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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655155/evolution-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-in-hypoxia-tolerant-sculpins-cottidae-actinopterygii
#1
Gigi Y Lau, Milica Mandic, Jeffrey G Richards
Vertebrate hypoxia tolerance can emerge from modifications to the oxygen (O2) transport cascade, but whether there is adaptive variation to O2 binding at the terminus of this cascade, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), is not known. In order to address the hypothesis that hypoxia tolerance is associated with enhanced O2 binding by mitochondria we undertook a comparative analysis of COX O2 kinetics across species of intertidal sculpins (Cottidae, Actinopterygii) that vary in hypoxia tolerance. Our analysis revealed a significant relationship between hypoxia tolerance (critical O2 tension of O2 consumption rate; Pcrit), mitochondrial O2 binding affinity (O2 tension at which mitochondrial respiration was half maximal; P50), and COX O2-binding affinity (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for O2 binding to COX; Km,app O2)...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655148/genetic-variants-in-the-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-2-gene-and-in-the-catalase-gene-are-not-associated-with-alcoholic-chronic-pancreatitis
#2
Alexander Schneider, Jonas Rosendahl, Peter Bugert, Christel Weiss, Heike Unterschütz, Marja-Leena Kylanpää-Bäck, Marko Lempinen, Esko Kemppainen, Brindusa L Diaconu, Matthias P Ebert, Roland H Pfützer
Aims: Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD, SOD2) and catalase (CAT) counteract free radical activity within the mitochondria and the cytosol. Moreover, CAT activity contributes to the transformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, a toxic intermediate product of ethanol metabolism, which has been associated with pancreatic damage. Common functional polymorphisms have been described in the MnSOD gene [rs4880, NM_000636...
June 26, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654916/inhibition-of-cox2-enhances-the-chemosensitivity-of-dichloroacetate-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#3
Bo Li, Xinzhe Li, Haojun Xiong, Peng Zhou, Zhenhong Ni, Teng Yang, Yan Zhang, Yijun Zeng, Jintao He, Fan Yang, Nan Zhang, Yuting Wang, Yingru Zheng, Fengtian He
Dichloroacetate (DCA), a traditional mitochondria-targeting agent, has shown promising prospect as a sensitizer in fighting against malignancies including cervical cancer. But it is unclear about the effect of DCA alone on cervical tumor. Moreover, previous reports have demonstrated that the increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression is associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis of cervical cancer. However, it is still unknown whether COX2 can affect the sensitivity of DCA in cervical cancer cells...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654702/stomatin-like-protein-2-deficiency-results-in-impaired-mitochondrial-translation
#4
Panagiotis Mitsopoulos, Orsolya Lapohos, Woranontee Weraarpachai, Hana Antonicka, Yu-Han Chang, Joaquín Madrenas
Mitochondria translate the RNAs for 13 core polypeptides of respiratory chain and ATP synthase complexes that are essential for the assembly and function of these complexes. This process occurs in close proximity to the mitochondrial inner membrane. However, the mechanisms and molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial translation are not fully understood, and defects in this process can result in severe diseases. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2 is a mainly mitochondrial protein that forms cardiolipin- and prohibitin-enriched microdomains in the mitochondrial inner membrane that are important for the formation of respiratory supercomplexes and their function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654288/a-general-strategy-toward-highly-fluorogenic-bioprobes-emitting-across-the-visible-spectrum
#5
Haoliang Chen, Xiujing He, Meihui Su, Wenhao Zhai, Hao Zhang, Changhua Li
A general approach toward highly fluorogenic probes across the visible spectrum for various analytes offers significant potential for engineering a wide range of bioprobes with diverse sensing and imaging functions. Here we show a facile and general strategy by introducing a new fluorogenic mechanism in boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes, based on the principle of stimuli-triggered dramatic reduction in the electron-withdrawing capabilities of the meso-substituents of BODIPYs. The fluorogenic mechanism has been demonstrated to be applicable in variable BODIPYs with emission maxima ranging from green to far red (509, 585, and 660 nm), and the synthetic strategy allows to access a panel of highly fluorogenic bioprobes for various biomolecules and enzymes (H2O2, H2S, and protease) via introducing specific triggering motifs...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654264/phytol-promotes-the-formation-of-slow-twitch-muscle-fibers-through-pgc-1%C3%AE-mirna-but-not-mitochondria-oxidation
#6
Kelin Yang, Lina Wang, Gan Zhou, Xiajing Lin, Jianlong Peng, Leshan Wang, Lv Luo, Jianbing Wang, Gang Shu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Xiaotong Zhu, Qian-Yun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang
Phytol is a side-chain of chlorophyll belonging to the side-chain double terpenoid. When animals consume food rich in chlorophyll, phytol can be broken down to phytanic acid after digestion. It was reported that, feeding animals with different varieties and levels of forage could significant improve pH and marbling score of steer and lamb carcass, but the internal mechanism for this is still not reported. Marbling score and pH of muscle was mainly determined by skeletal muscle fiber type, which is due to expression of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654243/mitochondria-targeted-triphenylphosphonium-based-compounds-syntheses-mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-applications
#7
Jacek Zielonka, Joy Joseph, Adam Sikora, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Gang Cheng, Marcos Lopez, Balaraman Kalyanaraman
Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules...
