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Microbial fermentation technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#1
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319528/metagenomic-profiling-of-the-bacterial-community-changes-from-koji-to-mash-stage-in-the-brewing-of-soy-sauce
#2
Hongbin Wang, Quanzeng Wei, Shuqi Gui, Yongrui Feng, Yong Zhang, Yihan Liu, Fuping Lu
The improvement of soy sauce fermentation is restricted by the insufficient information on bacterial community. In this study, bacterial communities in the koji and mash stage were compared based on next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 29 genera were identified in the koji stage, while 34 in the mash stage. After koji stage, 7 genera disappeared and 12 new genera appeared in the mash stage. The dominant bacteria were Kurthia, Weissella and Staphylococcus in the koji stage and Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc in the mash stage...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298101/diet-microbiota-and-metabolic-health-trade-off-between-saccharolytic-and-proteolytic-fermentation
#3
Katri Korpela
The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a central regulator of host metabolism and immune function, mediating the effects of diet on host health. However, the large diversity and individuality of the gut microbiota have made it difficult to draw conclusions about microbiota responses to dietary interventions. In the light of recent research, certain general patterns are emerging, revealing how the ecology of the gut microbiota profoundly depends on the quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrates and proteins...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229581/balancing-cellular-redox-metabolism-in-microbial-electrosynthesis-and-electro-fermentation-a-chance-for-metabolic-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Frauke Kracke, Bin Lai, Shiqin Yu, Jens O Krömer
More and more microbes are discovered that are capable of extracellular electron transfer, a process in which they use external electrodes as electron donors or acceptors for metabolic reactions. This feature can be used to overcome cellular redox limitations and thus optimising microbial production. The technologies, termed microbial electrosynthesis and electro-fermentation, have the potential to open novel bio-electro production platforms from sustainable energy and carbon sources. However, the performance of reported systems is currently limited by low electron transport rates between microbes and electrodes and our limited ability for targeted engineering of these systems due to remaining knowledge gaps about the underlying fundamental processes...
December 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223901/thermally-enhanced-in-situ-bioremediation-of-groundwater-contaminated-with-chlorinated-solvents-a-field-test
#5
Jan Němeček, Jana Steinová, Roman Špánek, Tomáš Pluhař, Petr Pokorný, Petra Najmanová, Vladislav Knytl, Miroslav Černík
In situ bioremediation (ISB) using reductive dechlorination is a widely accepted but relatively slow approach compared to other technologies for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethenes (CVOCs). Due to the known positive kinetic effect on microbial metabolism, thermal enhancement may be a viable means of accelerating ISB. We tested thermally enhanced ISB in aquifers situated in sandy saprolite and underlying fractured granite. The system comprised pumping, heating and subsequent injection of contaminated groundwater aiming at an aquifer temperature of 20-30°C...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181569/characterization-of-oligotrophic-anaob-culture-morphological-physiological-and-ecological-features
#6
Qian-Yi Hu, Da Kang, Ru Wang, A-Qiang Ding, Ghulam Abbas, Meng Zhang, Lin Qiu, Hui-Feng Lu, Hui-Jie Lu, Ping Zheng
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is regarded as a promising nitrogen removal technology to treat ammonium wastewaters in a wide concentration range. Oligotrophic anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria (O-AnAOB) culture has been successfully achieved from a new anammox system to treat superlow ammonium concentration wastewaters. In this work, the O-AnAOB culture was compared with the eutrophic AnAOB (E-AnAOB) culture to reveal its physiological, morphological, and ecological features. Results showed that the specific anammox activity (SAA) of O-AnAOB culture was 0...
