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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917271/cognitive-impairment-and-chemotherapy-a-brief-overview
#1
REVIEW
Milena Vitali, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Fausto Roila, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Martina Imbimbo, Giulia Corrao, Angela Brissa, Gallucci Rosaria, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Patients with cancer are experiencing long-term survival following chemotherapy, but the treatment may also be associated with short and long-term toxicity, including the possibility of cognitive dysfunction. A literature overview indicated a significant association between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment but prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of this decline. Although chemotherapeutic agents are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has been alleged that the occurrence of neurotoxicity is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891909/improving-emotion-regulation-following-web-based-group-intervention-for-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Theodore Tsaousides, Lisa Spielman, Maria Kajankova, Gabrielle Guetta, Wayne Gordon, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor
OBJECTIVE: Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of a Web-based group intervention (Online EmReg) to improve emotion regulation (ER) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Pre-/post-within-subject design with baseline, end-of-treatment, and 12-week follow-up assessments. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-one individuals with TBI and deficits in ER. INTERVENTION: Twenty-four sessions of training in ER skills delivered by group videoconference...
September 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870419/healthy-body-healthy-mind-a-mixed-methods-study-of-outcomes-barriers-and-supports-for-exercise-by-people-who-have-chronic-moderate-to-severe-acquired-brain-injury
#3
Laura S Lorenz, Ann L Charrette, Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Julia M Doucett, Jeffrey Fong
BACKGROUND: Few people with chronic moderate-to-severe brain injury are following recommended physical activity guidelines. OBJECTIVE: Investigate effects of planned, systematic physical activity while cultivating social and emotional well-being of people with chronic moderate-to-severe brain injury. HYPOTHESIS: Moderate-to-intensive physical activity would be associated with improvements in impairment and activity limitation measures (endurance, mobility, gait speed) immediately post-intervention and six weeks later (study week 12)...
August 24, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842274/structural-changes-in-socio-affective-networks-multi-modal-mri-findings-in-long-term-meditation-practitioners
#4
Haakon G Engen, Boris C Bernhardt, Leon Skottnik, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer
Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k hours, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices...
August 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759980/evaluating-the-features-of-the-brain-waves-to-quantify-adhd-improvement-by-neurofeedback
#5
Peyman Dehghanpour, Zahra Einalou
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as one of the most common neurological disorders in children and adolescents, is characterized by decentralization, slow learning, distraction and hyperactivity. Studies have shown that in addition to medication, neurofeedback training can also be used to partially control the brain activity of these patients. METHODS: In this study, using the brain signals processing before and after the treatment in 10 children treated by neurofeedback, the changes were evaluated by non-parametric statistical analysis and impact of neurofeedback on brain frequency bands was investigated...
July 21, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755980/profiling-coping-strategies-in-male-and-female-rats-potential-neurobehavioral-markers-of-increased-resilience-to-depressive-symptoms
#6
Molly Kent, Massimo Bardi, Ashley Hazelgrove, Kaitlyn Sewell, Emily Kirk, Brooke Thompson, Kristen Trexler, Brennan Terhune-Cotter, Kelly Lambert
Coping strategies have been associated with differential stress responsivity, perhaps providing a valuable neurobiological marker for susceptibility to the emergence of depressogenic symptoms or vulnerability to other anxiety-related disorders. Rats profiled with a flexible coping phenotype, for example, exhibit increased neurobiological markers of emotional regulation compared to active and passive copers (Bardi et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2014). In the current study, responses of male and female rats to prediction errors in a spatial foraging task (dry land maze; DLM) were examined after animals were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...
August 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744133/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Óscar F Gonçalves, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, João R Sato
The current literature provides substantial evidence of brain alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms (eg, checking, cleaning/decontamination, counting compulsions; harm or sexual, symmetry/exactness obsessions), and emotional problems (eg, defensive/appetitive emotional imbalance, disgust, guilt, shame, and fear learning/extinction) and cognitive impairments associated with this disorder (eg, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). Building on this evidence, new clinical trials can now target specific brain regions/networks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701821/an-exploratory-study-of-intensive-neurofeedback-training-for-schizophrenia
#8
Wenya Nan, Feng Wan, Lanshin Chang, Sio Hang Pun, Mang I Vai, Agostinho Rosa
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20-30 Hz) in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675115/nicotine-disrupts-safety-learning-by-enhancing-fear-associated-with-a-safety-cue-via-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#9
David A Connor, Munir G Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Learned safety, a learning process in which a cue becomes associated with the absence of threat, is disrupted in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A bi-directional relationship exists between smoking and PTSD and one potential explanation is that nicotine-associated changes in cognition facilitate PTSD emotional dysregulation by disrupting safety associations. Therefore, we investigated whether nicotine would disrupt learned safety by enhancing fear associated with a safety cue. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were administered acute or chronic nicotine and trained over three days in a differential backward trace conditioning paradigm consisting of five trials of a forward conditioned stimulus (CS)+ (Light) co-terminating with a footshock unconditioned stimulus followed by a backward CS- (Tone) presented 20 s after cessation of the unconditioned stimulus...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651477/moderators-mediators-and-nonspecific-predictors-of-outcome-after-cognitive-rehabilitation-of-executive-functions-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Sveinung Tornås, Jan Stubberud, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Jonathan Evans, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Marianne Løvstad
Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of treatment after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial Objective: To explore moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of executive functioning after cognitive rehabilitation in a randomised controlled trial, comparing Goal Management Training (GMT) with an active psycho-educative control-intervention, in patients with chronic acquired brain injury. METHODS: Seventy patients with executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n = 33) or control (n = 37)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588364/extinction-of-contextual-fear-with-timed-exposure-to-enriched-environment-a-differential-effect
#11
Preethi Hegde, Shane O'Mara, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi
BACKGROUND: Extinction of fear memory depends on the environmental and emotional cues. Furthermore, consolidation of extinction is also dependent on the environmental exposure. But, the relationship of the time of the exposure to a variety of environmental cues is not well known. The important region involved in facilitation of extinction of fear memory is through diversion of the flow of information leaving the lateral nucleus of amygdala. PURPOSE: The study aimed to address a question to explain how these brain regions react to environmental stimulation during the retention and extinction of fear memory...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577613/the-future-of-preschool-prevention-assessment-and-intervention
#12
REVIEW
Jim Hudziak, Christopher Archangeli
Preschoolers are in the most rapid period of brain development. Environment shapes the structure and function of the developing brain. Promoting brain health requires cultivation of healthy environments at home, school, and in the community. This improves the emotional-behavioral and physical health of all children, can prevent problems in children at risk, and can alter the trajectory of children already suffering. For clinicians, this starts with assessing and treating the entire family, equipping parents with the principles of parent management training, and incorporating wellness prescriptions for nutrition, physical activity, music, and mindfulness...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544029/learned-control-over-spinal-nociception-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain
#13
S Krafft, H-D Göhmann, J Sommer, A Straube, R Ruscheweyh
BACKGROUND: Descending pain inhibition suppresses spinal nociception, reducing nociceptive input to the brain. It is modulated by cognitive and emotional processes. In subjects with chronic pain, it is impaired, possibly contributing to pain persistence. A previously developed feedback method trains subjects to activate their descending inhibition. Participants are trained to use cognitive-emotional strategies to reduce their spinal nociception, as quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), under visual feedback about their RIII reflex size...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520666/anger-self-management-training-for-chronic-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Tessa Hart, Jo Ann Brockway, Roland D Maiuro, Monica Vaccaro, Jesse R Fann, David Mellick, Cindy Harrison-Felix, Jason Barber, Nancy Temkin
OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy of 8-session, 1:1 treatment, anger self-management training (ASMT), for chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Three US outpatient treatment facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety people with TBI and elevated self-reported anger; 76 significant others (SOs) provided collateral data. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 2:1 randomization to ASMT or structurally equivalent comparison treatment, personal readjustment and education (PRE)...
September 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#15
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#16
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
June 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420719/emotional-modulation-of-learning-and-memory-pharmacological-implications
#17
REVIEW
Ryan T LaLumiere, James L McGaugh, Christa K McIntyre
Memory consolidation involves the process by which newly acquired information becomes stored in a long-lasting fashion. Evidence acquired over the past several decades, especially from studies using post-training drug administration, indicates that emotional arousal during the consolidation period influences and enhances the strength of the memory and that multiple different chemical signaling systems participate in this process. The mechanisms underlying the emotional influences on memory involve the release of stress hormones and activation of the basolateral amygdala, which work together to modulate memory consolidation...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412558/relationship-of-mindful-awareness-to-neural-processing-of-angry-faces-and-impact-of-mindfulness-training-a-pilot-investigation
#18
Athene K W Lee, David A Gansler, Nanyin Zhang, Matthew W Jerram, Jean A King, Carl Fulwiler
Mindfulness is paying attention, non-judgmentally, to experience in the moment. Mindfulness training reduces depression and anxiety and influences neural processes in midline self-referential and lateralized somatosensory and executive networks. Although mindfulness benefits emotion regulation, less is known about its relationship to anger and the corresponding neural correlates. This study examined the relationship of mindful awareness and brain hemodynamics of angry face processing, and the impact of mindfulness training...
June 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384509/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-adults-with-autism-receiving-virtual-reality-social-cognition-training-preliminary-findings
#19
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatment biomarkers that can accurately forecast the response to an evidence-based behavioral treatment, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training (VR-SCT). In a preliminary sample of 17 young adults with high-functioning ASD, we identified neural predictors of change in emotion recognition after VR-SCT...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383987/the-malleability-of-emotional-perception-short-term-plasticity-in-retinotopic-neurons-accompanies-the-formation-of-perceptual-biases-to-threat
#20
Nina N Thigpen, Felix Bartsch, Andreas Keil
Emotional experience changes visual perception, leading to the prioritization of sensory information associated with threats and opportunities. These emotional biases have been extensively studied by basic and clinical scientists, but their underlying mechanism is not known. The present study combined measures of brain-electric activity and autonomic physiology to establish how threat biases emerge in human observers. Participants viewed stimuli designed to differentially challenge known properties of different neuronal populations along the visual pathway: location, eye, and orientation specificity...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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