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Proanthocyanidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926584/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-anthelmintic-effects-of-procyanidins-in-c-elegans
#1
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925252/the-binary-and-tertiary-complex-based-on-short-chain-glucan-and-proanthocyanidins-for-oral-insulin-delivery
#2
Na Ji, Yan Hong, Zhengbiao Gu, Li Cheng, Zhaofeng Li, Caiming Li
The present study was performed to investigate binary and tertiary nanocomposites between short-chain glucan (SCG) and proanthocyanidins (PAC) for the oral delivery of insulin. There was a large decrease in fluorescence intensity of insulin in the presence of SGC or the combination of SGC with PAC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the binary and tertiary nanocomposites were synthesized due to the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The insulin entrapped in the nanocomposites was in an amorphous state confirmed by X-ray diffraction...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924329/a-computational-tool-for-accelerated-analysis-of-oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-in-plants
#3
Mengliang Zhang, Jianghao Sun, Pei Chen
A computational tool was developed to facilitate proanthocyanidin analysis using data collected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-HRAM-MS). Both identification and semi-quantitation of proanthocyanidins can be achieved by the developed computational tool. It can extract proanthocyanidin chromatographic peaks, deconvolute the isotopic patterns of A-type, B-type, and multi-charged proanthocyanidins ions, and predict proanthocyanidin structures...
March 2017: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914789/phytochemical-constituents-health-benefits-and-industrial-applications-of-grape-seeds-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate...
September 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906013/novel-insights-into-the-inhibitory-effect-and-mechanism-of-proanthocyanidins-from-pyracantha-fortuneana-fruit-on-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#5
Mankun Wei, Wei-Ming Chai, Qin Yang, Rui Wang, Yiyuan Peng
Proanthocyanidins were extracted from Pyracantha fortuneana fruit (PFF), and their structures were investigated through (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The results showed that these compounds were predominantly constituted of procyanidin with A-type and B-type linkage and coexistence of procyanidins glucoside. Spectroscopy methods were used to analyze the inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins on α-glucosidase...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903901/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-gst-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#6
Lei Xu, Wen Chen, Guo-Yang Si, Yi-Yuan Huang, Yi Lin, Yong-Ping Cai, Jun-Shan Gao
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is a ubiquitous multi-functional protein superfamily that plays important roles in plant primary and secondary metabolism, stress and intercellular signal transduction. Concomitantly, it also functions as a ligand in the metabolism of plant hormones and substance transport. In order to understand the GST gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), herein we analyzed the species, evolutionary relationship, physical location, gene structure, conserved motifs and expression patterns...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902886/metabolic-engineering-to-simultaneously-activate-anthocyanin-and-proanthocyanidin-biosynthetic-pathways-in-nicotiana-spp
#7
Sandra Fresquet-Corrales, Edelín Roque, Alejandro Sarrión-Perdigones, Maricruz Rochina, María P López-Gresa, Huertas M Díaz-Mula, José M Bellés, Francisco Tomás-Barberán, José P Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila) to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR) to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892039/metabolites-of-flavonoid-compounds-preserve-indices-of-endothelial-cell-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-under-glucotoxic-conditions
#8
Y Qian, P V A Babu, J D Symons, T Jalili
We hypothesized that metabolites of dietary flavonoids attenuate impairments in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability evoked by glucotoxic conditions mimicking Type 1 or 2 diabetes. To test this, human aortic endothelial cells were treated with either vehicle control, quercetin-3-O-glucoronide, piceatannol or 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionoic acid for 24 h. These are metabolites of quercetin, resveratrol and proanthocyanidin, respectively. Next, cells were exposed to control (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions for 48 h, followed by insulin treatment (100 nM, 10 min) to stimulate NO production...
September 11, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887677/evolutionary-and-functional-characterization-of-leucoanthocyanidin-reductases-from-camellia-sinensis
#9
Peiqiang Wang, Lingjie Zhang, Xiaolan Jiang, Xinlong Dai, Lijuan Xu, Tong Li, Dawei Xing, Yanzhi Li, Mingzhuo Li, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
LARs promoted the biosynthesis of catechin monomers and inhibited their polymerization. The accumulation of catechin monomers and polymers was increased by up-regulating the expression of NtLAR and NtANR s in CsMYB5b transgenic tobacco. Tea is rich in polyphenolic compounds, and catechins are the major polyphenols in tea. The biosynthesis of polyphenols is closely related to the expression of the leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes. In this paper, an evolutionary analysis and functional characterization of three CsLARs were performed...
September 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885586/senna-singueana-antioxidant-hepatoprotective-antiapoptotic-properties-and-phytochemical-profiling-of-a-methanol-bark-extract
#10
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Rehab A Hasan, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877101/proanthocyanidins-prevent-ethanol-induced-cognitive-impairment-by-suppressing-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress-in-adult-rat-brain
#11
Qian Chen, Pingping Hu
Excessive chronic alcohol consumption enhances brain oxidative and inflammatory stress, resulting in cognitive deficit. This study investigated the potential alleviating effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs) on ethanol-induced cognitive impairment and stress in brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Adult male rats were administered saline, PACs, ethanol, or combinations of ethanol with different doses of PACs for 8 weeks. Then, the Morris water-maze test was performed. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide dismutase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide were chosen as parameters of oxidative stress, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β chosen as parameters of inflammatory stress...