November 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153181/a-100-year-review-microbiology-and-safety-of-milk-handling
#7
Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann, Sarah Murphy, Sam Alcaine
Microbes that may be present in milk can include pathogens, spoilage organisms, organisms that may be conditionally beneficial (e.g., lactic acid bacteria), and those that have not been linked to either beneficial or detrimental effects on product quality or human health. Although milk can contain a full range of organisms classified as microbes (i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans), with few exceptions (e.g., phages that affect fermentations, fungal spoilage organisms, and, to a lesser extent, the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia) dairy microbiology to date has focused predominantly on bacteria...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147976/evaluation-of-microbial-consortia-and-chemical-changes-in-spontaneous-maize-bran-fermentation
#8
Marilù Decimo, Mattia Quattrini, Giovanni Ricci, Maria Grazia Fortina, Milena Brasca, Tiziana Silvetti, Federica Manini, Daniela Erba, Franca Criscuoli, Maria Cristina Casiraghi
Sustainable exploitation of agro-industrial by-products has attracted great interest in cereal bran valorization. In this research, a polyphasic approach has been carried out to characterize maize bran at microbiological and chemical level during a sourdough like fermentation process, in order to enhance its technological and nutritional properties. Autochthonous microbiota was isolated at different refreshment steps and subjected to identification and molecular characterization. Fermentation was characterized by a rapid increase in lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with a co-dominance, at the initial stage, of Weissella spp...
November 16, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136932/cell-immobilization-on-3d-printed-matrices-a-model-study-on-propionic-acid-fermentation
#9
Fabricio Dos Santos Belgrano, Olaf Diegel, Nei Pereira, Rajni Hatti-Kaul
This study uses three-dimensional (3D) printing technology as a tool for designing carriers for immobilization of microbial cells for bioprocesses. Production of propionic acid from glucose by immobilized Propionibacterium sp. cells was studied as a model system. For cell adsorption, the 3D-printed nylon beads were added to the culture medium during 3 rounds of cell cultivation. Cell adsorption and fermentation kinetics were similar irrespective of the bead size and lattice structure. The cells bound to 15 mm beads exhibited reduced fermentation time as compared to free cell fermentations; maximum productivity and propionic acid titer of 0...
November 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#10
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121935/bioconversion-of-distillers-grains-hydrolysates-to-advanced-biofuels-by-an-escherichia-coli-co-culture
#11
Fang Liu, Weihua Wu, Mary B Tran-Gyamfi, James D Jaryenneh, Xun Zhuang, Ryan W Davis
BACKGROUND: First generation bioethanol production utilizes the starch fraction of maize, which accounts for approximately 60% of the ash-free dry weight of the grain. Scale-up of this technology for fuels applications has resulted in a massive supply of distillers' grains with solubles (DGS) coproduct, which is rich in cellulosic polysaccharides and protein. It was surmised that DGS would be rapidly adopted for animal feed applications, however, this has not been observed based on inconsistency of the product stream and other logistics-related risks, especially toxigenic contaminants...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121465/co-culture-of-marine-invertebrate-associated-bacteria-and-interdisciplinary-technologies-enable-biosynthesis-and-discovery-of-a-new-antibiotic-keyicin
#12
Navid Adnani, Marc Chevrette, Srikar N Adibhatla, Fan Zhang, Qing Yu, Doug R Braun, Justin Nelson, Scott W Simpkins, Bradon R McDonald, Chad L Myers, Jeff S Piotrowski, Christopher J Thompson, Cameron R Currie, Lingjun Li, Scott R Rajski, Tim S Bugni
Advances in genomics and metabolomics have made clear in recent years that microbial biosynthetic capacities on Earth far exceed previous expectations. This is attributable, in part, to the realization that most microbial natural product (NP) producers harbor biosynthetic machineries not readily amenable to classical laboratory fermentation conditions. Such "cryptic" or dormant biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encode for a vast assortment of potentially new antibiotics and, as such, have become extremely attractive targets for activation under controlled laboratory conditions...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110678/utilization-of-biodiesel-derived-glycerol-for-1-3-pd-and-citric-acid-production
#13
REVIEW
Laura Mitrea, Monica Trif, Adriana-Florinela Cătoi, Dan-Cristian Vodnar
Today, biofuels represent a hot topic in the context of petroleum and adjacent products decrease. As biofuels production increase, so does the production of their major byproduct, namely crude glycerol. The efficient usage of raw glycerol will concur to the biodiesel viability. As an inevitable waste of biodiesel manufacturing, glycerol is potentially an attractive substrate for the production of value-added products by fermentation processes, due to its large amounts, low cost and high degree of reduction...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109406/new-microbial-resource-microbial-diversity-function-and-dynamics-in-chinese-liquor-starter
