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Proanthocyanidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610734/impact-of-post-harvest-ozone-treatments-on-the-skin-phenolic-extractability-of-red-winegrapes-cv-barbera-and-nebbiolo-vitis-vinifera-l
#1
Maria Alessandra Paissoni, Susana Río Segade, Simone Giacosa, Fabrizio Torchio, Francesco Cravero, Vasileios Englezos, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Cristian Carboni, Vincenzo Gerbi, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Luca Rolle
Recently the use of ozone as sanitizing agent has been proposed on winegrapes in order to control mycobiota after harvest. The aim of this work was to investigate possible indirect physico-chemical effects of ozone treatment on berry skin phenolic composition and extractability. Vitis vinifera L. cv Nebbiolo and Barbera, chosen for their different anthocyanin profiles, were post-harvest treated for 24 and 72h with gaseous ozone (30μL/L). Skin anthocyanin and flavanol extractability was assessed during maceration (6, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 240h) using a wine-like solution...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610726/the-metabolomic-profile-of-red-non-v-vinifera-genotypes
#2
Silvia Ruocco, Marco Stefanini, Jan Stanstrup, Daniele Perenzoni, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek
Wild American genotypes represent an important part of the Vitis germplasm in relation to grape improvement. Today, these genotypes are currently involved in breeding programmes in order to introgress traits resistant to pests and diseases in V. vinifera cultivars. Nevertheless, the metabolic composition of their grapes has not been widely investigated. This study aimed to explore in detail the metabolomic profile in terms of simple phenolic, proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and lipid compounds in two hybrids and five American genotypes...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606222/association-of-flavonoid-rich-foods-and-flavonoids-with-risk-of-all-cause-mortality
#3
Kerry L Ivey, Majken K Jensen, Jonathan M Hodgson, A Heather Eliassen, Aedín Cassidy, Eric B Rimm
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602091/assessing-spatial-variability-of-grape-skin-flavonoids-at-the-vineyard-scale-based-on-plant-water-status-mapping
#4
Luca Brillante, Johann Martinez-Luscher, Runze Yu, Cassandra M Plank, Luis A Sanchez, Terrence Bates, Charles Brenneman, A Oberholster, Sahap Kaan Kurtural
Plant water stress affects grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry composition and is variable in space due to variations in the physical environment at the growing site. We monitored the natural variability of grapevine water stress by stem water potential (ψstem) and leaf gas exchange in an equi-distant grid in a commercial vineyard. Spatial differences were measured and related to topographical variation by modeling. Geospatial analysis and clustering allowed to differentiate the vineyard block into two distinct zones having severe and moderate water stress where it varied by 0...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597005/acid-etching-with-modified-phosphoric-acid-to-increase-the-longevity-of-the-bonded-interface
#5
Alessandro D Loguercio, Pamela Malaquias, Fabiane Pereira Dos Santos, Viviane Hass, Rodrigo Stanislawczuk, Suellen Nogueira Linares Lima, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Alessandra Reis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of three phosphoric acids modified with chlorhexidine (CHX), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or proanthocyanidins (PRO) and one conventional phosphoric acid (CON) on the immediate (24 h; IM) and 1-year composite-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL), using an etch-and-rinse adhesive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A flat dentin surface was exposed on 28 caries-free extracted molars, which were then randomly assigned to four groups (n = 7)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590446/fruits-of-black-chokeberry-aronia-melanocarpa-in-the-prevention-of-chronic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Tunde Jurikova, Jiri Mlcek, Sona Skrovankova, Daniela Sumczynski, Jiri Sochor, Irena Hlavacova, Lukas Snopek, Jana Orsavova
In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the utilization of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) represents a lesser known fruit species utilized mainly as juices, purees, jams, jellies and wine, as important food colorants or nutritional supplements. The fruit is valued as a great source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols), particularly cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside, as well as (-)-epicatechin units...
