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Microbial fermentation technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147976/evaluation-of-microbial-consortia-and-chemical-changes-in-spontaneous-maize-bran-fermentation
#1
Marilù Decimo, Mattia Quattrini, Giovanni Ricci, Maria Grazia Fortina, Milena Brasca, Tiziana Silvetti, Federica Manini, Daniela Erba, Franca Criscuoli, Maria Cristina Casiraghi
Sustainable exploitation of agro-industrial by-products has attracted great interest in cereal bran valorization. In this research, a polyphasic approach has been carried out to characterize maize bran at microbiological and chemical level during a sourdough like fermentation process, in order to enhance its technological and nutritional properties. Autochthonous microbiota was isolated at different refreshment steps and subjected to identification and molecular characterization. Fermentation was characterized by a rapid increase in lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with a co-dominance, at the initial stage, of Weissella spp...
November 16, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136932/cell-immobilization-on-3d-printed-matrices-a-model-study-on-propionic-acid-fermentation
#2
Fabricio Dos Santos Belgrano, Olaf Diegel, Nei Pereira, Rajni Hatti-Kaul
This study uses three-dimensional (3D) printing technology as a tool for designing carriers for immobilization of microbial cells for bioprocesses. Production of propionic acid from glucose by immobilized Propionibacterium sp. cells was studied as a model system. For cell adsorption, the 3D-printed nylon beads were added to the culture medium during 3 rounds of cell cultivation. Cell adsorption and fermentation kinetics were similar irrespective of the bead size and lattice structure. The cells bound to 15 mm beads exhibited reduced fermentation time as compared to free cell fermentations; maximum productivity and propionic acid titer of 0...
November 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#3
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121935/bioconversion-of-distillers-grains-hydrolysates-to-advanced-biofuels-by-an-escherichia-coli-co-culture
#4
Fang Liu, Weihua Wu, Mary B Tran-Gyamfi, James D Jaryenneh, Xun Zhuang, Ryan W Davis
BACKGROUND: First generation bioethanol production utilizes the starch fraction of maize, which accounts for approximately 60% of the ash-free dry weight of the grain. Scale-up of this technology for fuels applications has resulted in a massive supply of distillers' grains with solubles (DGS) coproduct, which is rich in cellulosic polysaccharides and protein. It was surmised that DGS would be rapidly adopted for animal feed applications, however, this has not been observed based on inconsistency of the product stream and other logistics-related risks, especially toxigenic contaminants...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121465/co-culture-of-marine-invertebrate-associated-bacteria-and-interdisciplinary-technologies-enable-biosynthesis-and-discovery-of-a-new-antibiotic-keyicin
#5
Navid Adnani, Marc Chevrette, Srikar N Adibhatla, Fan Zhang, Qing Yu, Doug R Braun, Justin Nelson, Scott W Simpkins, Bradon R McDonald, Chad L Myers, Jeff S Piotrowski, Christopher J Thompson, Cameron R Currie, Lingjun Li, Scott R Rajski, Tim S Bugni
Advances in genomics and metabolomics have made clear in recent years that microbial biosynthetic capacities on Earth far exceed previous expectations. This is attributable, in part, to the realization that most microbial natural product (NP) producers harbor biosynthetic machineries not readily amenable to classical laboratory fermentation conditions. Such "cryptic" or dormant biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encode for a vast assortment of potentially new antibiotics and, as such, have become extremely attractive targets for activation under controlled laboratory conditions...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110678/utilization-of-biodiesel-derived-glycerol-for-1-3-pd-and-citric-acid-production
#6
REVIEW
Laura Mitrea, Monica Trif, Adriana-Florinela Cătoi, Dan-Cristian Vodnar
Today, biofuels represent a hot topic in the context of petroleum and adjacent products decrease. As biofuels production increase, so does the production of their major byproduct, namely crude glycerol. The efficient usage of raw glycerol will concur to the biodiesel viability. As an inevitable waste of biodiesel manufacturing, glycerol is potentially an attractive substrate for the production of value-added products by fermentation processes, due to its large amounts, low cost and high degree of reduction...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109406/new-microbial-resource-microbial-diversity-function-and-dynamics-in-chinese-liquor-starter
#7
Yuhong Huang, Zhuolin Yi, Yanling Jin, Yonggui Zhao, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Huibo Luo, Wenxue Zhang, Yang Fang, Hai Zhao
Traditional Chinese liquor (Baijiu) solid state fermentation technology has lasted for several thousand years. The microbial communities that enrich in liquor starter are important for fermentation. However, the microbial communities are still under-characterized. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the microbial diversity, function and dynamics of two most-consumed liquor starters (Jiang- and Nong-flavor) during production. In total, 315 and 83 bacterial genera and 72 and 47 fungal genera were identified in Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102814/diverse-yeasts-for-diverse-fermented-beverages-and-foods
#8
REVIEW
Chris Todd Hittinger, James L Steele, David S Ryder
Yeasts play vital roles in food biotechnology, especially in fermented products. Yeasts are monoculture bioprocessing agents, are members of complex microbial communities, and are even consumed directly. Advances in genetic technologies, such as whole genome and environmental DNA sequencing, have shed light on the diverse yeasts used in both traditional and industrialized processes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an outsized role in fermented beverage and food production, but new research has revealed a cornucopia of yeast biodiversity that includes dozens of species...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090211/integrating-cellular-and-bioprocess-engineering-in-the-non-conventional-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-biodiesel-production-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Dongming Xie
As one of the major biofuels to replace fossil fuel, biodiesel has now attracted more and more attention due to its advantages in higher energy density and overall less greenhouse gas generation. Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is produced by chemically or enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of lipids from microbial cells, microalgae, oil crops, or animal fats. Currently, plant oils or waste cooking oils/fats remain the major source for biodiesel production via enzymatic route, but the production capacity is limited either by the uncertain supplement of plant oils or by the low or inconsistent quality of waste oils/fats...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076337/synthetic-consortium-of-escherichia-coli-for-n-butanol-production-by-fermentation-of-the-glucose-xylose-mixture
#10
Mukesh Saini, Li-Jen Lin, Chung-Jen Chiang, Yun-Peng Chao
The microbial production of n-butanol using glucose and xylose, the major components of plant biomass, can provide a sustainable and renewable fuel as crude oil replacement. However, Escherichia coli prefers glucose to xylose as programmed by carbohydrate catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a synthetic consortium consisting of two strains was developed by transforming the CCR-insensitive strain into a glucose-selective strain and a xylose-selective strain. Furthermore, the dual culture was reshaped by distribution of the synthetic pathway of n-butanol into two strains...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064557/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptomics-analysis-guided-metabolic-engineering-of-propionibacterium-acidipropionici-for-improved-propionic-acid-production
#11
Ningzi Guan, Bin Du, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Rachel R Chen, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Acid stress induced by the accumulation of organic acids during the fermentation of propionibacteria is a severe limitation in the microbial production of propionic acid (PA). To enhance the acid resistance of strains, the tolerance mechanisms of cells must first be understood. In this study, comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were conducted on wild-type and acid-tolerant Propionibacterium acidipropionici to reveal the microbial response of cells to acid stress during fermentation. Combined with the results of previous proteomic and metabolomic studies, several potential acid-resistance mechanisms of P...
