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Shuting Cao, Huan Wu, ChunChun Wang, Qianhui Zhang, Lefei Jiao, Fanghui Lin, Caihong Hu
In the present study, we investigated the influence of diquat-induced oxidative stress on intestinal barrier, mitochondrial function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. Twelve male Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire 35-d-old pigs (weaned at 21d of age), with an average body of 9.6 kg, were allotted to two treatments of six piglets each including the challenged group and the control group. The challenged pigs were injected with 100 mg/kg bodyweight diquat and control pigs injected with 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution. The results showed that diquat injection decreased average daily feed intake and average daily gain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Haijun Xiao, Yanghong Xu, Chenzi Ni, Qiannan Zhang, Feiya Zhong, Jishuai Huang, Wei Liu, Leilei Peng, Yingguo Zhu, Jun Hu
In flowering plants, various RNA editing events occur in the mitochondria and chloroplasts as part of post-transcriptional processes. Although several PPRs and MORFs have been identified as RNA editing factors, the underlying mechanism of PPRs and the cooperation among these proteins are still obscure. Here, we identified a rice dual-localized PPR protein, OsPGL1. The loss of function of OsPGL1 resulted in defects in both chloroplast RNA editing of ndhD-878 and mitochondrial RNA editing of ccmFc-543, both of which could be restored via complementary validation...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Elizabeth M Steinert, Navdeep S Chandel
Memory CD8+ T cells mediate protective secondary immune responses. In this issue, Bantug et al. (2018) demonstrate that mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β signaling at mitochondria-ER contact sites enables the TCA cycle flux that is necessary for memory CD8+ T cells to produce IFN-γ.
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Gábor Zsurka, Viktoriya Peeva, Alexander Kotlyar, Wolfram S Kunz
Recent deep sequencing data has provided compelling evidence that the spectrum of somatic point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in aging tissues lacks G > T transversion mutations. This fact cannot, however, be used as an argument for the missing contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to mitochondria-related aging because it is probably caused by the nucleotide selectivity of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG). In contrast to point mutations, the age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions is, in light of recent experimental data, still explainable by the segregation of mutant molecules generated by the direct mutagenic effects of ROS (in particular, of HO· radicals formed from H₂O₂ by a Fenton reaction)...
March 21, 2018: Genes
Nesibe Peker, Vinay Donipadi, Mridula Sharma, Craig McFarlane, Ravi Kambadur
Parkinson's Disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremors, muscle stiffness and muscle weakness. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed that mutations in PARKIN and PINK1 genes, which play major roles in mitochondrial quality control and mitophagy, are frequently associated with Parkinson's Disease. PARKIN is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that translocates to mitochondria during loss of mitochondrial membrane potential to increase mitophagy. Although muscle dysfunction is noted in Parkinson's Disease, little is known about the involvement of PARKIN in the muscle phenotype of Parkinson's Disease...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Kimberley Jae Botting, Xin Yee Loke, Song Zhang, Johnnie B Andersen, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of ischaemic heart disease in adulthood. Studies in rats suggest cardiac vulnerability is more pronounced in males and in offspring that were exposed to hypoxia in utero. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that 1) IUGR adolescent males, but not females, have fewer cardiomyocytes and altered expression of cardiometabolic genes compared to Controls and 2) IUGR due to hypoxia has a greater effect on these parameters compared to IUGR due to nutrient restriction...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Arnab Bhattacharyya, Aida Jameei, Aditya Garai, Rupak Saha, Anjali A Karande, Akhil R Chakravarty
Copper(ii) acetylacetonates of N,N,N-donor dipicolylamine (dpa) ligands, viz. [Cu(L1)(acac)]ClO4 (1), [Cu(L2)(acac)]ClO4 (2) and [Cu(L3)(acac)]ClO4 (3), where L1 is benzyldipicolylamine (bzdpa), L2 and L3 are non-iodinated and diiodinated BODIPY (borondipyrromethene) ligands and Hacac is acetylacetone, were synthesized and characterized and their photocytotoxicity was studied. The BODIPY complex 2, structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, has copper(ii) in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry (degree of trigonality, τ5 = 0...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Linlin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xinling Yu, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Renyong Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Tingting Zhao, Ming-Yong Han, Zhongping Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Guangxue Feng, Jie Liu, Chong-Jing Zhang, Bin Liu
Cell organelle targeting is a promising approach for cancer therapy. Herein, we report a mitochondria-targeted light-up probe (TPETH-Mito-1ART) to co-deliver artemisinin (ART) and an AIE photosensitizer (PS) to mitochondria for image-guided combination cancer cell ablation. This probe contains an AIEgen core of TPETH, two mitochondria targeting arms with ART on one arm, which could be internalized into cancer cells over normal ones, and show predominant accumulation and fluorescence turn-on in mitochondria...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Minako Nagatome, Yuki Kondo, Daisuke Kadowaki, Yusuke Saishyo, Mitsuru Irikura, Tetsumi Irie, Yoichi Ishitsuka
Acetaminophen, a common analgesic/antipyretic, is a frequent cause of acute liver failure in Western countries. The development of an effective cure against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is crucial. Ethyl pyruvate, an ethyl ester derivative of pyruvic acid, has been identified as a possible candidate against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in animal experiments. However, the mode of the hepatoprotective action of ethyl pyruvate remains unclear. We examined the hepatoprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate against hepatocyte injury and oxidative stress in a mouse model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity...
