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Tushar Dhanani, Raghuraj Singh, Satyanshu Kumar
The objective of the present investigation was to optimize extraction conditions for maximum recovery of bioactive phenolics from different parts of Saraca asoca. Extraction recovery was optimized using a mixture of methanol and water in different proportions. For identification and quantification of six analytes, a rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) photo diode array detection method was developed. UPLC separation was achieved in a gradient elution mode on a C18 column with acetonitrile and aqueous phosphoric acid (0...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Liuqing Wang, Yoko Yamashita, Akiko Saito, Hitoshi Ashida
Procyanidins belong to a family of flavan-3-ols, which consist of monomers, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and their oligomers and polymers, and are distributed in many plant-derived foods. Procyanidins are reported to have many beneficial physiological activities, such as antihypertensive and anticancer effects. However, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well understood owing to a lack of convenient and high-sensitive analysis methods. The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for determining procyanidin content in both food materials and biological samples...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Mankun Wei, Wei-Ming Chai, Qin Yang, Rui Wang, Yiyuan Peng
Proanthocyanidins were extracted from Pyracantha fortuneana fruit (PFF), and their structures were investigated through (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The results showed that these compounds were predominantly constituted of procyanidin with A-type and B-type linkage and coexistence of procyanidins glucoside. Spectroscopy methods were used to analyze the inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins on α-glucosidase...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Jack N Losso, John W Finley, Namrata Karki, Ann G Liu, Alfredo Prudente, Russell Tipton, Ying Yu, Frank L Greenway
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is common in the elderly and is associated with chronic disease, but use of hypnotics increases the incidence of falls. Montmorency tart cherry juice has improved insomnia by self-report questionnaire. STUDY QUESTION: Is insomnia confirmed by polysomnography and is tryptophan availability a potential mechanism for treating insomnia? STUDY DESIGN: A placebo-controlled balanced crossover study with subjects older than 50 years and insomnia were randomized to placebo (2 weeks) or cherry juice (2 weeks) (240 mL 2 times/d) separated by a 2-week washout...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
Maja Benković, Ana Belščak-Cvitanović, Ingrid Bauman, Draženka Komes, Siniša Srečec
Due to abundance in carbohydrates, dietary fibres and bioactive compounds, as well as for its outspread and low prices, carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour has a great potential of use as a functional ingredient. The aim of this study was to analyse this potential by physical and chemical properties assessment of different particle sizes of carob flour with and without seeds. The influence of seed presence on physical and chemical properties of flour was also investigated. Seed presence in carob flour led to higher cohesivity and cake strength...
October 2017: Food Research International
Jiu Liang Xu, Jeong-Sook Shin, Soo-Kwon Park, Sungtaeg Kang, Soon-Chun Jeong, Jung-Kyung Moon, Yongsoo Choi
Wild soybeans are considered a potential resource for soybean domestication and an important source of genetic diversity for soybean crop improvement. Understanding metabolite-caused bioactivity differences between cultivated and wild soybeans is essential for designing a soybean with enhanced nutritional traits. In this study, the non-targeted metabolic profiling of 26 soybean varieties, 15 wild black soybeans (WBS) and 11 cultivated black soybeans (CBS), using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in combination with multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in 25 differential metabolites...
October 2017: Food Research International
George A Manganaris, Pavlina Drogoudi, Vlasios Goulas, Georgia Tanou, Egli C Georgiadou, George E Pantelidis, Konstantinos A Paschalidis, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Athanasios Manganaris
The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined...
