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Proanthocyanidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#1
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428085/galloylation-of-polyphenols-alters-their-biological-activity
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Karas, Jitka Ulrichová, Kateřina Valentová
Polyphenols form one of the largest groups of natural compounds and possess a wide range of biological properties. These activities can be influenced by the galloyl moiety within their structures. A multitude of galloylated polyphenolic compounds occurs in nature, but galloylated phenols are also produced synthetically to influence their biological properties. This review provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about natural (galloylated catechins, theaflavins and proanthocyanidins, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, gallotannins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid and flavonols) and semisynthetic gallates with a focus on their biological activity and toxicity issues...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421329/characterization-of-two-tt2-type-myb-transcription-factors-regulating-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-tetraploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#3
Nan Lu, Marissa Roldan, Richard A Dixon
Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416338/separation-and-purification-of-polyphenols-from-red-wine-extracts-using-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography
#4
Yuanyuan Li, Lingxi Li, Yan Cui, Shuting Zhang, Baoshan Sun
Polyphenols are important compounds of red wine owing to their contribution to sensory properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with semi-preparative HPLC was used for large-scale separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts. With the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1-50-50), various oligomeric procyanidins including monomer catechin, epicatechin, dimers B1, B2; phenolic acids including coutaric acid, caftaric acid and other type of polyphenols were largely separated within 370min and most of these compounds presented high yields (0...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412456/dietary-proanthocyanidins-prevent-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-through-enhanced-repair-of-damaged-dna-dependent-activation-of-immune-sensitivity
#5
REVIEW
Santosh K Katiyar, Harish C Pal, Ram Prasad
Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400785/dihydroflavonol-4-reductase-genes-from-freesia-hybrida-play-important-and-partially-overlapping-roles-in-the-biosynthesis-of-flavonoids
#6
Yueqing Li, Xingxue Liu, Xinquan Cai, Xiaotong Shan, Ruifang Gao, Song Yang, Taotao Han, Shucai Wang, Li Wang, Xiang Gao
Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in both anthocyanin biosynthesis and proanthocyanidin accumulation. In many plant species, it is encoded by a gene family, however, how the different copies evolve either to function in different tissues or at different times or to specialize in the use of different but related substrates needs to be further investigated, especially in monocot plants. In this study, a total of eight putative DFR-like genes were firstly cloned from Freesia hybrida...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395819/evaluation-of-the-release-profile-stability-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-proanthocyanidin-rich-cinnamon-cinnamomum-zeylanicum-extract-co-encapsulated-with-%C3%AE-tocopherol-by-spray-chilling
#7
Fabrício L Tulini, Volnei B Souza, Marcelo Thomazini, Marluci P Silva, Adna P Massarioli, Severino M Alencar, Eliria M J A Pallone, Maria I Genovese, Carmen S Favaro-Trindade
Cinnamon has many health improving compounds such as proanthocyanidins, which also have potential for the prevention of damages caused by diabetes. Similarly, α-tocopherol is a natural antioxidant with important role on protection of fatty acids in membranes and lipoproteins. However, the addition of antioxidants in food may result in interaction with food matrix, low stability and unpleasant taste. In the present study, a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) was co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol into solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by spray chilling...
May 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392021/encapsulation-of-grape-seed-extract-in-polylactide-microcapsules-for-sustained-bioactivity-and-time-dependent-release-in-dental-material-applications
#8
Mostafa Yourdkhani, Ariene Arcas Leme-Kraus, Berdan Aydin, Ana Karina Bedran-Russo, Scott R White
OBJECTIVE: To sustain the bioactivity of proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts via encapsulation within biodegradable polymer microcapsules. METHODS: Polylactide microcapsules containing grape seed extract (GSE) were manufactured using a combination of double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Microcapsule morphology, size distribution, and cross-section were examined via scanning electron microscopy. UV-vis measurements were carried out to evaluate the core loading and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules...
April 6, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382519/variability-in-the-production-of-tannins-and-other-polyphenols-in-cell-cultures-of-12-nordic-plant-species
#9
Jussi Suvanto, Liisa Nohynek, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heiko Rischer, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä
The polyphenol profiles of 18 cell cultures from 12 plant species were screened. The detected polyphenol fingerprints were diverse and differed from polyphenol profiles typically found in corresponding plant species. Cell cultures originating from 12 different plant species growing or grown in the Nordic countries were screened for their ability to synthesize polyphenols to assess their suitability for future studies and applications. The focus was on plant families Rosaceae and Ericaceae. On average, the Rosaceae cultures were the most efficient to produce hydrolysable tannins and the Ericaceae cultures were the most efficient to produce proanthocyanidins...
