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Proanthocyanidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335581/biosynthesis-of-oligomeric-anthocyanins-from-grape-skin-extracts
#1
Jin-Woo Hwang, Sithranga Boopathy Natarajan, Yon-Suk Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jae Woong Lee, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
We synthesized oligomeric anthocyanins from grape skin-derived monomeric anthocyanins such as anthocyanidin and proanthocyanidin by a fermentation technique using Aspergillus niger, crude enzymes and glucosidase. The biosyntheses of the oligomeric anthocyanins carried out by the conventional method using Aspergillus niger and crude enzymes were confirmed by ESI-MS. The molecular weight of the synthesized anthocyanin oligomers was determined using MALDI-MS. The yield of anthocyanin oligomers using crude enzymes was higher than that of the synthesis using Aspergillus fermentation...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335521/gene-transformation-induced-changes-in-chemical-functional-group-features-and-molecular-structure-conformation-in-alfalfa-plants-co-expressing-lc-bhlh-and-c1-myb-transcriptive-flavanoid-regulatory-genes-effects-of-single-gene-and-two-gene-insertion
#2
Ravindra G Heendeniya, Peiqiang Yu
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes transformed with Lc-bHLH and Lc transcription genes were developed with the intention of stimulating proanthocyanidin synthesis in the aerial parts of the plant. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the effect of single-gene and two-gene transformation on chemical functional groups and molecular structure changes in these plants. The objective of this study was to use advanced molecular spectroscopy with multivariate chemometrics to determine chemical functional group intensity and molecular structure changes in alfalfa plants when co-expressing Lc-bHLH and C1-MYB transcriptive flavanoid regulatory genes in comparison with non-transgenic (NT) and AC Grazeland (ACGL) genotypes...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329408/effects-of-spray-drying-parameters-on-in-vitro-functional-properties-of-camu-camu-myrciaria-dubia-mc-vaugh-a-typical-amazonian-fruit
#3
Alice Fujita, Volnei Brito Souza, Luis Daniel Daza, Carmen Silvia Fávaro-Trindade, Daniel Granato, Maria Inés Genovese
Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds but its shelf life is rather short. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of inlet air temperature (T) and concentration (C) of maltodextrin and arabic gum on the spray-drying process of commercial camu-camu pulps (São Paulo and Manaus). Moisture, solubility, total phenolics (TP), ascorbic acid (AA), and proanthocyanidins (PAC) contents, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the powders (FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu's reducing capacity were measured)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322296/de-novo-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-leaf-transcriptomes-of-diverse-condensed-tannin-containing-lines-of-underutilized-psophocarpus-tetragonolobus-l-dc
#4
Vinayak Singh, Ridhi Goel, Veena Pande, Mehar Hasan Asif, Chandra Sekhar Mohanty
Condensed tannin (CT) or proanthocyanidin (PA) is a unique group of phenolic metabolite with high molecular weight with specific structure. It is reported that, the presence of high-CT in the legumes adversely affect the nutrients in the plant and impairs the digestibility upon consumption by animals. Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) is one of the promising underutilized legume with high protein and oil-content. One of the reasons for its underutilization is due to the presence of CT. Transcriptome sequencing of leaves of two diverse CT-containing lines of P...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317733/antioxidant-activities-and-structural-characterization-of-flavonol-o-glycosides-from-seeds-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume
#5
Hideto Kimura, Satoshi Ogawa, Tomoe Ishihara, Mahoko Maruoka, Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
We attempted to evaluate the contents and distribution of antioxidants in the whole seeds, seed shells, and peeled seeds of the Japanese horse chestnut. The seed shells exhibited the highest antioxidant activities due to the presence of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins as we have reported recently. On the other hand, the peeled seeds predominantly contained flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol at a high level of 66.7% of total polyphenols, also contributing to the predominant antioxidant activities...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304376/an-integrated-analysis-based-on-transcriptome-and-proteome-reveals-deastringency-related-genes-in-cpcna-persimmon
#6
Wenxing Chen, Yalou Xiong, Liqing Xu, Qinglin Zhang, Zhengrong Luo
Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidins (PAs) during development. PAs cause a dry or puckering sensation due to its astringency. Pollination constant and non-astringent (PCNA) persimmon fruits can lose astringency during fruit ripening. However, little is known about the mechanism of natural de-astringency of Chinese PCNA (CPCNA). To gain insight into the molecular events of CPCNA natural de-astringency, we used mRNA-seq and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis to measure changes in genes and proteins expression at two key stages of natural astringency removal (i...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301607/green-tea-proanthocyanidins-cause-impairment-of-hormone-regulated-larval-development-and-reproductive-fitness-via-repression-of-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-insulin-like-peptide-and-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-stricto
#7
Jackson M Muema, Steven G Nyanjom, James M Mutunga, Sospeter N Njeru, Joel L Bargul
Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299441/the-r2r3myb-vvmybpa1-from-grape-reprograms-the-phenylpropanoid-pathway-in-tobacco-flowers
#8
Valentina Passeri, Stefan Martens, Elisabete Carvalho, Chantal Bianchet, Francesco Damiani, Francesco Paolocci
This work shows that, in tobacco, the ectopic expression of VvMYBPA1 , a grape regulator of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, up- or down-regulates different branches of the phenylproanoid pathway, in a structure-specific fashion. Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids of paramount importance for animal and human diet. Research interest increasingly tilts towards generating crops enriched with these health-promoting compounds. Flavonoids synthesis is regulated by the MBW transcriptional complex, made of R2R3MYB, bHLH and WD40 proteins, with the MYB components liable for channeling the complex towards specific branches of the pathway...
