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Proanthocyanidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149616/protective-effects-of-proanthocyanidins-against-cadmium-induced-testicular-injury-through-the-modification-of-nrf2-keap1-signal-path-in-rats
#1
Liu He, Peng Li, Li-Hui Yu, Lin Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Guo, Miao Long, Jian-Bin He, Shu-Hua Yang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential chemoprotective effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage of testes via Nrf2-Keap1 signal pathway in rats. Briefly, by using biochemical histological analysis, as well as the real time PCR and western blot approach, oxidative damage in rat testicular tissue was observed after exposure to Cd. In addition, significant down-regulations of mRNA and protein levels of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), as well as a significant up-regulation of Kelch sample related protein-1 (Keap1) levels in testicular tissue were observed after Cd exposure...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149072/different-inhibitory-potencies-of-oseltamivir-carboxylate-zanamivir-and-several-tannins-on-bacterial-and-viral-neuraminidases-as-assessed-in-a-cell-free-fluorescence-based-enzyme-inhibition-assay
#2
Stefanie Quosdorf, Anja Schuetz, Herbert Kolodziej
Neuraminidaseis a key enzyme in the life cycle of influenza viruses and is present in some bacterial pathogens. We here assess the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase by applying the 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA)-based activity assay. A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA)...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142401/phytochemical-compositions-and-in-vitro-assessments-of-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-potentials-of-fractions-from-ehretia-cymosa-thonn
#3
Akintayo Ogundajo, Anofi Tom Ashafa
Background: Ehretia cymosa Thonn. is a popular medicinal plant used in different parts of West Africa for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The current study investigates bioactive constituents and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of fractions from extract of E. cymosa. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out using standard procedures...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141407/partial-solar-radiation-exclusion-with-color-shade-nets-reduce-the-degradation-of-organic-acids-and-flavonoids-of-grape-berry-vitis-vinifera-l
#4
Johan Martínez-Lüscher, Christopher Cody Lee Chen, Luca Brillante, Sahap Kaan Kurtural
The incidence of solar radiation on red-skinned grapes can promote the synthesis of flavonoid desirable for wine production, elevated temperature may impair their accumulation. We performed a shade cloth trial covering the fruit zone (from pepper-corn size to maturity) with four polyethylene 1-meter curtains with different optical properties (20% shading factor Pearl colored and 40% shading factor Aluminet, Blue and Black colored) and a Control with no cover. Cluster temperature was 3.7°C lower on the Southwest side in Black-40% clusters during the warmest part of the day compared to Control...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140290/ameliorative-effects-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-on-growth-performance-immune-function-antioxidant-capacity-biochemical-constituents-liver-histopathology-and-aflatoxin-residues-in-broilers-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#6
Shahid Ali Rajput, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Xin Gao, Zhao Ling, Luoyi Zhu, Farhan Anwar Khan, Jiacai Zhang, Desheng Qi
Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1...
November 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138814/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-attenuates-varicocele%C3%A2-induced-testicular-oxidative-injury-in-rats-by-activating-the-nrf2%C3%A2-antioxidant-system
#7
Yong Wang, Fan Chen, Ming Liang, Shouzhen Chen, Yaofeng Zhu, Zhichuan Zou, Benkang Shi
The present study investigated whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can attenuate varicocele‑induced testicular oxidative injury through the nuclear factor (erythroid‑derived 2)‑like 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway. A varicocele model in rats was established by partial ligation of the left renal vein. Following 4 weeks of GSPE administration, the decreased sperm count and motility and other pathological changes caused by varicocele were significantly alleviated, as indicated by the results of computer‑assisted sperm analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126990/a-proanthocyanidin-rich-extract-from-cassia-abbreviata-exhibits-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-activities-in-vivo
#8
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cassia abbreviata is a small to medium sized branched umbrella-shaped deciduous tree. It is widely spread in the tropics, especially in Africa, having a long history in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous conditions such as headaches, diarrhea, constipation, some skin diseases, malaria, syphilis, pneumonia, stomach troubles, uterine pains, and against gonorrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the phytochemical constituents of a root extract from Cassia abbreviata using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115144/antidiarrhoeic-effect-and-dereplication-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-annona-crassiflora-annonaceae
#9
Camila Rodrigues Ferraz, Denise Brentan Silva, Ligia Carolina da Silva Prado, Hudson Armando Nunes Canabrava, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva
We investigated the antidiarrhoeic effect of the aqueous extract of Annona crassiflora leaves (AEAC). The AEAC decreased the diarrhoeic stools and enteropooling induced by castor oil, without altering total faecal output; moreover, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was increased. Twenty-eight compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS in the AEAC, including flavonoids, alkaloids and proanthocyanidins. In addition, two oligomeric series of condensed tannins of up to nine flavan-3-ol units were characterised by MALDI-MS...
November 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113217/grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-induce-mitochondrial-pathway-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma-cells
#10
Chen Zhang, Weili Chen, Xuhao Zhang, Yanbing Zheng, Fengli Yu, Yulong Liu, Yi Wang
Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical properties. Recently, GSPs have been reported to inhibit various types of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear. The present study investigated the effects of GSPs on HCT-116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line. Exposure of these cells to GSPs for 48 h resulted in a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Further investigation indicated that GSPs induced apoptosis of these cells...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110138/early-plant-growth-and-biochemical-responses-induced-by-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-lipopolysaccharides-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-are-attenuated-by-procyanidin-b2
#11
Juan Vallejo-Ochoa, Mariel López-Marmolejo, Alma Alejandra Hernández-Esquivel, Manuel Méndez-Gómez, Laura Nicolasa Suárez-Soria, Elda Castro-Mercado, Ernesto García-Pineda
This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL(-1)). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots...