June 27, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#8
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653874/invalidation-of-mitophagy-by-fbp1-mediated-repression-promotes-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer
#9
Yifeng Liu, Yulin Jiang, Nian Wang, Qianni Jin, Feihu Ji, Changli Zhong, Zhiqiang Zhang, Junhong Yang, Xiangsen Ye, Tingmei Chen
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653367/significance-of-l-carnitine-for-human-health
#10
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Isabel Calvo-Castro, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Ana María Pedre-Piñeiro
Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-coenzyme A esters to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters that may be transported across cell membranes. l-Carnitine is a wáter-soluble compound that humans may obtain both by food ingestion and endogenous synthesis from trimethyl-lysine. Most l-carnitine is intracellular, being present predominantly in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. The organic cation transporter-2 facilitates l-carnitine uptake inside cells...
June 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653223/multi-targeted-therapy-of-everolimus-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-infected-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#11
Suchitra Mohanty, Amit Kumar, Piyanki Das, Sushil Kumar Sahu, Tathagata Choudhuri
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cells. KSHV latent and lytic antigens modulate several host cellular signalling pathways especially mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), STAT-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) for rapid tumor progression and immune evasion. Current chemotherapeutic strategies are becoming ineffective as they kill only dividing cells and inefficient to target molecular pathways crucial for active virus replication and its survival...
June 26, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652625/dendritic-mitoflash-as-a-putative-signal-for-stabilizing-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#12
Zhong-Xiao Fu, Xiao Tan, Huaqiang Fang, Pak-Ming Lau, Xianhua Wang, Heping Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi
Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are recently discovered excitable mitochondrial events in many cell types. Here we investigate their occurrence in the context of structural long-term potentiation (sLTP) at hippocampal synapses. At dendritic spines stimulated by electric pulses, glycine, or targeted glutamate uncaging, induction of sLTP is associated with a phasic occurrence of local, quantized mitochondrial activity in the form of one or a few mitoflashes, over a 30-min window. Low-dose nigericin or photoactivation that elicits mitoflashes stabilizes otherwise short-term spine enlargement into sLTP...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652544/ghrelin-treatment-improves-physical-decline-in-sarcopenia-model-mice-through-muscular-enhancement-and-mitochondrial-activation
#13
Masanori Tamaki, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Aika Hagiwara, Shu Wakino, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kentaro Fujii, Chikako Fujii, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Toshio Doi, Hiroshi Itoh
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs physical performance in humans, which leads to a risk of all-cause mortality. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a reduction in muscle mitochondria rather than muscle mass was a major cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized CKD model mice. Because ghrelin administration has been reported to enhance oxygen utilization in skeletal muscle, we examined the usefulness of ghrelin for a recovery of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized C57Bl/6 mice, focusing on the epigenetic modification of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652238/characterization-of-the-activities-of-dinuclear-thiolato-bridged-arene-ruthenium-complexes-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Afonso P Basto, Joachim Müller, Riccardo Rubbiani, David Stibal, Federico Giannini, Georg Süss-Fink, Vreni Balmer, Andrew Hemphill, Gilles Gasser, Julien Furrer
The in vitro effects of 18 dinuclear-thiolato bridged arene ruthenium complexes, (1 mono-, 4 di- and 13-tri-thiolato compounds), originally designed as anti-cancer agents, were studied in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii grown in human foreskin fibroblast host cells (HFF). Some tri-thiolato compounds exhibited anti-parasitic efficacy at 250 nM and below. Among those, complex 1 and complex 2 inhibited T. gondii proliferation with IC50 values of 34 and 62 nM, respectively, and they did not affect HFF at dosages of 200 μM or above, resulting in selectivity indices of > 23' 000...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652078/extracellular-cytochrome-c-as-an-intercellular-signaling-molecule-regulating-microglial-functions
