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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813209/galangin-a-natural-flavonoid-reduces-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to observe the effect of galangin on damaged mitochondria in the liver of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)). Galangin (8 mg kg(-1) BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg kg(-1) BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to both healthy and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#2
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813136/targeting-of-cellular-organelles-by-fluorescent-plasmid-dna-nanoparticles
#3
Diana Costa, Carolina Costa, Margarida Vaz Caldeira, Luisa Maria Cortes, João A Queiroz, Carla Cruz
The development of a suitable delivery system and the targeting of intracellular organelles are both essential for the success of drug and gene therapies. The conception of fluorescent ligands, displaying targeting specificity together with low toxicity, is an emerging and reliable tool to develop innovative delivery systems. Biocompatible BSA or pDNA/ligand nanoparticles were synthesized by a co-precipitation method and were shown to display adequate sizes and morphology for delivery purposes, and positive surface charges...
August 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813052/mixed-ligand-iridium-iii-complexes-as-photodynamic-anticancer-agents
#4
Yue Zheng, Liang He, Dong-Yang Zhang, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Many phosphorescent iridium complexes are potent candidates as photodynamic therapeutic agents. In this work, a series of mixed-ligand phosphorescent iridium complexes (Ir1: [Ir(L1)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir2: [Ir(L1)(ppy)Cl](PF6); Ir3: [Ir(L2)(bpy)Cl](PF6)2; Ir4: [Ir(L2)(ppy)Cl](PF6). L1 = 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L2 = 2,6-bis(1-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes display high luminescence quantum yields and long phosphorescence lifetimes...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812939/removing-dysfunctional-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#5
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yuxiang Xie, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812748/cyclometalated-iridium-iii-n-heterocyclic-carbene-complexes-as-potential-mitochondrial-anticancer-and-photodynamic-agents
#6
Yi Li, Bing Liu, Xin-Ran Lu, Meng-Feng Li, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Metal N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes represent a promising class of anticancer therapeutic agents. In this work, four cyclometalated iridium(iii) complexes (Ir1-Ir4) containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been explored as mitochondrial anticancer and photodynamic agents. These complexes are more cytotoxic than cisplatin against the cancer cells screened, can quickly penetrate into A549 cells and are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Mechanism studies show that these complexes exert their anticancer efficacy by increasing the intracellular ROS level, reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inducing apoptosis...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812582/control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#7
John C Schell, Dona R Wisidagama, Claire Bensard, Helong Zhao, Peng Wei, Jason Tanner, Aimee Flores, Jeffrey Mohlman, Lise K Sorensen, Christian S Earl, Kristofor A Olson, Ren Miao, T Cameron Waller, Don Delker, Priyanka Kanth, Lei Jiang, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Mary P Bronner, Dean Y Li, James E Cox, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry, Carl S Thummel, Jared Rutter
Most differentiated cells convert glucose to pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis, followed by pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria. These processes are linked by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is required for efficient mitochondrial pyruvate uptake. In contrast, proliferative cells, including many cancer and stem cells, perform glycolysis robustly but limit fractional mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. We sought to understand the role this transition from glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation plays in stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812436/the-mechanism-of-protective-effect-of-crocin-against-liver-mitochondrial-toxicity-caused-by-arsenic-iii
#8
Bahareh Sadat Yousefsani, Jalal Pourahmad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
In this study, we want to understand whether crocin could prevent mitochondrial damage caused by As III. For this purpose, we determined different mitochondrial toxicity endpoints caused by As III. We evaluated mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. Our results showed that pretreatment with crocin at a concentration of 25 µg/ml significantly (P < 0.001) reduced As III induced mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and mitochondrial swelling...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812047/selected-missense-mutations-impair-frataxin-processing-in-friedreich-ataxia
#9
Elisia Clark, Jill S Butler, Charles J Isaacs, Marek Napierala, David R Lynch
OBJECTIVE: Frataxin (FXN) is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. Reduced FXN levels cause Friedreich ataxia, a recessive neurodegenerative disease. Typical patients carry GAA repeat expansions on both alleles, while a subgroup of patients carry a missense mutation on one allele and a GAA repeat expansion on the other. Here, we report that selected disease-related FXN missense mutations impair FXN localization, interaction with mitochondria processing peptidase, and processing. METHODS: Immunocytochemical studies and subcellular fractionation were performed to study FXN import into the mitochondria and examine the mechanism by which mutations impair FXN processing...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811338/emerging-functions-of-the-fanconi-anemia-pathway-at-a-glance
#11
REVIEW
Rhea Sumpter, Beth Levine
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease, in which homozygous or compound heterozygous inactivating mutations in any of 21 genes lead to genomic instability, early-onset bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. The FA pathway is essential for DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, proteins of the FA pathway have additional cytoprotective functions that may be independent of DDR. We have shown that many FA proteins participate in the selective autophagy pathway that is required for the destruction of unwanted intracellular constituents...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811250/deficiency-in-perilipin-5-reduces-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-depolarization-in-mouse-hearts
#12