August 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rahul Kumar, Gagan Deep, Michael F Wempe, Joseph Surek, Amit Kumar, Rajesh Agarwal, Chapla Agarwal
Neoplastic cells exhibit higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells; however, antioxidants based clinical trials have mostly failed. Another attractive therapeutic approach is to further increase the oxidative stress in cancer cells leading to cell death. Herein, we show that Procyanidin B2 3,3"-di-O-gallate (B2G2), the most active constituent of grape seed extract, treatment causes cell death in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells (LNCaP and 22Rv1) via increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Wei-Ming Chai, Mei-Zhen Lin, Ying-Xia Wang, Kai-Li Xu, Wen-Yang Huang, Dan-Dan Pan, Zheng-Rong Zou, Yi-Yuan Peng
In this study, the structure of proanthocyanidins purified from cherimoya (Annona squamosa) pericarp was analyzed by ESI-QTOF-MS and HPLC analyses. The result indicated that these compounds were procyanidin-type proanthocyanidins, consisting mainly of (epi)catechin units linked b y B-type interflavan bonds. The analyses of enzymology showed that the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase could be powerfully inhibited by the proanthocyanidins. Further researches on the inhibition mechanism demonstrated that they were reversible and competitive inhibitors with the KI value of 27...
October 2017: Food Research International
Kamilla Nunes Machado, Aline Alves de Freitas, Luzia Helena Cunha, André Augusto Gomes Faraco, Rodrigo Maia de Pádua, Fernão Castro Braga, Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares, Rachel Oliveira Castilho
Paullinia cupana is a plant native to Brazil that is widely used in traditional medicine as a physical and mental stimulant. It is also used worldwide to produce soft drinks. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of seven markers in guaraná by HPLC-PDA was developed, and extraction methods for the determination of methylxanthines and tannins were investigated. Quantified substances were theobromine, theophylline, caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins A2 and B2. Results confirmed the satisfactory selectivity and linearity (r(2)≥0...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yang Yang, Alastair Campbell Ritchie, Nicola M Everitt
Soft tissue injuries are among the most difficult orthopaedic conditions to treat, and regenerative medicine holds the promise of better treatments of these injuries. There is therefore a requirement for substrates and porous scaffolds which provide an appropriate chemical and mechanical environment for cell attachment, growth, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, cross-linked porous gelatin-chitosan (Gel/Chi) scaffolds with high porosity (>90%) were fabricated and their internal morphology, pore sizes and porosities were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and mercury intrusion porosimetry...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Thomas J Rowley, Benjamin F Bitner, Jason D Ray, Daniel R Lathen, Andrew T Smithson, Blake W Dallon, Chase J Plowman, Benjamin T Bikman, Jason M Hansen, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich, Liyun Ye, Sean F O'Keefe, Andrew P Neilson, Jeffery S Tessem
A hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β-cell dysfunction and the eventual loss of functional β-cell mass. Therefore, mechanisms that improve or preserve β-cell function could be used to improve the quality of life of individuals with T2D. Studies have shown that monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa flavanols have different effects on obesity, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that these cocoa flavanols may have beneficial effects on β-cell function. INS-1 832/13-derived β-cells and primary rat islets cultured with a monomeric catechin-rich cocoa flavanol fraction demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while cells cultured with total cocoa extract and with oligomeric or polymeric procyanidin-rich fraction demonstrated no improvement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Gregorio Peron, Stefania Sut, Anna Pellizzaro, Paola Brun, Dario Voinovich, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Cranberry procyanidins and quercetin derivatives are considered possible active compounds against urinary tract infections (UTIs). In this paper a small group (n=6) of healthy subjects consumed a product containing 360mg of cranberry extract (42.6% w/w of PAC-A and 14.6% w/w of PAC-B) and 200mg of quercetin. Urine samples were collected after 2,4,6,8, and 24h. The changes in antiadhesive properties against urophatogenic E. coli of the urinary output were determined in vitro and modification to urinary metabolome were studied by LC-MS...
August 26, 2017: Fitoterapia
Wei Wang, Renzong Chen, Jiye Wang
Prostatitis is one of the most prevalent problems in andriatry and urinary surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of procyanidin B2 (PB) on carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats. Results showed that PB significantly decreased the prostatic index and enhanced the body weight inhibited by carrageenan. Biochemical results revealed that PB significantly lowered the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and alleviated oxidative stress in serum. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in prostatic homogenate were also significantly decreased after PB treatment...