February 2018: Heliyon
Sarah J Pickett, John P Grady, Yi Shiau Ng, Gráinne S Gorman, Andrew M Schaefer, Ian J Wilson, Heather J Cordell, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland
Objective: The pathogenic mitochondrial DNA m.3243A>G mutation is associated with a wide range of clinical features, making disease prognosis extremely difficult to predict. We aimed to understand the cause of this heterogeneity. Methods: We examined the phenotypic profile of 238 adult m.3243A>G carriers (patients and asymptomatic carriers) from the UK MRC Mitochondrial Disease Patient Cohort using the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale. We modeled the role of risk factors for the development of specific phenotypes using proportional odds logistic regression...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hadas Pahima, Simona Reina, Noa Tadmor, Daniella Dadon-Klein, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Nathalie M Mazure, Vito De Pinto, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), an outer mitochondria membrane (OMM) protein, serves as a mitochondrial gatekeeper, mediating the transport of nucleotides, Ca2+ and other metabolites across the OMM. VDAC1 also plays a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by facilitating the release of apoptotic proteins and by association with both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Tumor cells, which are constantly exposed to hypoxic conditions, affect the cell via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that induces transcriptional activity...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Wei-Wei Chen, Yu-Jen Chao, Wan-Hsin Chang, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
Chronic inflammation and concomitant oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial dysfunction due to cardiolipin (CL) abnormalities in the mitochondrial inner membrane. To examine the responses of mitochondria to inflammation, macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were activated by Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) in our inflammation model, and then the mitochondrial CL profile, mitochondrial activity, and the mRNA expression of CL metabolism-related genes were examined. The results demonstrated that KLA activation caused CL desaturation and the partial loss of mitochondrial activity...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura C O'Brien, Zachary A Graham, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Christopher Cardozo, Ashraf S Gorgey
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between circulating adiponectin levels, body composition, metabolic profile, and measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and biogenesis. SETTINGS: Clinical Research in a Medical Center. METHODS: Plasma adiponectin was quantified in 19 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Body composition was evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
Ruifang Li, Ruiling Zhang, Yanhui Yang, Xueqin Wang, Yanjie Yi, Pei Fan, Zhengwei Liu, Chen Chen, Junpeng Chang
CGA-N12 is an antifungal peptide derived from human chromogranin A. In our previous investigation, CGA-N12 was found to have specific anti-candidal activity, though the mechanism of action remained unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of CGA-N12 on mitochondria. We found that CGA-N12 induced an over-generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and dissipation in mitochondrial membrane potential, in which the former plays key roles in the initiation of apoptosis and the latter is a sign of the cell apoptosis...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Hui Wang, Bin Fang, Lin Kong, Xiangzi Li, Zhijun Feng, Yunjun Wu, Kajsa Uvdal, Zhangjun Hu
A novel donor-π-acceptor-π-donor type (D-π-A-π-D') Schiff base derivative (L) has been designed and synthesized. The structure of L is confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis as well. The photophysical properties of compound L were comprehensively investigated by using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results indicate that L exhibits large Stokes shift and moderate two-photon action (2PA) cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) region. Furthermore, the confocal microscopy imaging study demonstrates that compound L could penetrate into cells and target the cellular mitochondria compartment...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yinfang Wang, Yitong Huang, Youbin Liu, Jinping Li, Yilong Hao, Peihao Yin, Zongjun Liu, Jingzhou Chen, Ying Wang, Nanping Wang, Peng Zhang
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are able to change their morphology and cellular distribution by either fission or fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that knock down of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) in ECs inhibited tube formation and migration, accompanied with decreased promigratory signalings. We showed that MTUS1 was localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kolla Rajasekhar, Kapilkumar Mehta, Thimmaiah Govindaraju
Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation is the key trait responsible for the pathological devastation caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the various pathways of multifaceted toxicity exhibited by Aβ aggregates in neuronal cells, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Aβ-CuII complex and mitochondrial damage are prominent. Aβ interferes with mitochondrial transport channels, causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein, we present nontoxic hybrid multifunctional modulators (HMMs, TGR86-88) developed by integrating the structural and functional features of the metal chelating aggregation modulator, clioquinol (Clq) and the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)...
March 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jing-Wen Zhang, Bo Pang, Qi Zhao, Yue Chang, Yi-Li Wang, Yi-Deng Jiang, Li Jing
Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases; however, lesions or histological changes and mechanisms underlying homocysteine-induced injury in olfactory bulb neurons remain unclear. In this study, hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with 1.7% methionine. Pathological changes in the olfactory bulb were observed through hematoxylin-eosin and Pischingert staining. Cell apoptosis in the olfactory bulb was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Mitochondria are essential cellular organelles critical for generating adenosine triphosphate for cellular homeostasis, as well as various mechanisms that can lead to both necrosis and apoptosis. The field of "mitochondrial medicine" is emerging in which injury/disease states are targeted therapeutically at the level of the mitochondrion, including specific antioxidants, bioenergetic substrate additions, and membrane uncoupling agents. Consequently, novel mitochondrial transplantation strategies represent a potentially multifactorial therapy leading to increased adenosine triphosphate production, decreased oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA replacement, improved bioenergetics and tissue sparing...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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