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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#1
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#2
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#3
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732891/lesions-of-the-lateral-habenula-facilitate-active-avoidance-learning-and-threat-extinction
#4
Mihee Song, Yong Sang Jo, Yeon-Kyung Lee, June-Seek Choi
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain structure that provides strong projections to midbrain monoaminergic systems that are involved in motivation, emotion, and reinforcement learning. LHb neurons are known to convey information about aversive outcomes and negative prediction errors, suggesting a role in learning from aversive events. To test this idea, we examined the effects of electrolytic lesions of the LHb on signaled two-way active avoidance learning in which rats were trained to avoid an unconditioned stimulus (US) by taking a proactive shuttling response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS)...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707008/social-neuroscience-undoing-the-schism-between-neurology-and-psychiatry
#5
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647695/the-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-amygdala-downregulation-via-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback
#6
Andrew A Nicholson, Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Christian Paret, Rosemarie Kluetsch, Christian Schmahl, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Margaret C McKinnon, Jim Reiss, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
Amygdala dysregulation has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) representing a critical treatment target. Here, amygdala downregulation was targeted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-nf) in patients with PTSD, allowing us to examine further the regulation of emotional states during symptom provocation. Patients (n = 10) completed three sessions of rt-fMRI-nf with the instruction to downregulate activation in the amygdala, while viewing personalized trauma words...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641508/is-structural-remodeling-in-regions-governing-memory-an-univocal-correlate-of-memory
#7
REVIEW
Martine Ammassari-Teule
Advances in our ability to visualize changes in single neuron morphology during or after training have largely contributed to renew the interest into the structural basis of memory. Nevertheless the idea that structural alterations in memory-specific neural circuits can be univocally considered as correlates of memory needs to be carefully considered in view of evidence showing that a variety of sensorial/motor/emotional stimuli also alter the morphology of neurons in those circuits. The aim of this review is to examine the respective impact of memory vs other forms of experiences in triggering structural plasticity in the rodent brain, the challenge being to disentangle alterations due to the formation of declarative/relational memories from those developing in the same regions in relation to non-memory functions...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635998/can-brain-games-help-smokers-quit-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
James Loughead, Mary Falcone, E Paul Wileyto, Benjamin Albelda, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Wen Cao, Matthew M Kurtz, Ruben C Gur, Caryn Lerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Deficits in cognitive function are observed during nicotine withdrawal and present a challenge to successful smoking cessation. This clinical trial evaluated a cognitive exercise training (CT) program to improve smoking cessation rates. METHODS: Adult treatment-seeking smokers (n=213) were randomized to receive nicotine patch therapy and 12 weeks of either computerized CT or computerized relaxation (control) training. Smoking status was biochemically verified at the end of treatment and 6-month follow-up...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605614/inhibitory-gating-of-basolateral-amygdala-inputs-to-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Laura M McGarry, Adam G Carter
UNLABELLED: Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570959/-on-the-university-of-recovery
#10
Jean-François Pelletier, Christine Boisvert, Marie-Claude Galipeau-Leduc, Christian Ducasse, Denis Pouliot-Morneau, Julie Bordeleau
Objectives Located at the heart of a mental health university institute in Montreal, Canada, the University of Recovery (UR) is a peer-run agency of service users who came together as a private non-profit organization to promote their experiential knowledge in science and public health, and to transform the academic milieu as an inclusive work environment conducive to recovery and full citizenship. UR students can thus have access to scientific conferences and classes on various topics and invite scientists or other professionals to further discuss new discoveries and techniques, and possible ways of improving healthcare from a patients' and service users' perspective...
December 0: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548232/orca-behavior-and-subsequent-aggression-associated-with-oceanarium-confinement
#11
Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight
Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego's SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534862/self-regulating-positive-emotion-networks-by-feedback-of-multiple-emotional-brain-states-using-real-time-fmri
#12
Zhonglin Li, Li Tong, Linyuan Wang, Yongli Li, Wenjie He, Min Guan, Bin Yan
Disordered emotion regulation may affect work efficiency, induce social disharmony, and even cause psychiatric diseases. Despite recent neurocomputing advances, whether positive and negative emotion networks can be voluntarily modulated is still unknown. In the present study, we addressed this question through multivariate voxel pattern analysis and real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf). During a sustained emotion regulation task, participants' emotional states (positive or negative) were given to them as feedback...
