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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701821/an-exploratory-study-of-intensive-neurofeedback-training-for-schizophrenia
#1
Wenya Nan, Feng Wan, Lanshin Chang, Sio Hang Pun, Mang I Vai, Agostinho Rosa
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20-30 Hz) in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675115/nicotine-disrupts-safety-learning-by-enhancing-fear-associated-with-a-safety-cue-via-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#2
David A Connor, Munir G Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Learned safety, a learning process in which a cue becomes associated with the absence of threat, is disrupted in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A bi-directional relationship exists between smoking and PTSD and one potential explanation is that nicotine-associated changes in cognition facilitate PTSD emotional dysregulation by disrupting safety associations. Therefore, we investigated whether nicotine would disrupt learned safety by enhancing fear associated with a safety cue. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were administered acute or chronic nicotine and trained over three days in a differential backward trace conditioning paradigm consisting of five trials of a forward conditioned stimulus (CS)+ (Light) co-terminating with a footshock unconditioned stimulus followed by a backward CS- (Tone) presented 20 s after cessation of the unconditioned stimulus...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651477/moderators-mediators-and-nonspecific-predictors-of-outcome-after-cognitive-rehabilitation-of-executive-functions-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Sveinung Tornås, Jan Stubberud, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Jonathan Evans, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Marianne Løvstad
Moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of treatment after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomised controlled trial Objective: To explore moderators, mediators and nonspecific predictors of executive functioning after cognitive rehabilitation in a randomised controlled trial, comparing Goal Management Training (GMT) with an active psycho-educative control-intervention, in patients with chronic acquired brain injury. METHODS: Seventy patients with executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n = 33) or control (n = 37)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588364/extinction-of-contextual-fear-with-timed-exposure-to-enriched-environment-a-differential-effect
#4
Preethi Hegde, Shane O'Mara, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi
BACKGROUND: Extinction of fear memory depends on the environmental and emotional cues. Furthermore, consolidation of extinction is also dependent on the environmental exposure. But, the relationship of the time of the exposure to a variety of environmental cues is not well known. The important region involved in facilitation of extinction of fear memory is through diversion of the flow of information leaving the lateral nucleus of amygdala. PURPOSE: The study aimed to address a question to explain how these brain regions react to environmental stimulation during the retention and extinction of fear memory...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577613/the-future-of-preschool-prevention-assessment-and-intervention
#5
REVIEW
Jim Hudziak, Christopher Archangeli
Preschoolers are in the most rapid period of brain development. Environment shapes the structure and function of the developing brain. Promoting brain health requires cultivation of healthy environments at home, school, and in the community. This improves the emotional-behavioral and physical health of all children, can prevent problems in children at risk, and can alter the trajectory of children already suffering. For clinicians, this starts with assessing and treating the entire family, equipping parents with the principles of parent management training, and incorporating wellness prescriptions for nutrition, physical activity, music, and mindfulness...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544029/learned-control-over-spinal-nociception-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain
#6
S Krafft, H-D Göhmann, J Sommer, A Straube, R Ruscheweyh
BACKGROUND: Descending pain inhibition suppresses spinal nociception, reducing nociceptive input to the brain. It is modulated by cognitive and emotional processes. In subjects with chronic pain, it is impaired, possibly contributing to pain persistence. A previously developed feedback method trains subjects to activate their descending inhibition. Participants are trained to use cognitive-emotional strategies to reduce their spinal nociception, as quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), under visual feedback about their RIII reflex size...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520666/anger-self-management-training-for-chronic-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Tessa Hart, Jo Ann Brockway, Roland D Maiuro, Monica Vaccaro, Jesse R Fann, David Mellick, Cindy Harrison-Felix, Jason Barber, Nancy Temkin
OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy of 8-session, 1:1 treatment, anger self-management training (ASMT), for chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Three US outpatient treatment facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety people with TBI and elevated self-reported anger; 76 significant others (SOs) provided collateral data. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 2:1 randomization to ASMT or structurally equivalent comparison treatment, personal readjustment and education (PRE)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#8
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#9
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420719/emotional-modulation-of-learning-and-memory-pharmacological-implications
#10
REVIEW
Ryan T LaLumiere, James L McGaugh, Christa K McIntyre
Memory consolidation involves the process by which newly acquired information becomes stored in a long-lasting fashion. Evidence acquired over the past several decades, especially from studies using post-training drug administration, indicates that emotional arousal during the consolidation period influences and enhances the strength of the memory and that multiple different chemical signaling systems participate in this process. The mechanisms underlying the emotional influences on memory involve the release of stress hormones and activation of the basolateral amygdala, which work together to modulate memory consolidation...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412558/relationship-of-mindful-awareness-to-neural-processing-of-angry-faces-and-impact-of-mindfulness-training-a-pilot-investigation
#11
Athene K W Lee, David A Gansler, Nanyin Zhang, Matthew W Jerram, Jean A King, Carl Fulwiler
Mindfulness is paying attention, non-judgmentally, to experience in the moment. Mindfulness training reduces depression and anxiety and influences neural processes in midline self-referential and lateralized somatosensory and executive networks. Although mindfulness benefits emotion regulation, less is known about its relationship to anger and the corresponding neural correlates. This study examined the relationship of mindful awareness and brain hemodynamics of angry face processing, and the impact of mindfulness training...
