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Addiction vaccine

Zongmin Zhao, Kristen Powers, Yun Hu, Michael Raleigh, Paul Pentel, Chenming Zhang
Although vaccination is a promising way to combat nicotine addiction, most traditional hapten-protein conjugate nicotine vaccines only show limited efficacy due to their poor recognition and uptake by immune cells. This study aimed to develop a hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine with improved efficacy. The focus was to study the impact of hapten density on the immunological efficacy of the proposed hybrid nanovaccine. It was shown that the nanovaccine nanoparticles were taken up by the dendritic cells more efficiently than the conjugate vaccine, regardless of the hapten density on the nanoparticles...
April 2017: Biomaterials
Atsushi Kimishima, Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Prescription opioids (POs) such as oxycodone and hydrocodone are highly effective medications for pain management, yet they also present a substantial risk for abuse and addiction. The consumption of POs has been escalating worldwide, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to overdose each year. Pharmacokinetic strategies based upon vaccination present an attractive avenue to suppress PO abuse. Herein, the preparation of two active PO vaccines is described that were found to elicit high-affinity antiopioid antibodies through a structurally congruent drug-hapten design...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Andrea Lasserre, Julie Gaillot, Antoine Deutsch, Claire Chauvet, Dominique Bessette, Raphaëlle Ancellin
Almost 40% of cancers are attributable to preventable cancer risk factors related to behavior. Health professionals must take into account the respective weight of the different causes of cancer to enforce effective cancer prevention. Their involvement is needed on several levels. In primary prevention, not only for vaccinations, detection and support the withdrawal of addiction, but also by a greater consideration in their patients of all cancer risk behavioral factors. This involvement is essential in the care and monitoring of patients with cancer...
March 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
Anaïs Lesourd, Jérémie Leporrier, Valérie Delbos, Guillemette Unal, Patricia Honoré, Manuel Etienne, Olivier Bouchaud, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Despite antiretroviral therapy, it is generally believed that the risk for pneumococcal infections (PnIs) is high among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies in this field have been conducted before 2010, and the proportion of virologically suppressed patients has drastically increased in these latter years thanks to larger indications and more effective antiretroviral regimens. This study aimed to re-evaluate the current risk of PnI among adult patients infected with HIV...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Atsushi Kimishima, Cody J Wenthur, Lisa M Eubanks, Shun Sato, Kim D Janda
Although cocaine abuse and addiction continue to cause serious health and societal problems, an FDA-approved medication to treat cocaine addiction has yet to be developed. Employing a pharmacokinetic strategy, an anticocaine vaccine provides an attractive avenue to address these issues; however, current vaccines have shown varying degrees of efficacy, indicating that further formulation is necessary. As a means to improve vaccine efficacy, we examined the effects of varying anticocaine vaccine formulations by combining a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist with a TLR5 agonist in the presence of alum...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Nya L Fraleigh, Justin Boudreau, Nitin Bhardwaj, Nelson F Eng, Yanal Murad, Robert Lafrenie, Reinaldo Acevedo, Reynaldo Oliva, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma, Hoang-Thanh Le
Tobacco smoking is recognized as a global pandemic resulting in 6 million deaths per year. Despite a variety of anti-smoking products available to aid with tobacco cessation, the majority of people who attempt to quit smoking relapse within 6 months due to the addictive nature of nicotine. An immunotherapy approach could offer a promising treatment option by inducing a potent selective antibody response against nicotine in order to block its distribution to the brain and its addictive effects in the central nervous system...
August 2016: Heliyon
N N Ambadekar, S P Zodpey
OBJECTIVES: The present study was planned to identify some of the risk factors of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in under-five children in a rural part of India. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The study was carried out in rural areas of Yavatmal district. A total of 737 cases (under-five SAM children) and an equal number of normal controls were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model...
January 2017: Public Health
Umesh Wadgave, L Nagesh
Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence...
July 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
Yun Hu, Daniel Smith, Evan Frazier, Reece Hoerle, Marion Ehrich, Chenming Zhang
Owing to the urgent need for more effective treatment against nicotine addiction, a hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine (NanoNiccine) was developed in this study. NanoNiccine was composed of a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) core, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as an adjuvant protein enclosed within the PLGA core, a lipid layer, and nicotine haptens conjugated to the outer surface of the lipid layer. In contrast to the traditional nicotine vaccine, NanoNiccine is not a nicotine-protein conjugate vaccine...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Marco Pravetoni
Biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and genetically modified enzymes) offer a promising class of therapeutics to treat substance use disorders (SUD) involving abuse of opioids and stimulants such as nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In contrast to small molecule medications targeting brain receptors, biologics for SUD are larger molecules that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but target the drug itself, preventing its distribution to the brain and blunting its effects on the central nervous system (CNS)...
December 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Derya Keten, Mehmet Emin Ova, Hamit Sirri Keten, Alper Keten, Evrim Gulderen, Seray Tumer, Ahmet Caliskan, Suleyman Kulotu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most important health issues in Turkey. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are less frequently observed in the country. The individuals who had blood transfusions, patients undergoing hemodialysis, and intravenous drug addicted individuals, people who had tattoos/piercings, communal living environments, contamination of a family member, and prisoners are the main risk groups. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to discuss the prevalence and the genotypes of hepatitis and HIV infections among a specific group, namely individuals incarcerated in prisons...