June 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590026/efficient-approach-for-the-extraction-of-proanthocyanidins-from-cinnamomum-longepaniculatum-leaves-using-ultrasonic-irradiation-and-an-evaluation-of-their-inhibition-activity-on-digestive-enzymes-and-antioxidant-activity-in-vitro
#7
Zaizhi Liu, Kailin Mo, Shimin Fei, Yuangang Zu, Lei Yang
Proanthocyanidins were separated for the first time from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves. An experiment-based extraction strategy was used to research the efficiency of an ultrasound-assisted method for proanthocyanidins extraction. The Plackett-Burman design results revealed that the ultrasonication time, ultrasonic power and liquid/solid ratio were the most significant parameters among the six variables in the extraction process. Upon further optimization of the Box-Behnken design, the optimal conditions were obtained as follows: extraction temperature, 100°C; ethanol concentration, 70%; pH 5; ultrasonication power, 660 W; ultrasonication time, 44 min; liquid/solid ratio, 20 mL/g...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589255/potential-anti-cholinesterase-and-%C3%AE-site-amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving-enzyme-1-inhibitory-activities-of-cornuside-and-gallotannins-from-cornus-officinalis-fruits
#8
Himanshu Kumar Bhakta, Chan Hum Park, Takako Yokozawa, Takashi Tanaka, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Cholinesterase (ChE) and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors are promising agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the inhibitory activity of seven compounds isolated from the fruits of Cornus officinalis, cornuside, polymeric proanthocyanidins, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, tellimagrandin I, tellimagrandin II, and isoterchebin, against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and BACE1...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587991/controlled-water-deficit-during-ripening-affects-proanthocyanidin-synthesis-concentration-and-composition-in-cabernet-sauvignon-grape-skins
#9
Alejandro Cáceres-Mella, M Inmaculada Talaverano, Luis Villalobos-González, Camila Ribalta-Pizarro, Claudio Pastenes
The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day(-1); T2: 1.8 mm day(-1) and T3: 0.3 mm day(-1)...
May 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587132/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-a-polymeric-proanthocyanidin-from-serjania-schiedeana
#10
David Osvaldo Salinas-Sánchez, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Veronica Sánchez-Sánchez, Alejandro Zamilpa, Manasés González-Cortazar, Jaime Tortoriello, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz
The ethyl acetate extract (SsAcOEt) from Serjania schiedeana, select fractions (F-6, F-12, F-13, F-14), and one isolated compound, were evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) ear edema and kaolin/carrageenan (KC)-induced monoarthritis assays. SsEtOAc induced edema inhibition of 90% (2.0 mg/ear), fractions showed activity within a range of 67-89%. Due to the fact F-14 showed the highest effect, it was separated, yielding a proanthocyanidin-type called epicatechin-(4β → 8)-epicatechin-(4β → 8, 2β → O → 7) epicatechin (ETP)...
May 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585285/the-synergistic-potential-of-various-teas-herbs-and-therapeutic-drugs-in-health-improvement-a-review
#11
REVIEW
F Malongane, L J McGaw, F N Mudau
Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains L-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit anti-microbial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578061/effects-of-the-combination-of-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-proanthocyanidins-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-rats
#12
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Eunice Molinar-Toribio, María Pilar Almajano, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Núria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Maria Rosa Nogués, Josep Lluís Torres
ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other pathologies that involve low-grade inflammation. They have recently been shown to exert complementary functional effects with proanthocyanidins. As the reduction of health-promoting gut bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been linked to a number of alterations in the host, the aim of this study was to determine whether PUFAs and proanthocyanidins also cooperate in maintaining well-balanced microbiota...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578033/influence-of-omega-3-pufas-on-the-metabolism-of-proanthocyanidins-in-rats
#13
Eunice Molinar-Toribio, Sara Ramos-Romero, Elisabet Fuguet, Núria Taltavull, Lucía Méndez, Marta Romeu, Isabel Medina, Josep Lluís Torres, Jara Pérez-Jiménez
Studies of the bioavailability of proanthocyanidins usually consider them independently of other dietary constituents, while there is a tendency in the field of functional foods towards the combination of different bioactive compounds in a single product. This study examined the long-term effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin on the metabolic fate of grape proanthocyanidins. For this, female adult Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed (18weeks) with a standard diet supplemented or not with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (1:1, 16...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572932/comparison-of-phenolic-content-and-antioxidant-activities-of-millet-varieties-grown-in-different-locations-in-sri-lanka
#14
Disna Kumari, Terrence Madhujith, Anoma Chandrasekara
Soluble and bound phenolic compounds were extracted from different varieties of millet types namely, finger millet, foxtail, and proso millet cultivated at dry and intermediate climatic zones in Sri Lanka. The extracts were examined for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and proanthocyanidin content (PC). The antioxidant activities were meassured by reducing power (RP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating ability (FICA), and using a β carotene linoleate model system...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562777/proteic-and-phenolics-compounds-contents-in-bacupari-callus-cultured-with-glutamine-and-nitrogen-sources
#15
H P Marques, S Barbosa, D A Nogueira, M H Santos, B R Santos, P R Santos-Filho
In this study was evaluated the influence of glutamine supplementation on the endogenous content of amino acids, proteins, total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Bacupari callus. The explants were inoculated in MS medium, MS with half concentration of the nitrogen salts (MS½) and nitrogen-free MS, supplemented with glutamine (5, 10, 30 and 60mM) named as Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and Gln60. Amino acids and proteins were analyzed after 20, 80 and 140 days and the secondary metabolites on the 140th day...
