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Microbial fermentation technology

Liqiang Zhang, Rongqing Zhou, Ruiying Cui, Jun Huang, Chongde Wu
Present study was to characterize the physiochemical properties, free amino acids (FAAs), volatiles and microbial communities of various moromi, respectively sampled from different stages of high-salt dilute-state (HSDS) and low-salt solid-state (LSSS) fermentation, using multiphase analyzing methods. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis indicated that Gram-positive bacteria were dominant bacteria and fungi were principal microbes. For DGGE analysis, dominant microbes in moromi were mainly fell into Weissella, Tetragenococcus, Candida, Pichia, and Zygosaccharomyces...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini
This review describes the recent advances in the study of food microbial ecology, with a focus on food fermentations. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have been widely applied to the study of food microbial consortia and the different applications of HTS technologies were exploited in order to monitor microbial dynamics in food fermentative processes. Phylobiomics was the most explored application in the past decade. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, although still underexploited, promise to uncover the functionality of complex microbial consortia...
October 6, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Talitha C Santini, Laura I Malcolm, Gene W Tyson, Lesley A Warren
Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pablo Granda Araujo, Anna Gras, Marta Ginovart
Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Yongsheng Dong, Hua Jiang
High environmental pressure exerts an external stress on the survival of microorganisms that are commonly found under normal pressure. In response, many growth traits alter, including cell morphology and physiology, cellular structure, metabolism, physical and chemical properties, the reproductive process, and defense mechanisms. The high-pressure technology (HP) has been industrially utilized in pressurized sterilization, synthesis of stress-induced products, and microbial/enzymatic transformation of chemicals...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Stefan T Jaronski
Among invertebrate fungal pathogens, Beauveria bassiana has assumed a key role in management of numerous arthropod agricultural, veterinary and forestry pests. Beauveria is typically deployed in one or more inundative applications of large numbers of aerial conidia in dry or liquid formulations, in a chemical paradigm. Mass production is mainly practiced by solid-state fermentation to yield hydrophobic aerial conidia, which remain the principal active ingredient of mycoinsecticides. More robust and cost-effective fermentation and formulation downstream platforms are imperative for its overall commercialization by industry...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jiachao Zhang, Xiaoru Wang, Dongxue Huo, Wu Li, Qisong Hu, Chuanbiao Xu, Sixin Liu, Congfa Li
Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fausto Gardini, Yesim Özogul, Giovanna Suzzi, Giulia Tabanelli, Fatih Özogul
Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Ackmez Mudhoo, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Dillirani Nagarajan, Anish Ghimire, Chyi-How Lay, Chiu-Yue Lin, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
The contribution and insights of the immobilization technology in the recent years with regards to the generation of (bio)hydrogen via dark fermentation have been reviewed. The types of immobilization practices, such as entrapment, encapsulation and adsorption, are discussed. Materials and carriers used for cell immobilization are also comprehensively surveyed. New development of nano-based immobilization and nano-materials has been highlighted pertaining to the specific subject of this review. The microorganisms and the type of carbon sources applied in the dark hydrogen fermentation are also discussed and summarized...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Mohamed Ali Abdel-Rahman, Kenji Sonomoto
There has been growing interest in the microbial production of optically pure lactic acid due to the increased demand for lactic acid-derived environmentally friendly products, for example biodegradable plastic (poly-lactic acid), as an alternative to petroleum-derived materials. To maximize the market uptake of these products, their cost should be competitive and this could be achieved by decreasing the production cost of the raw material, that is, lactic acid. It is of great importance to isolate and develop robust and highly efficient microbial lactic acid producers...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Clemencia Chaves-Lopez, Annalisa Serio, Johannes Delgado-Ospina, Chiara Rossi, Carlos D Grande-Tovar, Antonello Paparella
Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, 5.4 log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 og CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fariza Ammam, Pier-Luc Tremblay, Dawid M Lizak, Tian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and gas fermentation are bioenergy technologies in which a microbial catalyst reduces CO2 into organic carbon molecules with electrons from the cathode of a bioelectrochemical system or from gases such as H2. The acetogen Sporomusa ovata has the capacity of reducing CO2 into commodity chemicals by both gas fermentation and MES. Acetate is often the only product generated by S. ovata during autotrophic growth. RESULTS: In this study, trace elements in S...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Qian Liu, Zhiyong Jason Ren, Cong Huang, Bingfeng Liu, Nanqi Ren, Defeng Xing
BACKGROUND: Biohythane is a new and high-value transportation fuel present as a mixture of biomethane and biohydrogen. It has been produced from different organic matters using anaerobic digestion. Bioenergy can be recovered from waste activated sludge through methane production during anaerobic digestion, but energy yield is often insufficient to sludge disposal. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is also a promising approach for bioenergy recovery and waste sludge disposal as higher energy efficiency and biogas production...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
K V Arivizhivendhan, M Mahesh, R Boopathy, K Patchaimurugan, P Maharaja, S Swarnalatha, R Regina Mary, G Sekaran
Prodigiosin (PG) is a bioactive compound produced by several bacterial species. Currently, many technologies are being developed for the production of PG by fermentation processes. However, new challenges are being faced with regard to the production of PG in terms of the recovery and purification steps, owing to the labile nature of PG molecules and the cost of the purification steps. Conventional methods have limitations due to high cost, low reusability, and health hazards. Hence, the present investigation was focused on the development of surface-functionalized magnetic iron oxide ([Fe3O4]F) for solvent-free extraction of bioactive PG from the bacterial fermented medium...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lalitagauri Ray, Sunita Pramanik, Debabrata Bera
BACKGROUND: The enzyme catalyzed process technology has enormous potential in the food sectors as indicated by the recent studies. It is very well realized that the adaptation of the enzyme catalyzed process depends on the availability of enzyme in affordable prices. OBJECTIVE: Enzymes may be used in different food sectors like dairy, fruits & vegetable processing, meat tenderization, fish processing, brewery and wine making, starch processing and many other...
July 27, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Erica Pontonio, Carlo G Rizzello, Raffaella Di Cagno, Xavier Dousset, Héliciane Clément, Pasquale Filannino, Bernard Onno, Marco Gobbetti
Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities...
July 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Tian-Qiong Shi, Hui Peng, Si-Yu Zeng, Rong-Yu Ji, Kun Shi, Xiao-Jun Ji, He Huang
Plant hormones are a class of organic substances which are synthesized during the plant metabolism. They have obvious physiological effect on plant growth at very low concentrations. Generally, plant hormones are mainly divided into five categories: auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA). With the deepening of research, some novel plant hormones such as brassinosteroid and salicylates have been found and identified. The plant hormone products are mainly obtained through plant extraction, chemical synthesis as well as microbial fermentation...
July 26, 2016: Bioengineered
Cristian Bortolini, Vania Patrone, Edoardo Puglisi, Lorenzo Morelli
The quality of chocolate is influenced by several parameters, one of which is bacterial diversity during fermentation and drying; a crucial factor for the generation of the optimal cocoa flavor precursors. Our understanding of the bacterial populations involved in chocolate fermentation can be improved by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies (HTS), combined with PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA subunit. Here, we have conducted a high-throughput assessment of bacterial diversity in four processed samples of cocoa beans from different geographic origins...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Angela Capece, Lisa Granchi, Simona Guerrini, Silvia Mangani, Rossana Romaniello, Massimo Vincenzini, Patrizia Romano
Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elisa Salvetti, Stefano Campanaro, Ilenia Campedelli, Fabio Fracchetti, Alex Gobbi, Giovanni Battista Tornielli, Sandra Torriani, Giovanna E Felis
Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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