February 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Ermanno Zorzoli, Maria Giulia Marino, Barbara Bagnato, Elisabetta Franco
The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction.
January 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
O Ohia-Nwoko, T A Kosten, C N Haile
The development of pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders (SUDs) is a high priority in addiction research. At present, there are no approved pharmacotherapies for cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders, while treatments for nicotine and opioid use are moderately effective. Indeed, many of these treatments can cause adverse drug side effects and have poor medication compliance, which often results in increased drug relapse rates. An alternative to these traditional pharmacological interventions is immunotherapy or vaccines that can target substances associated with SUDs...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Karen C Collins, Joel E Schlosburg, Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a serious public health problem, and current methods to abate addiction and relapse are currently ineffective for mitigating this growing global epidemic. Development of a vaccine targeting MA would provide a complementary strategy to existing behavioral therapies, but this has proven challenging. Herein, we describe optimization of both hapten design and formulation, identifying a vaccine that elicited a robust anti-MA immune response in mice, decreasing methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Nicholas T Jacob, Jonathan W Lockner, Joel E Schlosburg, Beverly A Ellis, Lisa M Eubanks, Kim D Janda
Despite efforts to produce suitable smoking cessation aids, addiction to nicotine continues to carry a substantive risk of recidivism. An attractive alternative to current therapies is the pharmacokinetic strategy of antinicotine vaccination. A major hurdle in the development of the strategy has been to elicit a sufficiently high antibody concentration to curb nicotine distribution to the brain. Herein, we detail investigations into a new hapten design, which was able to elicit an antibody response of significantly higher specificity for nicotine...
March 24, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Paul T Bremer, Atsushi Kimishima, Joel E Schlosburg, Bin Zhou, Karen C Collins, Kim D Janda
Fentanyl is an addictive prescription opioid that is over 80 times more potent than morphine. The synthetic nature of fentanyl has enabled the creation of dangerous "designer drug" analogues that escape toxicology screening, yet display comparable potency to the parent drug. Alarmingly, a large number of fatalities have been linked to overdose of fentanyl derivatives. Herein, we report an effective immunotherapy for reducing the psychoactive effects of fentanyl class drugs. A single conjugate vaccine was created that elicited high levels of antibodies with cross-reactivity for a wide panel of fentanyl analogues...
March 7, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
(no author information available yet)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is issuing this final rule (FR) to amend its regulations governing medical examinations that aliens must undergo before they may be admitted to the United States. Based on public comment received, HHS/CDC did not make changes from the NPRM published on June 23, 2015. Accordingly, this FR will: Revise the definition of communicable disease of public health significance by removing chancroid, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma venereum as inadmissible health-related conditions for aliens seeking admission to the United States; update the notification of the health-related grounds of inadmissibility to include proof of vaccinations to align with existing requirements established by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); revise the definitions and evaluation criteria for mental disorders, drug abuse and drug addiction; clarify and revise the evaluation requirements for tuberculosis; clarify and revise the process for the HHS/CDC-appointed medical review board that convenes to reexamine the determination of a Class A medical condition based on an appeal; and update the titles and designations of federal agencies within the text of the regulation...
January 26, 2016: Federal Register
Karin L Lee, Richard M Twyman, Steven Fiering, Nicole F Steinmetz
Nanoscale engineering is revolutionizing the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Viruses have played a key role in this field because they can function as prefabricated nanoscaffolds with unique properties that are easy to modify. Viruses are immunogenic via multiple pathways, and antigens displayed naturally or by engineering on the surface can be used to create vaccines against the cognate virus, other pathogens, specific molecules or cellular targets such as tumors. This review focuses on the development of virus-based nanoparticle systems as vaccines indicated for the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, cancer, and addiction...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Colin N Haile, Therese A Kosten, Xiaoyun Y Shen, Patrick W O'Malley, Kevin J Winoske, Berma M Kinsey, Yan Wu, Zhen Huang, Ernest D Lykissa, Naga Naidu, Joseph A Cox, Reetakshi Arora, Thomas R Kosten, Frank M Orson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We previously reported that an anti-methamphetamine (MA) vaccine attenuated drug-conditioned effects in mice, but it used a carrier protein and adjuvant not available for clinical use. Here we produced a vaccine with the same hapten (succinyl-methamphetamine, SMA) but attached to tetanus toxoid (SMA-TT) and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, components approved for use in humans. We then assessed the vaccine's ability to generate anti-MA antibodies, alter acquisition and reinstatement of MA place conditioning, and prevent MA brain penetration...
December 2015: American Journal on Addictions
Hong Zheng, Yun Hu, Wei Huang, Sabina de Villiers, Paul Pentel, Jianfei Zhang, Harry Dorn, Marion Ehrich, Chenming Zhang
Tobacco addiction is the second-leading cause of death in the world. Due to the nature of nicotine (a small molecule), finding ways to combat nicotine's deleterious effects has been a constant challenge to the society and the medical field. In the present work, a novel anti-nicotine vaccine based on nanohorn supported liposome nanoparticles (NsL NPs) was developed. The nano-vaccine was constructed by using negatively charged carbon nanohorns as a scaffold for the assembly of cationic liposomes, which allow the conjugation of hapten conjugated carrier proteins...
December 2015: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
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