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Microbial fermentation technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093073/application-of-meta-omics-techniques-to-understand-greenhouse-gas-emissions-originating-from-ruminal-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Robert J Wallace, Timothy J Snelling, Christine A McCartney, Ilma Tapio, Francesco Strozzi
Methane emissions from ruminal fermentation contribute significantly to total anthropological greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. New meta-omics technologies are beginning to revolutionise our understanding of the rumen microbial community structure, metabolic potential and metabolic activity. Here we explore these developments in relation to GHG emissions. Microbial rumen community analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence analysis are not yet predictive of methane emissions from individual animals or treatments...
January 16, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061817/the-rumen-microbial-metaproteome-as-revealed-by-sds-page
#2
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061427/municipal-waste-liquor-treatment-via-bioelectrochemical-and-fermentation-h2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ch4-processes-assessment-of-various-technological-sequences
#3
Tamás Rózsenberszki, László Koók, Péter Bakonyi, Nándor Nemestóthy, Washington Logroño, Mario Pérez, Gladys Urquizo, Celso Recalde, Róbert Kurdi, Attila Sarkady
In this paper, the anaerobic treatment of a high organic-strength wastewater-type feedstock, referred as the liquid fraction of pressed municipal solid waste (LPW) was studied for energy recovery and organic matter removal. The processes investigated were (i) dark fermentation to produce biohydrogen, (ii) anaerobic digestion for biogas formation and (iii) microbial fuel cells for electrical energy generation. To find a feasible alternative for LPW treatment (meeting the two-fold aims given above), various one- as well as multi-stage processes were tested...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057558/characterization-of-the-planktonic-microbiome-in-upflow-anaerobic-sludge-blanket-reactors-during-adaptation-of-mesophilic-methanogenic-granules-to-thermophilic-operational-conditions
#4
Xinyu Zhu, Laura Treu, Panagiotis G Kougias, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT and therefore the liquid phase of the reactor becomes a favourable environment for microbial growth. The current study aimed to elucidate the dynamicity of the suspended microbial community in UASB reactors, during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions...
January 2, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040175/impact-of-nacl-reduction-on-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-fermentation-of-nocellara-del-belice-table-olives
#5
Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Giuditta Perozzi, Gianni Pastore, Chiara Devirgiliis
Table olives are widely consumed worldwide but, due to the presence of NaCl in fermenting brines, they contain high levels of sodium. A promising strategy to lower sodium content is the reduction or substitution of NaCl in brines with other chlorides. However, these procedures may impact safety, spoilage, as well as quality and technological properties, including the evolution and final composition of the fermenting microbiota. In the present work the effects of partially replacing NaCl with KCl in fermenting brines on the microbiological quality of Nocellara del Belice olives produced by Spanish style (Sivigliano) or Castelvetrano methods have been analyzed...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040166/dynamics-of-bacterial-communities-during-manufacture-and-ripening-of-traditional-caciocavallo-of-castelfranco-cheese-in-relation-to-cows-feeding
#6
Marina Giello, Antonietta La Storia, Felicia Masucci, Antonio Di Francia, Danilo Ercolini, Francesco Villani
Traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco is a semi-hard "pasta-filata" cheese produced from raw cows' milk in Campania region. The aim of the present research is mainly focused on the study, by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and viable counts, of the dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo cheese. Moreover, the possible correlation between cheese microbiota and cows' feeding based on silage or hay was also evaluated. In general, except for enterococci, the technological process significantly affected all the microbial groups...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006700/detection-of-different-microenvironments-and-lactobacillus-sakei-biotypes-in-ventricina-a-traditional-fermented-sausage-from-central-italy
#7
Patrizio Tremonte, Elena Sorrentino, Gianfranco Pannella, Luca Tipaldi, Marina Sturchio, Armando Masucci, Lucia Maiuro, Raffaele Coppola, Mariantonietta Succi
The present study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological features of Ventricina, considering for the first time the presence of different compartments deriving from the technology of production. In fact meat pieces (pork muscle and fat cut into cubes of about 10-20cm(3)), mixed with other ingredients and then stuffed into pig bladder, are still distinguishable at the end of the ripening. They appear delimited on the outside by the casing and inside by thin layers consisting of spices (mainly red pepper powder), salt and meat juices...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994585/saccharomyces-and-non-saccharomyces-competition-during-microvinification-under-different-sugar-and-nitrogen-conditions
#8
Jessica Lleixà, Maria Manzano, Albert Mas, María Del C Portillo
The inoculation of wines with autochthonous yeast allows obtaining complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint characteristic from a wine region. Mixed inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae is of interest for the wine industry for technological and sensory reasons. However, the interactions between these yeasts are not well understood, especially those regarding the availability of nutrients. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of nitrogen and sugar concentration on the evolution of mixed yeast populations on controlled laboratory-scale fermentations monitored by density, plate culturing, PCR-DGGE and sugar and nitrogen consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992473/high-throughput-sequencing-of-microbial-community-diversity-and-dynamics-during-douchi-fermentation
#9
Lin Yang, Hui-Lin Yang, Zong-Cai Tu, Xiao-Lan Wang
Douchi is a type of Chinese traditional fermented food that is an important source of protein and is used in flavouring ingredients. The end product is affected by the microbial community present during fermentation, but exactly how microbes influence the fermentation process remains poorly understood. We used an Illumina MiSeq approach to investigate bacterial and fungal community diversity during both douchi-koji making and fermentation. A total of 181,443 high quality bacterial 16S rRNA sequences and 221,059 high quality fungal internal transcribed spacer reads were used for taxonomic classification, revealing eight bacterial and three fungal phyla...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981239/ionic-liquids-impact-the-bioenergy-feedstock-degrading-microbiome-and-transcription-of-enzymes-relevant-to-polysaccharide-hydrolysis
#10
Yu-Wei Wu, Brendan Higgins, Chaowei Yu, Amitha P Reddy, Shannon Ceballos, Lawrence D Joh, Blake A Simmons, Steven W Singer, Jean S VanderGheynst
Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is a promising approach for the conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels. The toxicity of residual IL, however, negatively impacts the performance of industrial enzymes and microorganisms in hydrolysis and fermentation. In this study, a thermophilic microbial community was cultured on switchgrass amended with various levels of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Changes in the microbial community composition and transcription of genes relevant to IL tolerance and lignocellulose hydrolysis were quantified...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942906/microbial-community-changes-in-methanogenic-granules-during-the-transition-from-mesophilic-to-thermophilic-conditions
#11
Xinyu Zhu, Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is one of the most applied technologies for various high-strength wastewater treatments. The present study analysed the microbial community changes in UASB granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. Dynamicity of microbial community in granules was analysed using high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons, and the results showed that the temperature strictly determines the diversity of the microbial consortium...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933053/waste-conversion-into-n-caprylate-and-n-caproate-resource-recovery-from-wine-lees-using-anaerobic-reactor-microbiomes-and-in-line-extraction
#12
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914260/the-extent-of-fermentative-transformation-of-phenolic-compounds-in-the-bioanode-controls-exoelectrogenic-activity-in-a-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#13
Xiaofei Zeng, Maya A Collins, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895708/continuous-production-of-biohythane-from-hydrothermal-liquefied-cornstalk-biomass-via-two-stage-high-rate-anaerobic-reactors
#14
Bu-Chun Si, Jia-Ming Li, Zhang-Bing Zhu, Yuan-Hui Zhang, Jian-Wen Lu, Rui-Xia Shen, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing, Zhidan Liu
BACKGROUND: Biohythane production via two-stage fermentation is a promising direction for sustainable energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass suffers from specific natural recalcitrance. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for the liquefaction of biomass, but there are still several challenges for the coupling of HTL and two-stage fermentation. One particular challenge is the limited efficiency of fermentation reactors at a high solid content of the treated feedstock...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890703/vitamin-b6-metabolism-in-microbes-and-approaches-for-fermentative-production
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan Rosenberg, Till Ischebeck, Fabian M Commichau
Vitamin B6 is a designation for the six vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxamine. PLP, being the most important B6 vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes. In contrast to other organisms, animals and humans have to ingest vitamin B6 with their food. Several disorders are associated with vitamin B6 deficiency. Moreover, pharmaceuticals interfere with metabolism of the cofactor, which also results in vitamin B6 deficiency...
November 24, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885939/microbial-innovations-in-the-world-of-food
#16
Hisashi Kawasaki, Kenji Ueda
Technological developments in Japan based on the results of microbial research were a major pillar supporting the postwar industrial revolution. The wellspring of these advancements was the sophisticated technology used in traditional brewing, a foundation of the characteristic Japanese food culture. In this manuscript, we will describe the fermentative production of amino acids and nucleic acids following the discovery of the umami component so distinct in Japanese cuisine, which finally revealed the true power of microbial production...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872947/design-and-characterisation-of-synthetic-operons-for-biohydrogen-technology
#17
Ciaran M Lamont, Frank Sargent
Biohydrogen is produced by a number of microbial systems and the commonly used host bacterium Escherichia coli naturally produces hydrogen under fermentation conditions. One approach to engineering additional hydrogen production pathways is to introduce non-native hydrogenases into E. coli. An attractive candidate is the soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha, which has been shown to link NADH/NAD(+) biochemistry directly to hydrogen metabolism, an activity that E. coli does not perform. In this work, three synthetic operons were designed that code for the soluble hydrogenase and two different enzyme maturase systems...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825476/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-lachancea-thermotolerans-typing-and-population-structure-of-wine-associated-isolates
#18
Georgios Banilas, Georgios Sgouros, Aspasia Nisiotou
Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans is an important member of the grape/wine yeast community with great technological potential for the wine industry. Although several molecular marker techniques have been developed for typing different yeast species, no one has been designed so far for L. thermotolerans. Here we present a simple and efficient method based on a multilocus SSR analysis for molecular typing and genetic diversity assessment of L. thermotolerans isolates. Following whole genome screening, five polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected and tested on a panel of grape isolates from different vineyards of two geographically separated viticultural zones, Nemea and Peza, in Greece...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822555/novel-syntrophic-populations-dominate-an-ammonia-tolerant-methanogenic-microbiome
#19
J A Frank, M Ø Arntzen, L Sun, L H Hagen, A C McHardy, S J Horn, V G H Eijsink, A Schnürer, P B Pope
Biogas reactors operating with protein-rich substrates have high methane potential and industrial value; however, they are highly susceptible to process failure because of the accumulation of ammonia. High ammonia levels cause a decline in acetate-utilizing methanogens and instead promote the conversion of acetate via a two-step mechanism involving syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) to H2 and CO2, followed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Despite the key role of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB), only a few culturable representatives have been characterized...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813152/yeasts-found-in-vineyards-and-wineries
#20
Cristian Varela, Anthony R Borneman
Wine is a complex beverage, comprising thousands of metabolites that are produced through the action of a plethora of yeasts and bacteria during fermentation of grape must. These microbial communities originate in the vineyard and the winery and reflect the influence of several factors including grape variety, geographical location, climate, vineyard spraying, technological practices, processing stage and season (pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest). Vineyard and winery microbial communities have the potential to participate during fermentation and influence wine flavour and aroma...
November 3, 2016: Yeast
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