#14
Yuhong Huang, Zhuolin Yi, Yanling Jin, Yonggui Zhao, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Huibo Luo, Wenxue Zhang, Yang Fang, Hai Zhao
Traditional Chinese liquor (Baijiu) solid state fermentation technology has lasted for several thousand years. The microbial communities that enrich in liquor starter are important for fermentation. However, the microbial communities are still under-characterized. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the microbial diversity, function and dynamics of two most-consumed liquor starters (Jiang- and Nong-flavor) during production. In total, 315 and 83 bacterial genera and 72 and 47 fungal genera were identified in Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102814/diverse-yeasts-for-diverse-fermented-beverages-and-foods
#15
REVIEW
Chris Todd Hittinger, James L Steele, David S Ryder
Yeasts play vital roles in food biotechnology, especially in fermented products. Yeasts are monoculture bioprocessing agents, are members of complex microbial communities, and are even consumed directly. Advances in genetic technologies, such as whole genome and environmental DNA sequencing, have shed light on the diverse yeasts used in both traditional and industrialized processes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an outsized role in fermented beverage and food production, but new research has revealed a cornucopia of yeast biodiversity that includes dozens of species...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090211/integrating-cellular-and-bioprocess-engineering-in-the-non-conventional-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-biodiesel-production-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Dongming Xie
As one of the major biofuels to replace fossil fuel, biodiesel has now attracted more and more attention due to its advantages in higher energy density and overall less greenhouse gas generation. Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is produced by chemically or enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of lipids from microbial cells, microalgae, oil crops, or animal fats. Currently, plant oils or waste cooking oils/fats remain the major source for biodiesel production via enzymatic route, but the production capacity is limited either by the uncertain supplement of plant oils or by the low or inconsistent quality of waste oils/fats...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076337/synthetic-consortium-of-escherichia-coli-for-n-butanol-production-by-fermentation-of-the-glucose-xylose-mixture
#17
Mukesh Saini, Li-Jen Lin, Chung-Jen Chiang, Yun-Peng Chao
The microbial production of n-butanol using glucose and xylose, the major components of plant biomass, can provide a sustainable and renewable fuel as crude oil replacement. However, Escherichia coli prefers glucose to xylose as programmed by carbohydrate catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a synthetic consortium consisting of two strains was developed by transforming the CCR-insensitive strain into a glucose-selective strain and a xylose-selective strain. Furthermore, the dual culture was reshaped by distribution of the synthetic pathway of n-butanol into two strains...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064557/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptomics-analysis-guided-metabolic-engineering-of-propionibacterium-acidipropionici-for-improved-propionic-acid-production
#18
Ningzi Guan, Bin Du, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Rachel R Chen, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Acid stress induced by the accumulation of organic acids during the fermentation of propionibacteria is a severe limitation in the microbial production of propionic acid (PA). To enhance the acid resistance of strains, the tolerance mechanisms of cells must first be understood. In this study, comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were conducted on wild-type and acid-tolerant Propionibacterium acidipropionici to reveal the microbial response of cells to acid stress during fermentation. Combined with the results of previous proteomic and metabolomic studies, several potential acid-resistance mechanisms of P...
October 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063971/novel-microbial-sources-of-tropane-alkaloids-first-report-of-production-by-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-datura-metel-l
#19
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033905/a-review-on-the-applications-of-next-generation-sequencing-technologies-as-applied-to-food-related-microbiome-studies
#20
REVIEW
Yu Cao, Séamus Fanning, Sinéad Proos, Kieran Jordan, Shabarinath Srikumar
The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has enabled researchers to study and understand the world of microorganisms from broader and deeper perspectives. The contemporary advances in DNA sequencing technologies have not only enabled finer characterization of bacterial genomes but also provided deeper taxonomic identification of complex microbiomes which in its genomic essence is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms inhabiting an environment, whether the environment be a particular body econiche (e...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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