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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334400/oolong-tea-and-lr-white-resin-a-new-method-of-plant-sample-preparation-for-transmission-electron-microscopy
#1
Xiaohua He, Fuzhen Guo, Bin Liu
Simplifying sample processing, shortening the sample preparation time, and adjusting procedures to suitable for new health and safety regulations, these issues are the current challenges which electron microscopic examinations need to face. In order to resolve these problems, new plant tissue sample processing protocols for transmission electron microscopy should be developed. In the present study, we chose the LR-White resin-assisted processing protocol for the ultrastructural observation of different types of plant tissues...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334129/a-mitochondrial-targeted-antioxidant-improves-myofilament-ca2-sensitivity-during-prolonged-low-frequency-force-depression-at-low-po2
#2
Paulo G Gandra, Amy A Shiah, Leonardo Nogueira, Michael C Hogan
Skeletal muscle can develop a prolonged low frequency-stimulation force depression (PLFFD) following fatigue-inducing contractions. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of PLFFD. During exercise the skeletal muscle intracellular PO2 decreases to relatively low levels, and can be further decreased when there is an impairment in O2 diffusion or availability, such as in certain chronic diseases and during exercise at high altitude. Since ROS generation by mitochondria is elevated at very low PO2 in cells, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of muscle fibres with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant at a very low, near hypoxic PO2 , can attenuate PLFFD...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334105/specific-labeling-of-mitochondria-of-chlamydomonas-with-cationic-helicene-fluorophores
#3
Christoph Bauer, Romain Duwald, Geraldine Maria Labrador, Simon Pascal, Pau Moneva Lorente, Johann Bosson, Jérôme Lacour, Jean-David Rochaix
Twelve cationic helicenes and one triangulene were tested for the specific labeling of mitochondria from algal cells. Octyl ester derivative 5 readily penetrates algal cells and gives rise to clear fluorescence patterns when it is used at concentrations in the μM range. Under these conditions, cell structures are well preserved and cell survival is not compromised. Cationic helicene compounds such as 5 provide new useful tools for examining the mitochondrial network and its dynamics including fission and fusion events...
January 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332287/studying-retrograde-signaling-in-plants
#4
Martyna Broda, Olivier Van Aken
Cellular homeostasis requires precise communication between various types of organelles. In particular, the communication between nucleus and semiautonomous organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, has received widespread attention. Communication from nucleus to other organelles is known as anterograde signaling, whereas communication from mitochondria or chloroplasts to the nucleus is known as retrograde signaling. Here we discuss methods used to study retrograde signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods may also be modified to study retrograde signaling in other plant species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332286/analysis-of-mitochondrial-markers-of-programmed-cell-death
#5
Dong Xiao, Huyi He, Wenjing Huang, Thet Lwin Oo, Aiqin Wang, Long-Fei He
Mitochondria play a crucial role in programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In most cases of mitochondria-dependent PCD, cytochrome c (Cyt c) released from mitochondria due to the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and the activation of caspase-like proteases. Here we describe the analytic methods of mitochondrial markers of PCD including mitochondria isolation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, mitochondrial inner membrane potential, Cytc release, ATP, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332207/skeletal-muscle-expression-of-p43-a-truncated-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-affects-lipid-composition-and-metabolism
#6
François Casas, Gilles Fouret, Jérome Lecomte, Fabienne Cortade, Laurence Pessemesse, Emilie Blanchet, Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello, Charles Coudray, Christine Feillet-Coudray
Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of metabolism and mitochondrial function. Thyroid hormone also affects reactions in almost all pathways of lipids metabolism and as such is considered as the main hormonal regulator of lipid biogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of p43, a 43 Kda truncated form of the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor TRα1 which stimulates mitochondrial activity. Therefore, using mouse models overexpressing p43 in skeletal muscle (p43-Tg) or lacking p43 (p43-/-), we have investigated the lipid composition in quadriceps muscle and in mitochondria...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331828/a-recovery-time-after-warming-restores-mitochondrial-function-and-improves-developmental-competence-of-vitrified-ovine-oocytes
#7
Sara Succu, Sergio Domenico Gadau, Elisa Serra, Angelo Zinellu, Ciriaco Carru, Cristian Porcu, Salvatore Naitana, Fiammetta Berlinguer, Giovanni Giuseppe Leoni
The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of vitrified/warmed oocyte to recover from vitrification-induced damages after warming. In vitro matured, vitrified/warmed ovine oocytes were assessed for developmental competence, mitochondrial activity and distribution, ATP, ROS and catalase levels during 6 h of in vitro culture using fresh oocytes as control. ATP content in vitrified oocytes was lower than control during 4 h of post warming culture (p < .01). Vitrified oocytes were able to fill this gap only after 6 h of post-warming incubation...
