest offers a simple non-intrusive diagnostic procedure for rapid decision making, and so is used in many hematology units to drive antifungal treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sangho Shin, Seoyoung Kim, Seongho Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Oliver D Howes, Euitae Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
Aripiprazole's effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia are unclear because of the difficulty in disentangling specific effects on cognitive function from secondary effects due to the improvement in other schizophrenic symptoms. One approach to address this is to use an intermediate biomarker to investigate the relationship between the drug's effect on the brain and change in cognitive function. This study aims to investigate aripiprazole's effect on working memory by determining the correlation between dopamine D2/3 (D2/3) receptor occupancy and working memory of patients with schizophrenia...
April 24, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
H An, E Y P Lee, K Chiu, C Chang
This article reviews the emerging roles of functional imaging in the assessment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in ovarian cancer, focusing on the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron-emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT), their advantages and shortcomings as well as the added-value over conventional imaging.
April 20, 2018: Clinical Radiology
J J Braun, C Debry, A Imperiale, S Riehm
In this review we provide comprehensive analysis of the imaging features of diseases affecting the sphenoid sinus, including a large and heterogeneous spectrum of pathologies such as sinusitis, pseudotumours, bony pathologies, and tumours. Clinical symptomatology related to sphenoid pathologies is often non-specific and patient clinical examination and endoscopic investigations are not definitive; thus, radiological imaging is mandatory for diagnosis. Strengths and limitations of both morphological and functional imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and combined positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have been considered and integrated into a well-defined clinical context in order to recognise specific imaging features and to underline their clinical relevance for an early and accurate diagnosis...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Charissa R Kim, Bumyang Kim, Matthew S Ning, Jay P Reddy, Zhongxing Liao, Chad Tang, James W Welsh, Frank E Mott, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Daniel R Gomez
INTRODUCTION: A previous study showed that use of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for surveillance after treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) does not yield a detection or survival benefit over the use of chest CT. However, PET/CT remains a common method of follow-up imaging. Here we estimated and compared the costs of PET/CT versus CT for surveillance of patients with stage III NSCLC and identified patient and provider demographic characteristics associated with preference for use of PET/CT...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Moriz Herzberg, Meinrad Beer, Sudha Anupindi, Kurt Vollert, Thomas Kröncke
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are extremely rare in children. Imaging plays a key role in staging and monitoring therapy (surgical and with tyrosine kinase inhibitors). The vast majority of articles addressing imaging of GIST base on adults and are based on CT. The subtype "pediatric GIST" - if at all - is only mentioned in a dependent clause. Although the imaging features in children and adults are similar, histology, clinical course and thus imaging approach are different...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Penny Fang, Benjamin C Musall, Jong Bum Son, Amy C Moreno, Brian P Hobbs, Brett W Carter, Bryan M Fellman, Osama Mawlawi, Jingfei Ma, Steven H Lin
PURPOSE: To examine the value of early changes in quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for discriminating complete pathologic response (pCR) to chemoradiation in esophageal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET/CT scans at baseline, interim (2 weeks after chemoradiation start), and first follow-up...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Gaku Yamamichi, Toyofumi Abe, Yu Ishizuya, Kazutoshi Fujita, Motohide Uemura, Hiroshi Kiuchi, Ryoichi Imamura, Yasushi Miyagawa, Yusuke Ono, Hiroki Higashihara, Keigo Osuga, Norio Nonomura
Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and aneurysm are common in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and represent the main causes of morbidity in adults with TSC. Herein, we report a 22-year-old woman with TSC-associated AMLs and renal aneurysms. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of multiple renal aneurysms larger than 5 mm in diameter. The previous hospital considered that transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of bilateral renal aneurysms would cause deterioration of renal function. To estimate the impact of TAE on renal function, we superimposed contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) over single-photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT...
February 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
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