March 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294333/permeation-characteristics-of-hypericin-across-caco-2-monolayers-in-the-presence-of-single-flavonoids-defined-flavonoid-mixtures-or-hypericum-extract-matrix
#9
Sheela Verjee, Olaf Kelber, Christiane Kolb, Heba Abdel-Aziz, Veronika Butterweck
OBJECTIVES: The major aim of this study was to get a detailed understanding of the exposure and fate of hypericin in the Caco-2 cell system when combined with various flavonoids, mixtures of flavonoids or Hypericum perforatum extract matrix (STW3-VI). METHODS: The permeation characteristics of hypericin in the absence or presence of quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin were tested. Hypericin (5 μm) was mixed with single flavonoids (20 μm) or with different flavonoid combinations (each flavonoid 4 or 10 μm, total flavonoid concentration: 20 μm)...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294148/mitigation-effect-of-proanthocyanidin-on-secondary-heart-injury-in-rats-caused-by-mechanical-trauma
#10
Shuo Ma, Chong Chen, Tingting Cao, Yue Bi, Jicheng Zhou, Xintao Li, Deqin Yu, Shuzhuang Li
Multiple organ dysfunctional syndrome secondary to mechanical trauma (MT) has attracted considerable research attention. The heart is one of the most important organs of the body, and secondary cardiac insufficiency caused by MT seriously affects the quality of life. This study aims to investigate whether proanthocyanidin can alleviate myocardial injury and improve heart function in the process of MT leading to secondary cardiac insufficiency. Noble-Collip drum wasused to prepare MT model in rats. And myocardial apoptosis index was calculated after TUNEL staining...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292195/phytotoxic-activity-and-chemical-composition-of-cassia-absus-seeds-and-aerial-parts
#11
I Zribi, H Sbai, N Ghezal, G Richard, D Trisman, M L Fauconnier, R Haouala
The present study was conducted to assess the phytotoxic potential and the phytochemical composition of Cassia absus. Aqueous extracts caused significant reduction in root growth of Lactuca sativa. Seed extract was more effective than aerial part extract. Successive extractions of this plant were performed using solvents with increasing polarities. The methanolic seed extract exerted strong phytotoxic effect on seedling growth, followed by petroleum ether extract of the aerial part. The phytochemical investigation showed that among the organic extracts, methanol extracts of seeds and aerial parts contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins...
March 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291348/isolation-of-native-proanthocyanidins-from-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-and-other-fruits-in-aqueous-buffer
#12
Jean-Marc Brillouet, Hélène Fulcrand, Stéphanie Carrillo, Laurent Rouméas, Charles Romieu
Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) present in strategic tissues of fruits (outer pericarp and vascular bundles) were known as short polymers of flavan-3-ols. A pretreatment of the plant material (fruits from the grapevine, persimmon) with buffered ascorbic acid and Triton X-100 followed by acetone extraction provided native white fully depolymerizable tannins. Tannins are usually extracted with aqueous solvents and further purified, although artifactual oxidations occur, altering their physicochemical characteristics...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288871/flavan-3-ols-and-proanthocyanidins-from-limonium-brasiliense-inhibit-the-adhesion-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-to-epithelial-host-cells-by-interaction-with-gingipains
#13
Angelo de Oliveira Caleare, Andreas Hensel, João Carlos Palazzo Mello, Andressa Blainski Pinha, Gean Pier Panizzon, Matthias Lechtenberg, Frank Petereit, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a pathogen strongly involved in chronic and aggressive forms of periodontitis. Natural products, mainly polyphenols, have been described for advanced treatment of periodontitis by inhibition of the bacterial adhesion of P. gingivalis to the epithelial host cells. An acetone:water extract (LBE) from the rhizomes of Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze was tested under in vitro conditions for potential antiadhesive effects against P. gingivalis to human KB cells and for inhibition of the proteolytic activity of gingipains, the main virulence factor of P...