August 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Man Jia, Jian Yang, Yong-Xin Zhao, Zhao-Sheng Liu, Haji Akber Aisa
The topic in the present work is to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) in heterogeneous crowding surrounding for improving imprinting effect. For the first time, heterogeneous crowding surrounding was made up of a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of low molecular weight polyethene glycol (PEG) and high molecular weight polystyrene (PS). The MIP prepared in heterogeneous crowding surrounding against procyanidin B2 can display apparent imprinting effect (imprinting factor of 5.13) in the situation of difficult imprinting at single crowding surrounding or non-crowding surrounding...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
Peter Jörg Rohdewald
The review summarizes the effects of the standardized proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine (Pycnogenol(®)) in mild osteoarthritis (OA), stage 1 and 2. The extract exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Its phenolic acids as well as catechin and taxifolin are quickly absorbed. Active metabolites, produced by gut microbiota in the intestinal tract from oligomeric procyanidins, appear in blood 6 h following ingestion and remain for at least 14 h, providing a long-lasting flow of anti-inflammatory substances for relief of OA symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
Ron H Brown, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Wayne E Zeller, Laurie Reinhardt, Elisabetta Stringano, An Gea, Christopher Drake, Honorata M Ropiak, Christos Fryganas, Aina Ramsay, Emily E Hardcastle
Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires well-characterized, high-purity CTs. Sephadex LH-20 and Toyopearl HW-50F resins were compared for separating CTs from acetone/water extracts, and column fractions analyzed for flavan-3-ol subunits, mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and purity. Toyopearl HW-50F generated fractions with higher mDP values and better separation of procyanidins (PC) and prodelphinidins (PD) but required a prepurification step, needed more time for large scale purifications, and gave poorer recoveries...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kohki Takanashi, Manato Suda, Kiriko Matsumoto, Chisato Ishihara, Kazuya Toda, Koichiro Kawaguchi, Shogo Senga, Narumi Kobayashi, Mikihiro Ichikawa, Miyuki Katoh, Yasunao Hattori, Sei-Ichi Kawahara, Koji Umezawa, Hiroshi Fujii, Hidefumi Makabe
Since procyanidins (oligomeric catechin or epicatechin) were reported to exhibit health benefits, much attention has been paid to the synthesis of these compounds, especially those that are longer than trimers. In the present study, syntheses of cinnamtannin A3 (epicatechin pentamer), A4 (epicatechin hexamer), catechin tetramer, pentamer, arecatannin A2 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) and A3 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) were achieved. The key reaction was a Lewis acid mediated equimolar condensation...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuko Shimamura, Chikako Hirai, Yuka Sugiyama, Mio Utsumi, Akio Yanagida, Masatsune Murata, Norio Ohashi, Shuichi Masuda
In this study, we investigated the interaction between apple polyphenols (AP; mainly consisting of procyanidin (PC) from an apple) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and the inhibitory effects of AP on SEA activity. According to the degree of polymerization, in particularly highly polymerized PC (more than pentamer) strongly interacted with SEA. The binding affinity of AP with SEA molecules was determined using Biacore analysis. AP reacted with SEA immobilized on a Biacore sensor chip. After treatment with pepsin and pancreatin, to examine the changes of binding affinity of AP in intragastric conditions, AP maintained interaction with SEA...
August 7, 2017: Toxins
Linpeng Niu, Mengjiao Shao, Yuan Liu, Jinfeng Hu, Ruofan Li, Heran Xie, Lixiao Zhou, Lei Shi, Rong Zhang, Yujie Niu
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used to additives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints and foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that TiO2 NPs increased the risk of cancer and the mechanism might relate with oxidative stress. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural compound which has been demonstrated to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Our data show that GSPE prevents the changes of histopathology and biomarkers in heart, liver and kidney that occur in mice exposed to TiO2 NPs...
August 2, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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