October 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063971/novel-microbial-sources-of-tropane-alkaloids-first-report-of-production-by-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-datura-metel-l
#12
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033905/a-review-on-the-applications-of-next-generation-sequencing-technologies-as-applied-to-food-related-microbiome-studies
#13
REVIEW
Yu Cao, Séamus Fanning, Sinéad Proos, Kieran Jordan, Shabarinath Srikumar
The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has enabled researchers to study and understand the world of microorganisms from broader and deeper perspectives. The contemporary advances in DNA sequencing technologies have not only enabled finer characterization of bacterial genomes but also provided deeper taxonomic identification of complex microbiomes which in its genomic essence is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms inhabiting an environment, whether the environment be a particular body econiche (e...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978326/tracking-of-pigment-accumulation-and-secretion-in-extractive-fermentation-of-monascus-anka-gim-3-592
#14
Gong Chen, Qi Bei, Tao Huang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. RESULTS: The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956398/-discovery-and-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-inhibitors-using-functional-metagenomics-approach
#15
Ying Zhu, Shumao Chai, Mingming Cao, Shaochen Wang, Zhiyang Feng
Although most microbes are not readily cultured in the lab, microbial DNA can be extracted directly from an environmental sample and be functionally expressed in a suitable host for natural products discovery, and this approach has been termed "metagenomics". An E'mei Mountain soil metagenomic library was constructed using an Escherichia coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector for functional based screening of anti-bacterial clones in Streptomyces albus host. Two active clones were obtained and their fermentation broths were studied for the inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955318/metatranscriptomics-reveals-the-functions-and-enzyme-profiles-of-the-microbial-community-in-chinese-nong-flavor-liquor-starter
#16
Yuhong Huang, Zhuolin Yi, Yanling Jin, Mengjun Huang, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Huibo Luo, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Yang Fang, Hai Zhao
Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930611/biomass-breakdown-a-review-on-pretreatment-instrumentations-and-methods
#17
Preeti Vyas, Ashwani Kumar, Suren Singh
Enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuel production is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, due to its renewable and environmental friendly nature. Naturally, plants protect their cell wall polysaccharides by giving limited access to the cell wall degrading enzymes. Lignocellulose breakdown requires proper pretreatments that disrupt the close inter-component association between the constituents of the plant cell wall. For efficient biomass conversion, the choice of the correct pretreatment is important for removing the barriers to enhance access to microbial enzymes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928063/trends-in-the-biomanufacture-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-with-focus-on-downstream-processing
#18
REVIEW
Maria R Kosseva, Edy Rusbandi
The aim of the current review is to analyze trends in development of an efficient technology for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biomanufacture highlighting the up-to-date progress on PHA biosynthesis and focusing on the downstream processing. Three main production pathways were identified: through microbial, enzymic, or plant routes. Microbial fermentation processes were predominant, with a wide range of microorganisms, starting materials and culture conditions reported. Largely, two schemes for recovering PHAs from the reaction medium post fermentation were identified: dissolving biomass to separate PHAs granules with strong oxidants, and extracting PHAs directly from the biomass using suitable solvents...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921417/bacteriocinogenic-lab-strains-for-fermented-meat-preservation-perspectives-challenges-and-limitations
#19
Lorenzo Favaro, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov
Over the last decades, much research has focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins because of their potential as biopreservatives and their action against the growth of spoilage microbes. Meat and fermented meat products are prone to microbial contamination, causing health risks, as well as economic losses in the meat industry. The use of bacteriocin-producing LAB starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats. However, although bacteriocins can be produced during meat processing, their levels are usually much lower than those achieved during in vitro fermentations under optimal environmental conditions...
December 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887527/pan-genome-analysis-of-bacillus-for-microbiome-profiling
#20
Yihwan Kim, InSong Koh, Mi Young Lim, Won-Hyong Chung, Mina Rho
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology allow for in-depth studies on microbial genomes and their communities. While multiple strains of the same species could display genomic variations with different gene contents in diverse habitats and hosts, the essential functions for a specific species are conserved as core genes that are shared among strains. We have comprehensively analyzed 238 strains of five different Bacillus species to identify the properties of core and strain-specific genes. Core and strain-specific genes in each Bacillus species show significant differences in their functions and genomic signatures...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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