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Mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526935/diabetes-induced-abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-function-in-rat-brain-cortex-the-effect-of-n-3-fatty-acid-diet
#1
Maria Chomova, Maria Balazova, Jana Muchova
Diabetic encephalopathy, a proven complication of diabetes is associated with gradually developing end-organ damage in the CNS increasing the risk of stroke, cognitive dysfunction or Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the response of rat cortical mitochondria to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the potential for fish oil emulsion (FOE) to modulate mitochondrial function. Diabetes-induced deregulation of the respiratory chain function as a result of diminished complex I activity (CI) and cytochrome c oxidase hyperactivity was associated with attenuation of antioxidant defense of isolated cortical mitochondria, monitored by SOD activity, the thiol content, the dityrosine and protein-lipid peroxidation adduct formation...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#2
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526448/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors-tolcapone-and-entacapone-uncouple-and-inhibit-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-heparg-cells
#3
David Grünig, Andrea Felser, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone causes hepatotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in animal models. We studied the interaction of tolcapone with mitochondrial respiration in comparison to entacapone in different experimental models. In HepaRG cells (human cell-line), tolcapone decreased the ATP content (estimated IC50 100±15μM) and was cytotoxic (estimated IC50 333±45μM), whereas entacapone caused no cytotoxicity and no ATP depletion up to 200μM. Cytochrome P450 induction did not increase the toxicity of the compounds...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526399/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-chronic-antidepressant-drug-treatments-in-the-hippocampal-mitochondria-a-proteomic-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#4
Katarzyna Głombik, Aneta Stachowicz, Ewa Trojan, Rafał Olszanecki, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Chamera, Bogusława Budziszewska, Władysław Lasoń, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for disturbances in the brain mitochondrial proteins and lead to the development of depression in adulthood. On the other hand, little is known about the impact of chronic administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain mitochondria, as a target for the pharmacotherapy of depression. The purpose of our study was to compare the impact of chronic treatment with two antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), imipramine, and an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, fluoxetine, on the mitochondria-enriched subproteome profile in the hippocampus of 3-month-old male rats following a prenatal stress procedure (an animal model of depression)...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526334/regulatory-cis-and-trans-elements-of-mitochondrial-d-loop-driven-reporter-genes-in-budding-tunicates
#5
Kaz Kawamura, Yuhya Saitoh, Loriano Ballarin, Takeshi Sunanaga
To unveil the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial gene regulation associated with ageing and budding in the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, mitochondrial non-coding-region (NCR)-containing reporter genes were constructed. PmNCR2.3K/GFP was expressed spatiotemporally in a pattern quite similar to mitochondrial 16SrRNA. The reporter gene expression was sensitive to high dose of rifampicin similar to mitochondrial genes, suggesting that the transcription indeed occurs in mitochondria. However, the gene expression also occurred in vivo in the cell nucleus and in vitro in the nuclear extracts...