April 5, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373675/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-supplementation-reduces-adipocyte-size-and-increases-adipocyte-number-in-obese-rats
#10
A Pascual-Serrano, A Arola-Arnal, S Suárez-Garcia, F I Bravo, M Suárez, L Arola, C Bladé
OBJECTIVES: White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371137/proanthocyanidin-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-oxidative-liver-damage-through-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA%C3%AE-tlr-4-pathway
#11
Nagla A El-Shitany, Basma Eid
Although cisplatin (CIS) is a highly effective anticancer drug, hepatotoxicity is one of the most common adverse effects associated with its use. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are suggested to be key factors in the pathophysiology of CIS-induced acute liver damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effect of proanthocyanidin (PRO) against CIS-induced acute hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into four groups: 1, Control; 2, PRO; 3, CIS; and 4, PRO + CIS...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368593/tannins-and-tannin-related-derivatives-enhance-the-pseudo-halogenating-activity-of-lactoperoxidase
#12
Jana Gau, Martine Prévost, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Menyhárt-Botond Sarosi, Steffen Rodewald, Jürgen Arnhold, Jörg Flemmig
Several hydrolyzable tannins, proanthocyanidins, tannin derivatives, and a tannin-rich plant extract of tormentil rhizome were tested for their potential to regenerate the (pseudo-)halogenating activity, i.e., the oxidation of SCN(-) to hypothiocyanite (-)OSCN, of lactoperoxidase (LPO) after hydrogen peroxide-mediated enzyme inactivation. Measurements were performed using 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid in the presence of tannins and related substances in order to determine kinetic parameters and to trace the LPO-mediated (-)OSCN formation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366000/comparison-between-malolactic-fermentation-container-and-barrel-toasting-effects-on-phenolic-volatile-and-sensory-profile-of-red-wines
#13
María Reyes González-Centeno, Kleopatra Chira, Pierre-Louis Teissedre
Ellagitannin and anthocyanin profiles, woody volatile composition and sensory properties of wines in which malolactic fermentation (MLF) took place in barrels or stainless steel tanks, have been compared after 12 months of barrel ageing. Three different barrel toastings were evaluated. Barrel-fermented wines generally presented 1.2-fold higher total phenolics, whereas tank-fermented wines exhibited 1.1 and 1.2-fold greater total proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin contents, respectively. Concerning ellagitannin composition, barrel toasting effect seemed to be more important than differences due to MLF-container...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365481/oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-released-from-dentin-induce-regenerative-dental-pulp-cell-response
#14
Daniel Kulakowski, Ariene A Leme-Kraus, Joo-Won Nam, James McAlpine, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli, Sriram Ravindran, Ana K Bedran-Russo
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are plant-derived, multifunctional compounds that possess high interactivity with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The documented affinity of PACs for type-I collagen is directly correlated with their structural features and degree of polymerization. In this investigation, centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used to sequentially deplete less active monomeric and polymeric PACs from a crude Pinus massoniana bark extract to create refined mixtures enriched in oligomeric PACs...
March 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353678/assessment-of-lipophilicity-indices-derived-from-retention-behavior-of-antioxidant-compounds-in-rp-hplc
#15
Ioana Anamaria Sima, Agata Kot-Wasik, Andrzej Wasik, Jacek Namieśnik, Costel Sârbu
Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography was employed in order to evaluate the lipophilicity of antioxidant compounds from different classes, such as phenolic acids, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, stilbenes, xantonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The retention time of each compound was measured using five different HPLC columns: RP18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDBC8), C16-Amide (Discovery RP-Amide C16), CN100 (Saulentechnik, Lichrosphere), and pentafluorophenyl (Phenomenex, Kinetex PFP), and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (0...
March 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348066/myb115-and-myb134-transcription-factors-regulate-proanthocyanidin-synthesis-and-structure
#16
Amy Midori James, Dawei Ma, Robin D Mellway, Andreas Gesell, Kazuko Yoshida, Vincent Walker, Lan T Tran, Don Stewart, Michael Reichelt, Jussi Suvanto, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Jonathan Gershenzon, Armand Seguin, C Peter Constabel
The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD-40 proteins which activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar, MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression...
March 27, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345490/challenges-and-complexity-of-functionality-evaluation-of-flavan-3-ol-derivatives
#17
Akiko Saito
Flavan-3-ol derivatives are common plant-derived bioactive compounds. In particular, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate shows various moderate biological activities without severe toxicity, and its health-promoting effects have been widely studied because it is a main ingredient in green tea and is commercially available at low cost. Although various biologically active flavan-3-ol derivatives are present as minor constituents in plants as well as in green tea, their biological activities have yet to be revealed, mainly due to their relative unavailability...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344907/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-protects-lymphocytes-against-histone-induced-apoptosis
#18
Ping Chang, Bing Mo, David M Cauvi, Ying Yu, Zhenhui Guo, Jian Zhou, Qiong Huang, Qitao Yan, Guiming Chen, Zhanguo Liu
Apoptosis of lymphocytes is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis in sepsis. Our previous report showed that histones, nuclear proteins released from damaged or dying cells in sepsis, can mediate lymphocyte apoptosis via mitochondria damage. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a natural substance with protective properties against oxidative stress, plays a vital role in cell and mitochondria protection. We thus hypothesized that GSPE may play a protective role in histone-induced lymphocyte apoptosis through its anti-oxidative properties...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342857/antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-methanolic-stem-bark-extract-of-antrocaryon-klaineanum-pierre-anacardiaceae-in-mice-and-rats
#19
Annie Laure Magne Fongang, Edwige Laure Nguemfo, Yolande Djouatsa Nangue, Calvin Bogning Zangueu, Yannick Fouokeng, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze, Eulogio José Llorent-Martínez, Maria Luisa Fernández-de Córdova, Alain Bertrand Dongmo, Wolfgang Vierling
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Antrocaryon klaineanum is used by traditional healers to treat many disorders including pain and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of methanol extract of A. klaineanum in mice and rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was performed to establish the chromatographic fingerprint and to identify various chemical components of the plant extract...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337876/the-efficacy-of-proanthocyanidins-and-secnidazole-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis-after-scaling-and-root-planing-therapy
#20
M Li, R Li, Q Jin, J Pang, Z Xu
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effect of the systemic antibiotic therapy of proanthocyanidins and secnidazole on periodontitis. Seventy-five subjects with chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into two treatment groups (secnidazole or proanthocyanidins) and one placebo control group (25 cases each). Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (BI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were carried out at baseline, post-treatment and 3 months after treatment...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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