December 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331805/synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-an-iridium-iii-polypyridyl-complex
#8
Qiao-Yan Yi, Dan Wan, Bing Tang, Yang-Jie Wang, Wen-Yao Zhang, Fan Du, Miao He, Yun-Jun Liu
An iridium (III) complex [Ir(ppy)2(BDPIP)]PF6 (Ir-1) was reported to show high anticancer activity and may be used as a potent anticancer drug. In the current study, we designed and synthesized a novel iridium (III) complex and evaluated its potential inhibitory effect on the cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This complex was found to display high cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo against A549 cell with a low IC50 value of 3.6 ± 0.3 μM and inhibiting percentage of tumor growth is 63.84% compared with the control...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331753/an-iridium-iii-complex-as-potent-anticancer-agent-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-b16%C3%A2-cells-through-inhibition-of-the-akt-mtor-pathway
#9
Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Yang-Jie Wang, Qiao-Yan Yi, Bo-Hong Guo, Yun-Jun Liu
A new ligand THPDP (THPDP = 11-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydrophenazin-2-yl)dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) and its iridium(III) complex [Ir(ppy)2(THPDP)]PF6 (Ir-1) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the complex against cancer cells B16, A549, Eca-109, SGC-7901, BEL-7402 and normal NIH 3T3 cell lines was evaluated using MTT method. The IC50 values of the complex toward B16, A549 and Eca-109 cells are 1.0 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331652/salinomycin-induces-primary-chicken-cardiomyocytes-death-via-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis
#10
Xiuge Gao, Yani Zheng, Xiangchun Ruan, Hui Ji, Lin Peng, Dawei Guo, Shanxiang Jiang
Salinomycin, as a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is extensively used as a feed additive against coccidiosis in poultry and as a growth promoter of ruminants worldwide. Owing to its narrow therapeutic index, numerous intoxication have been reported in target/non-target animals by overdosage, misuse or drug interactions as well as human who consumed salinomycin accidently. Salinomycin-induced cardiotoxicity in chicken and non-target animals is considered as a major contributor to animal death. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism of its myocardial toxicity using primary chicken myocardial cell as an in vitro model...
January 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#11
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331024/combination-therapy-of-lovastatin-and-ampk-activator-improves-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-functions-and-clinical-disease-in-eae-model
#12
Inderjit Singh, Devadoss J Samuvel, Seungho Choi, Nishant Saxena, Avtar K Singh, Jeseong Won
Recent studies report that loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes contribute to the myelin and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the efficacy of lovastatin and AMPK activator (AICAR) combination on the loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes and myelin and axonal damage in the spinal cords, relative to the clinical disease symptoms, using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for MS). We observed that lovastatin and AICAR treatments individually provided partial protection of mitochondria/peroxisomes, myelin/axons, and thus partial attenuation of clinical disease in EAE mice...