June 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384509/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-adults-with-autism-receiving-virtual-reality-social-cognition-training-preliminary-findings
#12
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatment biomarkers that can accurately forecast the response to an evidence-based behavioral treatment, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training (VR-SCT). In a preliminary sample of 17 young adults with high-functioning ASD, we identified neural predictors of change in emotion recognition after VR-SCT...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383987/the-malleability-of-emotional-perception-short-term-plasticity-in-retinotopic-neurons-accompanies-the-formation-of-perceptual-biases-to-threat
#13
Nina N Thigpen, Felix Bartsch, Andreas Keil
Emotional experience changes visual perception, leading to the prioritization of sensory information associated with threats and opportunities. These emotional biases have been extensively studied by basic and clinical scientists, but their underlying mechanism is not known. The present study combined measures of brain-electric activity and autonomic physiology to establish how threat biases emerge in human observers. Participants viewed stimuli designed to differentially challenge known properties of different neuronal populations along the visual pathway: location, eye, and orientation specificity...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349620/connectivity-patterns-during-music-listening-evidence-for-action-based-processing-in-musicians
#14
Vinoo Alluri, Petri Toiviainen, Iballa Burunat, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339575/histaminergic-neurotransmission-as-a-gateway-for-the-cognitive-effect-of-oleoylethanolamide-in-contextual-fear-conditioning
#15
Gustavo Provensi, Roberta Fabbri, Leonardo Munari, Alessia Costa, Elisabetta Baldi, Corrado Bucherelli, Patrizio Blandina, Maria Beatrice Passani
Background: The integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for the unfolding of homeostatic and cognitive processes through the recruitment of alternative circuits with distinct temporal patterns. We recently demonstrated that the fat-sensing lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide indirectly activates histaminergic neurons to exerts its hypophagic effects. The present experiments investigated whether histaminergic neurotransmission is necessary also for the modulation of emotional memory induced by oleoylethanolamide in a contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#16
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286968/a-12-week-interdisciplinary-rehabilitation-trial-in-patients-with-gliomas-a-feasibility-study
#17
Anders Hansen, Karen Søgaard, Lisbeth Rosenbek Minet, Jens Ole Jarden
PURPOSE: This report aims to assess the safety and feasibility of using an interdisciplinary rehabilitation intervention for a future randomized controlled trial in patients with gliomas in the initial treatment phase. METHOD: We conducted an outpatient two-part rehabilitation intervention that involved six weeks of therapeutic supervised training (part one) and six weeks of unsupervised training in a local gym following a training protocol (part two). RESULTS: Predefined feasibility objectives of safety (100%), consent rate (>80%), drop-out (<20%), adherence (>80%) and patient satisfaction (>80%) was achieved at part one...
March 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268455/improve-the-generalization-of-emotional-classifiers-across-time-by-using-training-samples-from-different-days
#18
Shuang Liu, Jingjing Tong, Minpeng Xu, Jiajia Yang, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming
Electroencephalographic (EEG)-based emotion recognition has attracted increasing attention from the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, there are a number of challenges for machines to correctly recognize human emotional states. One problem is how to generalize the emotion model across time, since the brain may show different patterns of EEG for the same emotion experience at different time. This study investigated the feasibility of adding samples from different days to the training set to improve the generalization of the emotion classifier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236615/effects-of-music-therapy-on-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-participating-in-aerobic-exercise-therapy
#19
Marina Deljanin Ilic, Radmila F Pavlovic, Gordana Kocic, Dejan Simonovic, Gordana Lazarevic
Context • Pleasant music that evokes a positive emotional response may activate brain pathways of the insular cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus, which are involved in the integration of emotional and ambient sensory input, with corresponding autonomic responses. Exercise training can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, both in epicardial coronary vessels and in resistance vessels, for patients with coronary heart disease. Objective • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on endothelial function when patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) listened to their favorite music...
May 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226628/improve-the-generalization-of-emotional-classifiers-across-time-by-using-training-samples-from-different-days
#20
Shuang Liu, Jingjing Tong, Minpeng Xu, Jiajia Yang, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Shuang Liu, Jingjing Tong, Minpeng Xu, Jiajia Yang, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Shuang Liu, Minpeng Xu, Dong Ming, Hongzhi Qi, Jiajia Yang, Jingjing Tong
Electroencephalographic (EEG)-based emotion recognition has attracted increasing attention from the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, there are a number of challenges for machines to correctly recognize human emotional states. One problem is how to generalize the emotion model across time, since the brain may show different patterns of EEG for the same emotion experience at different time. This study investigated the feasibility of adding samples from different days to the training set to improve the generalization of the emotion classifier...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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