March 11, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283930/modeling-of-the-nanoparticles-absorption-under-a-gastrointestinal-simulated-ambient-condition
#14
Katherina Fernández, Marlene Roeckel, Edgardo Canales, Javiera Dumont
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) have several bioactivities, but they are unstable in the digestive tract and possess low bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation stabilizes these compounds for oral administration. The intestinal absorption of grape seed and skin extracts, and the poly-lactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles loaded with such extracts was modeled, taking into consideration physicochemical process parameters, evaluating the PAs concentration profile in the human small intestine. Density (ρ), solubility, viscosity (μ), diffusion coefficient (D), and the global mass transfer coefficient (K) for both substrates were estimated, simulating their passing from the intestine into the blood at 37°C...
March 10, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271494/characterization-of-anti-inflammatory-effect-and-possible-mechanism-of-action-of-tibouchina-granulosa
#15
Andrea P Sobrinho, Alan S Minho, Leide L C Ferreira, Gabriel R Martins, Fabio Boylan, Patricia D Fernandes
OBJECTIVES: Tibouchina granulosa, popularly known as 'quaresmeira', belong to a genus widely used in the traditional medicine as infusions from their leaves. Other species of Tibouchina are used as antibacterial, antioxidant or antileishmanial. In this work, our objectives were to investigate the biological effects of T. granulosa in models of acute inflammation. METHODS: Chemical analysis showed the presence of proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. Infusions from leaves of T...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270376/antioxidants-attenuate-oxidative-stress-induced-hidden-blood-loss-in-rats
#16
Hong Qian, Tao Yuan, Jian Tong, Wen Shuang Sun, Jiajia Jin, Wen Xiang Chen, Jia Meng, Nirong Bao, Jianning Zhao
Hidden blood loss (HBL), commonly seen post total knee or hip arthroplasty, causes postoperative anemia even after reinfusion or blood transfusion based on the visible blood loss volume. Recent studies demonstrated oxidative stress might be involved in HBL. However, whether antioxidants proanthocyanidin (PA) or hydrogen water (HW) can ameliorate HBL remains poorly understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of PA and HW on HBL. Rat HBL model was established through administration of linoleic acid with or without treatment of PA or HW...
March 8, 2017: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257091/tentative-characterization-of-polyphenolic-compounds-in-the-male-flowers-of-phoenix-dactylifera-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-and-dft
#17
Ridha Ben Said, Arafa I Hamed, Usam A Mahalel, Abdullah Sulaiman Al-Ayed, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Jaroslaw Moldoch, Wieslaw Oleszek, Anna Stochmal
Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255171/mcmyb12-transcription-factors-co-regulate-proanthocyanidin-and-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-malus-crabapple
#18
Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Zhen-Yun Han, Ting-Ting Song, Jin-Yan Li, Ya-Ru Wang, Yun-Cong Yao
The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to their promoters, but to be only partially responsible for regulating PAs biosynthetic genes...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253178/the-effect-of-proanthocyanidins-and-chlorhexidine-on-the-bond-strength-of-glass-fiber-posts-to-root-dentin
#19
Carla Cecilia Alandia-Román, Sergio Augusto Freitas Vincenti, Francisca Daniele Jardilino Silami, Renata Espíndola Silveira, Gustavo Col Dos Santos Pinto, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza
In this study, the influence of different irrigant solutions applied before cementation on the bond strength (BS) of glass fiber posts to root dentin was evaluated. Thirty endodontically treated maxillary canines of similar length were selected and divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant solution used before post cementation: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; control), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), or a 6.5% grape seed extract (GSE) cross-linking agent. After cementation of the posts, the roots were transversely sectioned to create 2 discs (2 mm) for each of the root thirds: coronal, middle, and apical...
March 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246402/grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-prevent-irradiation-induced-differentiation-of-human-lung-fibroblasts-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
XiaoHong Yang, Tao Liu, Bo Chen, Fangqin Wang, Qunfang Yang, XiaoHong Chen
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a long-term adverse effect of curative radiotherapy. The accumulation of myofibroblasts in fibroblastic foci is a pivotal feature of RILF. In the study, we found the inhibitory effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on irradiation-induced differentiation of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL1). To explore the mechanism by which GSPs inhibit fibroblast differentiation, we measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dynamics, glycolysis and the signaling molecules involved in fibroblast transdifferentiation...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
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