August 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522069/predicting-neural-activity-patterns-associated-with-sentences-using-a-neurobiologically-motivated-model-of-semantic-representation
#13
Andrew James Anderson, Jeffrey R Binder, Leonardo Fernandino, Colin J Humphries, Lisa L Conant, Mario Aguilar, Xixi Wang, Donias Doko, Rajeev D S Raizada
We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI...
August 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510496/brain-potentials-predict-learning-transmission-and-modification-of-an-artificial-symbolic-system
#14
Massimo Lumaca, Giosuè Baggio
It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of 'variation' observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days...
December 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489541/emotion-discrimination-using-spatially-compact-regions-of-interest-extracted-from-imaging-eeg-activity
#15
Jorge I Padilla-Buritica, Juan D Martinez-Vargas, German Castellanos-Dominguez
Lately, research on computational models of emotion had been getting much attention due to their potential for understanding the mechanisms of emotions and their promising broad range of applications that potentially bridge the gap between human and machine interactions. We propose a new method for emotion classification that relies on features extracted from those active brain areas that are most likely related to emotions. To this end, we carry out the selection of spatially compact regions of interest that are computed using the brain neural activity reconstructed from Electroencephalography data...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471456/shutting-down-sensorimotor-interferences-after-stroke-a-proof-of-principle-smr-neurofeedback-study
#16
Johanna L Reichert, Silvia E Kober, Daniela Schweiger, Peter Grieshofer, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
INTRODUCTION: Neurofeedback training aims at learning self-regulation of brain activity underlying cognitive, emotional or physiological functions. Despite of promising investigations on neurofeedback as a tool for cognitive rehabilitation in neurological diseases, such as after stroke, there is still a lack of research on feasibility and efficiency of neurofeedback in this field. METHODS: The present study aimed at investigating behavioral and electrophysiological effects of 10 sessions of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback in a 74-years-old stroke patient (UG20)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445765/functional-connectivity-of-the-precuneus-in-female-university-students-with-long-term-musical-training
#17
Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
Conceiving concrete mental imagery is critical for skillful musical expression and performance. The precuneus, a core component of the default mode network (DMN), is a hub of mental image processing that participates in functions such as episodic memory retrieval and imagining future events. The precuneus connects with many brain regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term musical training on the resting-state functional connectivity of the precuneus...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424292/goal-management-training-combined-with-external-cuing-as-a-means-to-improve-emotional-regulation-psychological-functioning-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Sveinung Tornås, Cand Psychol, Marianne Løvstad, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Jan Stubberud
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Goal Management Training (GMT) expanded to include external cuing and an emotional regulation module is associated with improved emotional regulation, psychological functioning, and quality of life after chronic acquired brain injury. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment at baseline, post-training and six-month follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient PARTICIPANTS: Persons with acquired brain injury and executive dysfunction (N=70; 64% traumatic brain injury; 52% males; mean age 43 ± 13 years; mean time since injury 8...
July 13, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422085/deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-decreases-wanting-and-liking-of-food-rewards
#19
Shani E Ross, Emily Lehmann Levin, Christy A Itoga, Chelsea B Schoen, Romeissa Selmane, J Wayne Aldridge
We investigated the potential of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in rats to modulate functional reward mechanisms. The CeA is the major output of the amygdala with direct connections to the hypothalamus and gustatory brainstem, and indirect connections with the nucleus accumbens. Further, the CeA has been shown to be involved in learning, emotional integration, reward processing, and regulation of feeding. We hypothesized that DBS, which is used to treat movement disorders and other brain dysfunctions, might block reward motivation...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402767/astrocytic-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-mediate-hippocampal-long-term-memory-consolidation
#20
Virginia Gao, Akinobu Suzuki, Pierre J Magistretti, Sylvain Lengacher, Gabriella Pollonini, Michael Q Steinman, Cristina M Alberini
Emotionally relevant experiences form strong and long-lasting memories by critically engaging the stress hormone/neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which mediates and modulates the consolidation of these memories. Noradrenaline acts through adrenergic receptors (ARs), of which β2-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are of particular importance. The differential anatomical and cellular distribution of βAR subtypes in the brain suggests that they play distinct roles in memory processing, although much about their specific contributions and mechanisms of action remains to be understood...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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