May 16, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526246/impaired-mitophagy-facilitates-mitochondrial-damage-in-danon-disease
#6
Sherin I Hashem, Anne N Murphy, Ajit S Divakaruni, Matthew L Klos, Bradley C Nelson, Emily C Gault, Teisha J Rowland, Cynthia N Perry, Yusu Gu, Nancy D Dalton, William H Bradford, Eric J Devaney, Kirk L Peterson, Kenneth L Jones, Matthew R G Taylor, Ju Chen, Neil C Chi, Eric D Adler
RATIONALE: Lysosomal associated membrane protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is critical for autophagic flux. Loss of function mutations in the LAMP-2 gene cause Danon disease, a rare X-linked disorder characterized by developmental delay, skeletal muscle weakness, and severe cardiomyopathy. We previously found that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from Danon patients exhibited significant mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526134/molecular-biology-digest-of-cell-mitophagy
#7
I Matic, D Strobbe, F Di Guglielmo, M Campanella
The homeostasis of eukaryotic cells relies on efficient mitochondrial function. The control of mitochondrial quality is framed by the combination of distinct but interdependent mechanisms spanning biogenesis, regulation of dynamic network, and finely tuned degradation either through ubiquitin-proteasome system or autophagy (mitophagy). There is continuous evolution on the pathways orchestrating the mitochondrial response to stress signals and the organelle adaptation to quality control during acute and subtle dysfunctions...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526133/metabolic-reprogramming-and-oncogenesis-one-hallmark-many-organelles
#8
A S H Costa, C Frezza
The process of tumorigenesis can be described by a series of molecular features, among which alteration of cellular metabolism has recently emerged. This metabolic rewiring fulfills the energy and biosynthetic demands of fast proliferating cancer cells and amplifies their metabolic repertoire to survive and proliferate in the poorly oxygenated and nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. During the last decade, the complex reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism has been widely investigated, revealing cancer-specific metabolic alterations...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#9
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524096/itraq-mitoproteome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-programmed-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-induced-by-ochratoxin-a
#10
Yan Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Zhuojun Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Wentao Xu, Junran Hao, Weihong Wu, Xiao Li Shen, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523552/epigenetics-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Silvia Bassi, Takshashila Tripathi, Alan Monziani, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder typically occurring in midlife with symptoms ranging from chorea, to dementia, to personality disturbances (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 354:957-961, 1999). HD is inherited in a dominant fashion, and the underlying mutation in all cases is a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion within exon 1 of the HD gene (Cell 72:971-983, 1993). The expanded CAG repeat, translated into a lengthened glutamine tract at the amino terminus of the huntingtin protein, affects its structural properties and functional activities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523458/the-respiratory-chain-inhibitor-rotenone-affects-peroxisomal-dynamics-via-its-microtubule-destabilising-activity
#12
Josiah B Passmore, Sonia Pinho, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes and mitochondria in mammalian cells are closely linked subcellular organelles, which maintain a redox-sensitive relationship. Their interplay and role in ROS signalling are supposed to impact on age-related and degenerative disorders. Whereas the generation of peroxisome-derived oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial morphology and function, little is known about the impact of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress on peroxisomes. Here, we investigated the effect of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone on peroxisomal and mitochondrial membrane dynamics...
May 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523104/3-aroyl-1-4-diarylpyrroles-inhibit-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cell-growth-through-an-interaction-with-tubulin
#13
Giuseppe La Regina, Ruoli Bai, Antonio Coluccia, Valeria Famiglini, Sara Passacantilli, Valentina Naccarato, Giorgio Ortar, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Vitalba Ruggieri, Francesca Agriesti, Claudia Piccoli, Tiziana Tataranni, Marianna Nalli, Andrea Brancale, Stefania Vultaggio, Ciro Mercurio, Mario Varasi, Concetta Saponaro, Sara Sergio, Michele Maffia, Addolorata Maria Luce Coluccia, Ernest Hamel, Romano Silvestri
We designed 3-aroyl-1,4-diarylpyrrole (ARDAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the 1- or 4-phenyl ring. ARDAP compounds exhibited potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARDAP derivative 10 inhibited the proliferation of BCR/ABL-expressing KU812 and LAMA84 cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in blast crisis and of hematopoietic cells ectopically expressing the imatinib mesylate (IM)-sensitive KBM5-WT or its IM-resistant KBM5-T315I mutation...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522964/the-differential-organization-of-f-actin-alters-the-distribution-of-organelles-in-cultured-when-compared-to-native-chromaffin-cells
#14
Yolanda Gimenez-Molina, José Villanueva, Carmen Nanclares, Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Salvador Viniegra, Maria Del Mar Francés, Luis Gandia, Amparo Gil, Luis M Gutiérrez