November 6, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107025/association-of-changes-in-er-stress-mediated-signaling-pathway-with-lead-induced-insulin-resistance-and-apoptosis-in-rats-and-their-prevention-by-a-type-dimeric-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#12
Chan-Min Liu, Jie-Qiong Ma, Jian-Mei Sun, Zhao-Jun Feng, Chao Cheng, Wei Yang, Hong Jiang
A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type-EGCG-dimer, AEd), a new proanthocyanidins dimer from persimmon fruits, has been shown to have health benefit effects. However, A-type-EGCG-dimer affects gluose metabolism in the liver and the underlying mechanism is not clarified. The present study aims to examine the protective effects of A-type-EGCG-dimer on Pb-induced hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in rats. Male wistar rats exposed to 0.05% w/v Pb acetate in the drinking water with or without A-type-EGCG-dimer coadministration (200 mg/kg body weight/day, intragastrically) for three months...
October 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104824/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-pks-genes-in-five-species-and-expression-analysis-in-upland-cotton
#13
Xueqiang Su, Xu Sun, Xi Cheng, Yanan Wang, Muhammad Abdullah, Manli Li, Dahui Li, Junshan Gao, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS) can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104598/effect-of-proanthocyanidin-fluoride-and-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-remineralizing-agents-on-microhardness-of-demineralized-dentin
#14
Zahra Khamverdi, Matin Kordestani, Ali Reza Soltanian
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin remineralization using proanthocyanidin (PA), fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and their various combinations on microhardness of demineralized root dentin. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty freshly extracted sound human premolars were selected and randomly divided into eight groups for dentin treatment as follows. C: Deionized water (control); PA: 6...
March 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089857/extraction-of-proanthocyanidins-and-anthocyanins-from-grape-skin-by-using-ionic-liquids
#15
Natka Ćurko, Marina Tomašević, Marina Cvjetko Bubalo, Leo Gracin, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković, Karin Kovačević Ganić
In this study, eight different types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were applied as new solvents in the extraction of flavonoids from grape skin, and compared to the conventional organic solvent extraction that was not reported earlier. The structure of anions, cations and concentration of ILs significantly affected extraction yields. The highest mass fractions of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were obtained with 2.5 mol/L of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C4mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C2mim][Br], respectively...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078739/effects-of-a-new%C3%A2-combination-of%C3%A2-plant-extracts-plus-d-mannose-for-the-management-of-uncomplicated-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#16
Carlo Genovese, Sergio Davinelli, Katia Mangano, Gianna Tempera, Daria Nicolosi, Salvatore Corsello, Franca Vergalito, Edoardo Tartaglia, Giovanni Scapagnini, Roberto Di Marco
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an economic burden for public health. The increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria which cause UTIs may be related to the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether three different combinations of plant extracts plus d-mannose are effective in preventing the recurrence of UTIs. Three groups of patients received three combinations of plant extracts in conjunction with d-mannose. These were: berberine, arbutin and birch (group A); berberine, arbutin, birch and forskolin (group B); and proanthocyanidins (group C)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072566/does-cranberry-have-a-role-in-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Dominique Thomas, Matthew Rutman, Kimberly Cooper, Andrew Abrams, Julia Finkelstein, Bilal Chughtai
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) are a prevalent and costly condition, with very few therapeutic options. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an oral cranberry supplement on catheter-associated urinary tracts infections over a six-month period. METHODS: Subjects with long-term indwelling catheters and recurrent symptomatic CA-UTIs were enrolled to take a once-daily cranberry supplement - an oral cranberry supplement with 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (PACs)...
November 11, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070515/flavan-3-ols-are-an-effective-chemical-defense-against-rust-infection
#18
Chhana Ullah, Sybille B Unsicker, Christin Fellenberg, C Peter Constabel, Axel Schmidt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Almuth Hammerbacher
Phenolic secondary metabolites are often thought to protect plants against attack by microbes but their role in defense against pathogen infection in woody plants has not been comprehensively investigated. We studied the biosynthesis, occurrence and anti-fungal activity of flavan-3-ols in black poplar (Populus nigra L.), which include both monomers, such as catechin, and oligomers known as proanthocyanidins (PAs). We identified and biochemically characterized three leucoanthocyanidin reductases (LAR) and two anthocyanidin reductases (ANR) from P...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059537/investigation-of-the-flavan-3-ol-patterns-in-willow-species-during-one-growing-season
#19
Stefan Wiesneth, Gregor Aas, Jörg Heilmann, Guido Jürgenliemk
Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and salicylic alcohol derivatives are the main groups of ingredients in Salix needed as defensive tools and signal molecules, but have also pharmaceutical importance. The present study investigated total PA content, complete PA pattern, the oligomeric/total PAs quotient and the contents of catechin and epicatechin during one growing-season for the leaves and this year's sprouts in ten willows (Salix pentandra L. ♂, S. alba L. ♂, S. fragilis L. ♀, S. caprea L. ♂ & ♀, S...
October 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059499/oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-protect-myocardium-by-mitigating-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-isoproterenol-induced-post-myocardial-infarction
#20
Ashokkumar Rathinavel, Jamuna Sankar, M S Sakeena Sadullah, Sivasithamparam Niranjali Devaraj
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a major pathophysiological process during post myocardial infarction (MI). The activation, differentiation and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts regulate the expression of ECM proteins. The signalling by Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4), an extra cellular ligand of the TGF-β family, has recently been identified as an essential pathway in regulating cardiovascular dysfunctions including myocardial fibrosis. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) are well known for their cardioprotective activity...
October 23, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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