May 25, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559896/climate-influences-the-content-and-chemical-composition-of-foliar-tannins-in-green-and-senesced-tissues-of-quercus-rubra
#16
Sara M Top, Caroline M Preston, Jeffrey S Dukes, Nishanth Tharayil
Environmental stresses not only influence production of plant metabolites but could also modify their resorption during leaf senescence. The production-resorption dynamics of polyphenolic tannins, a class of defense compound whose ecological role extends beyond tissue senescence, could amplify the influence of climate on ecosystem processes. We studied the quantity, chemical composition, and tissue-association of tannins in green and freshly-senesced leaves of Quercus rubra exposed to different temperature (Warming and No Warming) and precipitation treatments (Dry, Ambient, Wet) at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Massachusetts, USA...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552105/acacia-karroo-hayne-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-an-important-medicinal-plant-in-southern-africa
#17
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Acacia karroo (A. karroo) has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of southern Africa for several centuries. The potential of A. karroo as herbal medicine, its associated phytochemistry and biological activities are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that A. karroo is traditionally used to treat or manage 32 and five human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as colds, diarrhoea, dysentery, flu, malaria, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), wounds, and also as colic and ethnoveterinary medicine...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551265/comprehensive-phenolic-composition-analysis-and-evaluation-of-yak-kong-soybean-glycine-max-for-the-prevention-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Charles C Lee, Stéphanie Dudonné, Pascal Dubé, Yves Desjardins, Jong Hun Kim, Ji Seung Kim, Jong-Eun Kim, Jung Han Yoon Park, Ki Won Lee, Chang Yong Lee
Yak-Kong (YK) (Glycine max), a small black soybean cultivar with a green embryo, was evaluated for functional constituents with a focus on atherosclerosis prevention. In comparison to common yellow and black soybean cultivars, YK contains significantly higher concentrations of antioxidants, particularly in its seed coat. A comprehensive phenolic composition analysis revealed that proanthocyanidins were the major phenolic group in YK. In contrast to other proanthocyanidin-rich foods, YK was rich in bioavailable proanthocyanidins (with a degree of polymerization ≤3) specifically with A-type dimers...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549152/mdsnrk1-1-interacts-with-mdjaz18-to-regulate-sucrose-induced-anthocyanin-and-proanthocyanidin-accumulation-in-apple
#19
Xiao-Juan Liu, Xiu-Hong An, Xin Liu, Da-Gang Hu, Xiao-Fei Wang, Chun-Xiang You, Yu-Jin Hao
Sugars induce anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. As a conserved energy sensor, SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) is involved in sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which SnRK1 regulates the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) in response to sucrose in plants is not clear. In this study, it was found that MdSnRK1.1 interacted with MdJAZ18 protein which acts as a repressor in the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. MdSnRK1.1 then phosphorylated MdJAZ18 to facilitate its 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, which released MdbHLH3 thereby activating the expression of the regulatory and structural genes, thus finally promoting the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and PAs...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548949/dietary-grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-inactivate-regulatory-t-cells-by-promoting-ner-dependent-dna-repair-in-dendritic-cells-in-uvb-exposed-skin
#20
Mudit Vaid, Ram Prasad, Tripti Singh, Santosh K Katiyar
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and depletion of these Treg cells alleviates immunosuppression and inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we determined the effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the development and activity of UVB-induced Treg cells. C3H/HeN mice fed a GSPs (0.5%, w/w)-supplemented or control diet were exposed to UVB (150 mJ/cm2) radiation, sensitized to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and sacrificed 5 days later. FACS analysis indicated that dietary GSPs decrease the numbers of UVB-induced Treg cells...
May 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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