#15
Ayden Gouveia, Ekta Bajwa, Andis Klegeris
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c is well known to be released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it can initiate apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that cytochrome c is also released into the extracellular space by both healthy and damaged cells, where its function is not well understood. We hypothesized that extracellular cytochrome c could function as an intercellular signaling molecule of the brain, which is recognized by brain microglia. These cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be activated by endogenous substances associated with diverse pathologies including trauma, ischemic damage and neurodegenerative diseases...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652018/kinetic-properties-of-the-mitochondrial-f1fo-atpase-activity-elicited-by-ca-2-in-replacement-of-mg-2
#16
Salvatore Nesci, Fabiana Trombetti, Vittoria Ventrella, Maurizio Pirini, Alessandra Pagliarani
The mitochondrial F-ATPase can be activated either by the classical cofactor Mg(2+) or, with lower efficiency, by Ca(2+). The latter may play a role when calcium concentration rises in mitochondria, a condition associated with cascade events leading to cell death. Common and distinctive features of these differently activated mitochondrial ATPases were pointed out in swine heart mitochondria. When Ca(2+) replaces the natural cofactor Mg(2+), the enzyme responsiveness to the transmembrane electrochemical gradient and to the classical F-ATPase inhibitors DCCD and oligomycin as well as the oligomycin sensitivity loss by thiol oxidation, are maintained...
June 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651731/mitochondria-in-cancer
#17
EDITORIAL
Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol, Pierre Sonveaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651465/new-6-17-epoxylathyrane-diterpene-aellinane-from-euphorbia-aellenii-induces-apoptosis-via-mitochondrial-pathway-in-ovarian-cancer-cell-line
#18
Fariba Nabatchian, Afshin Moradi, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mustafa Ghanadian, Seyyed Mehdi Jafari, Samineh Tabesh
Euphorbia species have been used in traditional medicine in many countries for the treatment of cancer. This paper aims to evaluate the capability of a new lathyrane diterpene isolated from Euphorbia aellenii to induce apoptosis in the Caov-4 cell line to determine the underlying mechanism of its anticancer effects. A new 6(17)-epoxylathyrane diterpenes: aellinane from Euphorbia aellenii was evaluated for viability of Caov-4 cells by MTT method. Apoptosis induction by lathyrane diterpene was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and caspase-6 activation...
June 27, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651360/novel-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-mitochondrial-disease
#19
Lyndsey Craven, Mao-Xing Tang, Gráinne S Gorman, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
BACKGROUND: The use of nuclear transfer (NT) has been proposed as a novel reproductive treatment to overcome the transmission of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA can cause a wide-spectrum of life-limiting disorders, collectively known as mtDNA disease, for which there are currently few effective treatments and no known cures. The many unique features of mtDNA make genetic counselling challenging for women harbouring pathogenic mtDNA mutations but reproductive options that involve medical intervention are available that will minimize the risk of mtDNA disease in their offspring...
June 23, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651317/effects-of-multi-environmental-factors-on-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#20
Qian-Feng Wang, Wei-Liang Shen, Cheng Liu, Dan-Li Mu, Xiong-Fei Wu, Nian-Gang Guo, Jun-Quan Zhu
Land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and cage culture are important methods of Larimichthys crocea production. The effects of environmental factors on physiological and biochemical aspects of L. crocea require clarification. Temperature and salinity are controlled in RAS and directly affect L. crocea growth and survival. To explore optimal parameters, the oxygen consumption rate (RO), ammonium excretion rate (RN), and O/N ratio at different temperatures (8, 14, 20, 26, and 32 °C) and salinities (5, 15, 25, and 35‰) were determined...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
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