Cultured bovine chromaffin cells have been used extensively as a neuroendocrine model to study regulated secretion. In order to extend such experimental findings to the physiological situation, it is necessary to study mayor cellular structures affecting secretion in cultured cells with their counterparts present in the adrenomedullary tissue. F-actin concentrates in a peripheral ring in cultured cells, as witnessed by phalloidin-rodhamine labeling, while extends throughout the cytoplasm in native cells. This result is also confirmed when studying the localization of α-fodrin, a F-actin-associated protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522903/oxidative-stress-antioxidants-and-intestinal-calcium-absorption
#15
REVIEW
Gabriela Diaz de Barboza, Solange Guizzardi, Luciana Moine, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
The disequilibrium between the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species and their elimination by protective mechanisms leads to oxidative stress. Mitochondria are the main source of ROS as by-products of electron transport chain. Most of the time the intestine responds adequately against the oxidative stress, but with aging or under conditions that exacerbate the ROS and/or RNS production, the defenses are not enough and contribute to developing intestinal pathologies. The endogenous antioxidant defense system in gut includes glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes as major components...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522880/immunolocalization-of-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx1-in-the-rat-adrenal-cortex-correlation-between-steroidogenesis-and-lipid-peroxidation
#16
Masanori Murakoshi, Robert Yoshiyuki Osamura
In order to confirm the relationship between glutathione-peroxidase (GPx1) and biological significance on steroidogenesis, we have studied the immunocytochemical localization of GPx1 in the rat adrenal cortical cells. GPx1 was observed not only in cytoplasm (cytosol GPx1) but in mitochondria (mitochondrial GPx1). The staining intensity was altered by the functional state of the adrenal cortical cells. Furthermore, cytosol- and mitochondrial-GPx1 was modified by lipoperoxidative damage in the adrenal cortical cells...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522876/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-mitochondria-associated-er-membrane-mam-in-a-long-term-type-2-diabetic-rodent-model
#17
Jacey Hongjie Ma, Shichen Shen, Joshua J Wang, Zhanwen He, Amanda Poon, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sarah X Zhang
The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a critical role in cellular energetics and calcium homeostasis; however, how MAM is affected under diabetic condition remains elusive. This study presented a comprehensive proteome profiling of isolated brain MAM from long-term type 2 diabetic mice vs. non-diabetic controls. MAM protein was extracted efficiently by a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion (SOD) method, and MAM proteome was quantified by an ion-current-based MS1 method combined with nanoLC-MS/MS...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522765/exercise-training-in-tg%C3%AE-q-44-mice-during-the-progression-of-chronic-heart-failure-cardiac-vs-peripheral-soleus-muscle-impairments-to-oxidative-metabolism
#18
Bruno Grassi, Joanna Majerczak, Eleonora Bardi, Alessia Buso, Marina Comelli, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Guzik, Irene Mavelli, Zenon Nieckarz, Desy Salvadego, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Roberto Bottinelli, Jerzy A Zoladz, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Cardiac function, skeletal (soleus) muscle oxidative metabolism and the effects of exercise training were evaluated in a transgenic murine model (Tgαq*44) of chronic heart failure (CHF) during the critical period between the occurrence of an impairment of cardiac function and the stage at which overt cardiac failure ensues (i.e. from 10 to 12 months of age). Forty-eight Tgαq*44 mice and 43 wild-type (WT) FVB controls were randomly assigned to control groups and to groups undergoing 2 months of intense exercise training (spontaneous running on a instrumented wheel)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522560/the-effect-of-long-term-maternal-smoking-on-the-offspring-s-lung-health
#19
Suporn Sukjamnong, Yik Lung Chan, Razia Zakarya, Sonia Saad, Pawan Sharma, Rachana Santiyanont, Hui Chen, Brian G G Oliver
Maternal smoking during pregnancy contributes to long-term health problems in offspring, especially respiratory disorders which can manifest in either childhood or adulthood. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) are multi-ligand receptors abundantly localized in the lung, capable of responding to by-products of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory responses. RAGE signalling is a key regulator of inflammation in cigarette smoking-related pulmonary diseases. However, the impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on lung RAGE signalling in the offspring is unclear...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522206/functional-properties-of-the-mitochondrial-carrier-system
#20
REVIEW
Eric B Taylor
The mitochondrial carrier system (MCS) transports small molecules between mitochondria and the cytoplasm. It is integral to the core mitochondrial function to regulate cellular chemistry by metabolism. The mammalian MCS comprises the transporters of the 53-member canonical SLC25A family and a lesser number of identified noncanonical transporters. The recent discovery and investigations of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) illustrate the diverse effects a single mitochondrial carrier may exert on cellular function...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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