Linda Andersson, Christina Drevinge, Ismena Mardani, Knut T Dalen, Marcus Ståhlman, Martina Klevstig, Annika Lundqvist, Fred Haugen, Martin Adiels, Per Fogelstrand, Jorge Asin-Cayuela, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Max Levin, Ewa Ehrenborg, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, Jan Borén, Malin C Levin
Myocardial triglycerides stored in lipid droplets are important in regulating the intracellular delivery of fatty acids for energy generation in mitochondria, for membrane biosynthesis, and as agonists for intracellular signaling. Previously, we showed that deficiency in the lipid droplet protein perilipin 5 (Plin5) markedly reduces triglyceride storage in cardiomyocytes and increases the flux of fatty acids into phospholipids. Here, we investigated whether Plin5 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters mitochondrial function...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811220/euphorbia-lunulata-extract-acts-on-multidrug-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells-to-inhibit-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-arrest-cell-cycle-progression-and-induce-apoptosis
#13
Zhaoying Fu, Xiaodong Han, Juan Du, Xiaoxiao Han, Weipeng Liu, Shumei Shao, Xiaobin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The milky sap or the aboveground part of the plant Euphorbia lunulata has long been used by Chinese people to treat noncancerous growths and cancerous ailments but the specific mode of action and the action mechanism remain to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of Euphorbia lunulata extract on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells; To study the mechanism of apoptosis induction by Euphorbia lunulata extract in multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810534/thymoquinone-prevents-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mitochondria-induced-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-partial-hepatic-warm-ischemia-reperfusion
#14
Ahlem Bouhlel, Ben Mosbah, Hadj Abdallah, Catherine Ribault, Roselyne Viel, Saber Mannaï, Anne Corlu, Ben Abdennebi
This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the bioactive compound of Nigella sativa seeds, against warm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver. Rats were given an oral administration of a vehicle solution (sham group) or TQ at the appropriate dose (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) for ten days consecutively. Following, they were subjected to 60min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 24h of reperfusion. .Transaminase activities, histopathological changes, TNFα and antioxidant parameters were evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809938/perinatal-testosterone-exposure-potentiates-vascular-dysfunction-by-er%C3%AE-suppression-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#15
Weiguo Xie, Mingming Ren, Ling Li, Yin Zhu, Zhigang Chu, Zhigang Zhu, Qiongfang Ruan, Wenting Lou, Haimou Zhang, Zhen Han, Xiaodong Huang, Wei Xiang, Tao Wang, Paul Yao
Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809477/a-reversible-reaction-based-fluorescent-probe-for-real-time-imaging-of-glutathione-dynamics-in-mitochondria
#16
Jianwei Chen, Xiqian Jiang, Chengwei Zhang, Kevin MacKenzie, Fabio Stossi, Timothy Palzkill, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress...
August 15, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808966/methods-to-visualize-mavs-subcellular-localization
#17
Christine Vazquez, Dia C Beachboard, Stacy M Horner
The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is a central adaptor protein required for antiviral innate immune signaling. To facilitate its roles in innate immunity, MAVS localizes to multiple intracellular membranous compartments, including the mitochondria, the mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM), and peroxisomes. Studies of MAVS function therefore often require an analysis of MAVS localization. To detect MAVS protein on intracellular membranes, biochemical fractionation to isolate MAMs, mitochondria, or peroxisomes can be used...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808421/crosstalk-between-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress-in-paraquat-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-alveolar-type-ii-cells
#18
Guangju Zhao, Kaiqiang Cao, Changqin Xu, Aifang Sun, Wang Lu, Yi Zheng, Haixiao Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhongqiu Lu
Paraquat (PQ), as a highly effective and nonselective herbicide, induces cell apoptosis through generation of superoxide anions which forms reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria, as regulators for cellular redox signaling, have been proved to play an important role in PQ-induced cell apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how mitochondrial fission interacts with oxidative stress in PQ-induced apoptosis in mouse alveolar type II (AT-II) cells. Firstly, we demonstrated that PQ promoted apoptosis and release of cytochrome-c (Cyt-c)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808415/foxo-signaling-pathways-as-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mohd Farhan, Haitao Wang, Uma Gaur, Peter J Little, Jiangping Xu, Wenhua Zheng
Many transcription factors play a key role in cellular differentiation and the delineation of cell phenotype. Transcription factors are regulated by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation/deacetylation and interactions between two or more proteins controlling multiple signaling pathways. These pathways regulate different physiological processes and pathological events, such as cancer and other diseases. The Forkhead box O (FOXO) is one subfamily of the fork head transcription factor family with important roles in cell fate decisions and this subfamily is also suggested to play a pivotal functional role as a tumor suppressor in a wide range of cancers...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808064/obesity-and-aging-diminish-sirt1-mediated-deacetylation-of-sirt3-leading-to-hyperacetylation-and-decreased-activity-and-stability-of-sirt3
#20
Sanghoon Kwon, Sunmi Seok, Peter Yau, Xiaoling Li, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) deacetylates and regulates many mitochondrial proteins to maintain health, but its functions are depressed in aging and obesity. The best-studied sirtuin, SIRT1, counteracts aging- and obesity-related diseases by deacetylating many proteins, but whether SIRT1 has a role in deacetylating and altering the function of SIRT3 is unknown. Here we show that SIRT3 is reversibly acetylated in the mitochondria and unexpectedly is a target of SIRT1 deacetylation. SIRT3 is hyperacetylated in aged and obese mice, in which SIRT1 activity is low, and SIRT3 acetylation at K57 inhibits its deacetylase activity and promotes protein degradation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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