January 13, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330800/evaluation-of-erythrocyte-changes-after-normoxic-return-from-hypoxia
#13
Jihyun Song, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), principally by HIF-2, which upregulates erythropoietin transcription. This results in an increase of red blood cell (RBC) production and delivery of more oxygen to tissues. Upon rapid return to normoxia, hypoxia-induced polycythemia is overcorrected by neocytolysis, a transient destruction of preferentially young RBCs bearing low catalase (downregulated by hypoxia-stimulated microRNA(miR)-21) caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from expanded mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#14
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330550/a-metabolomics-pilot-study-on-desmoid-tumors-and-novel-drug-candidates
#15
Kelly A Mercier, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Raymond Poon, Zachery Acuff, Benjamin Alman
Desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis) are locally invasive soft tissue tumors that lack the ability to metastasize. There are no directed therapies or standard treatment plan, and chemotherapeutics, radiation, and surgery often have temporary effects. The majority of desmoid tumors are related to T41A and S45F mutations of the beta-catenin encoding gene (CTNNB1). Using broad spectrum metabolomics, differences were investigated between paired normal fibroblast and desmoid tumor cells from affected patients...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330446/effect-of-puerarin-in-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-by-increasing-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-diabetic-rats
#16
Xiu-Fang Chen, Lei Wang, Yong-Zheng Wu, Shi-Yu Song, Hai-Yan Min, Yan Yang, Xuan He, Qiao Liang, Long Yi, Yong Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia and the accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue, including skeletal muscle. Puerarin, which is a natural isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata, has been shown to have antidiabetic activity. However, the lipid-reducing effect of puerarin, in particular in skeletal muscle, has not yet been addressed. METHODS: We examined the effect of puerarin on mitochondrial function and the oxidation of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330445/a-novel-approach-for-correction-of-crosstalk-effects-in-pathway-analysis-and-its-application-in-osteoporosis-research
#17
Yu Zhou, Yunlong Gao, Chao Xu, Hui Shen, Qing Tian, Hong-Wen Deng
Osteoporosis is a prevalent bone metabolic disease and peripheral blood monocytes represent a major systemic cell type for bone metabolism. To identify the key dysfunctional pathways in osteoporosis, we performed pathway analyses on microarray data of monocytes from subjects with extremely high/low hip bone mineral density. We first performed a traditional pathway analysis for which different pathways were treated as independent. However, genes overlap among pathways will lead to "crosstalk" phenomenon, which may lead to false positive/negative results...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330382/sesn2-facilitates-mitophagy-by-helping-parkin-translocation-through-ulk1-mediated-beclin1-phosphorylation
#18
Ashish Kumar, Chandrima Shaha
Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, is crucial for the maintenance of healthy mitochondrial pool in cells. The critical event in mitophagy is the translocation of cytosolic Parkin, a ubiquitin ligase, to the surface of defective mitochondria. This study elucidates a novel role of SESN2/Sestrin2, a stress inducible protein, in mitochondrial translocation of PARK2/Parkin during mitophagy. The data demonstrates that SESN2 downregulation inhibits BECN1/Beclin1 and Parkin interaction, thereby preventing optimum mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329420/pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate-reverses-bcl-xl-mediated-apoptotic-resistance-to-doxorubicin-by-inducing-paraptosis
#19
Seok Soon Park, Dong Min Lee, Jun Hee Lim, Dongjoo Lee, Sang Jun Park, Hwan Myung Kim, Seonghyang Sohn, Gyesoon Yoon, Young Woo Eom, Seong-Yun Jeong, Eun Kyung Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi
Elevated Bcl-xL expression in cancer cells contributes to DOX resistance, leading to failure in chemotherapy. In addition, the clinical use of high-dose doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer therapy has been limited by issues with cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Here, we show that co-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) attenuates DOX-induced apoptosis in Chang-L liver cells and human hepatocytes, but overcomes DOX resistance in Bcl-xL-overexpressing Chang-L cells and several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high Bcl-xL expression...
January 10, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329300/symmetric-dimeric-bisbenzimidazoles-dbp-n-reduce-methylation-of-rarb-and-pten-while-significantly-increase-methylation-of-rrna-genes-in-mcf-7-cancer-cells
#20
Svetlana V Kostyuk, Margarita A Kvasha, Daria A Khrabrova, Olga V Kirsanova, Elizaveta S Ershova, Elena M Malinovskaya, Natalia N Veiko, Alexander A Ivanov, Vasiliy S Koval, Alexei L Zhuze, Vadim H Tashlitsky, Pavel E Umriukhin, Sergey I Kutsev, Elizaveta S Gromova
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n) are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n) produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome...
2018: PloS One
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