September 4, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873743/inhibition-of-tyrosinase-by-cherimoya-pericarp-proanthocyanidins-structural-characterization-inhibitory-activity-and-mechanism
#12
Wei-Ming Chai, Mei-Zhen Lin, Ying-Xia Wang, Kai-Li Xu, Wen-Yang Huang, Dan-Dan Pan, Zheng-Rong Zou, Yi-Yuan Peng
In this study, the structure of proanthocyanidins purified from cherimoya (Annona squamosa) pericarp was analyzed by ESI-QTOF-MS and HPLC analyses. The result indicated that these compounds were procyanidin-type proanthocyanidins, consisting mainly of (epi)catechin units linked b y B-type interflavan bonds. The analyses of enzymology showed that the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase could be powerfully inhibited by the proanthocyanidins. Further researches on the inhibition mechanism demonstrated that they were reversible and competitive inhibitors with the KI value of 27...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873629/phenolic-acids-anthocyanins-proanthocyanidins-antioxidant-activity-minerals-and-their-correlations-in-non-pigmented-red-and-black-rice
#13
Yafang Shao, Zhanqiang Hu, Yonghong Yu, Renxiang Mou, Zhiwei Zhu, Trust Beta
Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873557/a-rapid-simultaneous-determination-of-methylxanthines-and-proanthocyanidins-in-brazilian-guaran%C3%A3-paullinia-cupana-kunth
#14
Kamilla Nunes Machado, Aline Alves de Freitas, Luzia Helena Cunha, André Augusto Gomes Faraco, Rodrigo Maia de Pádua, Fernão Castro Braga, Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares, Rachel Oliveira Castilho
Paullinia cupana is a plant native to Brazil that is widely used in traditional medicine as a physical and mental stimulant. It is also used worldwide to produce soft drinks. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of seven markers in guaraná by HPLC-PDA was developed, and extraction methods for the determination of methylxanthines and tannins were investigated. Quantified substances were theobromine, theophylline, caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins A2 and B2. Results confirmed the satisfactory selectivity and linearity (r(2)≥0...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873531/investigation-of-color-deepening-phenomenon-in-catechin-4%C3%A2-8-dimer-as-a-proanthocyanidin-model-and-structural-determination-of-its-derivatives-by-oxidation
#15
Sakina Hayashi, Kohei Nakano, Emiko Yanase
To elucidate the mechanism of the color-deepening phenomenon in aged red rice samples, a partial structure of proanthocyanidin, (+)-catechin-(4→8)-dimer (1), was synthesized as a model compound and subjected to chemical oxidation. HPLC analysis of oxidized 1 revealed new peaks which were isolated; among these, four compounds (2-5) having formed intramolecular bonds between the D and B rings were determined. These compounds and their derivatives in red rice extracts were identified by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873529/structural-characterization-of-proanthocyanidins-from-adzuki-seed-coat
#16
Wakana Kawakami, Ayaka Oshima, Emiko Yanase
Adzuki bean seed coats contain a variety of pigments with potential bioactivity, including polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidin. To clarify the structure of the pigments from adzuki bean seed coats, the MeOH extract of the seed coats and the extraction residue were subjected to various instrumental analyses and degradation by thiolysis. The MeOH extract was found to contain two types of polymeric red pigments. One of these pigments was assumed to be a simple proanthocyanidin, whereas the other was a complicated polyphenol produced by several modifications and conversions...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868058/melatonin-enhances-phenolics-accumulation-partially-via-ethylene-signaling-and-resulted-in-high-antioxidant-capacity-in-grape-berries
#17
Lili Xu, Qianyu Yue, Feng'e Bian, Hong Sun, Heng Zhai, Yuxin Yao
This study assessed the primary impacts of exogenous melatonin (MT) treatment on grape berry metabolism. Exogenous MT treatment increased the endogenous MT content and modified berry ripening. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the processes of polyphenol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling were the three most significantly altered biological processes upon MT treatment. Further experiments verified that MT treatment increased the contents of total anthocyanins, phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in berries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861555/cranberry-proanthocyanidins-protein-complexes-for-macrophage-activation
#18
Sergio M Carballo, Linda Haas, Christian G Krueger, Jess D Reed
In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes on macrophage activation and antigen presentation. We isolated PAC from cranberry and complexed the isolated PAC with BSA and HEL. The properties of the PAC-protein complexes were studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel electrophoresis and zeta-potential...
September 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855913/characteristics-of-color-development-in-seeds-of-brown-and-yellow-seeded-heading-chinese-cabbage-and-molecular-analysis-of-brsc-the-candidate-gene-controlling-seed-coat-color
#19
Yanjing Ren, Qiong He, Xiaomin Ma, Lugang Zhang
The proanthocyanidin (PA) is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147) and yellow-seeded (B80) heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis). It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) staining and toluidine blue O (TBO) staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845915/sorbus-aucuparia-and-sorbus-aria-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-phenolics-tocopherols-and-pigments
#20
Katarina P Šavikin, Gordana M Zdunić, Dijana B Krstić-Milošević, Helena J Šircelj, Danijela D Stešević, Dejan S Pljevljakušić
Due to its nutritive and medicinal properties, berries of some Sorbus species are used for the preparation of jams and jelly as well as in traditional medicine. On the other hand, their chemical composition is not much studied especially of those grown in Balkan Peninsula. We have analyzed individual phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using HPLC in berries from Sorbus aucuparia and S. aria collected in different localities in Serbia and Montenegro together with the amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins as well as their radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical...
August 28, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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