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Mariana Urrutia, Sebastián Fernández, Marisol González, Rodrigo Vilches, Pablo Rojas, Manuel Vásquez, Mónica Kurte, Ana María Vega-Letter, Flavio Carrión, Fernando Figueroa, Patricio Rojas, Carlos Irarrázabal, Rodrigo A Fuentealba
The neurotransmitter GABA has been recently identified as a potent immunosuppressive agent that targets both innate and adaptive immune systems and prevents disease progression of several autoimmunity models. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing progenitor cells that differentiate into various cell types under specific conditions, including neurons. In addition, MSC possess strong immunosuppressive capabilities. Upon cytokine priming, undifferentiated MSC suppress T-cell proliferation via cell-to-cell contact mechanisms and the secretion of soluble factors like nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and IDO...
2016: PloS One
I M Talaat, A Nasr, A A Alsulaimani, H Alghamdi, K A Alswat, D M Almalki, A Abushouk, A M Saleh, G Allam
PURPOSE: Vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of the current study was to determine the possible association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and circulating levels of type 1 and type 2 cytokines, as well as the pathophysiology of T1D in children. METHODS: A total of 250 T1D patients and 250 sex- and age-matched T1D-free controls were screened for 25(OH)D, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), type 1 and type 2 cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and bone mineral metabolism, as well as antibodies against insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD 65) and islet cells...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Maki Moritani, Ichiro Yokota, Reiko Horikawa, Tatsuhiko Urakami, Aki Nishii, Tomoyuki Kawamura, Nobuyuki Kikuchi, Touru Kikuchi, Tsutomu Ogata, Shigetaka Sugihara, Shin Amemiya
BACKGROUND: Monogenic mutations, such as those in the potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11) and insulin (INS) genes, are identified in young patients with type 1B diabetes (non-autoimmune-mediated). We recently reported the results of a test for monogenic forms of diabetes in Japanese children who were diagnosed with type 1B diabetes at <5 years of age. In this study, we tested for monogenic forms of diabetes in Japanese children aged >5 to ≤15...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
O Hadad-Ophir, Z Ardi, N Brande-Eilat, O Kehat, R Anunu, G Richter-Levin
The degree of behavioral control that an individual has over a stressor can critically determine its behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. Exposure to uncontrollable stress was previously shown to have detrimental effects on behavior, whereas exposure to equivalent controllable stress prevented these negative outcomes and even improved later stress coping. As many lines of evidence show, stress exposure can have maladaptive changes on inhibitory circuitry, and these effects were largely shown in the hippocampus and amygdala...
June 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Valentina Medici, Laura Rossini, Francesco Deleo, Giovanni Tringali, Laura Tassi, Francesco Cardinale, Manuela Bramerio, Marco de Curtis, Rita Garbelli, Roberto Spreafico
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported that inhibitory networks are altered in dysplastic tissue obtained from epilepsy surgery specimens. A consistent decrease in the number of inhibitory interneuronal subpopulation that expresses parvalbumin (PV) was reported in postsurgical tissue from patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). We tested if the decrease in PV protein expression observed in epileptic tissue corresponds to a parallel impairment in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic compartment...
July 2016: Epilepsia
Chandra Mohan Sharma, Rajendra Kumar Pandey, Banshi Lal Kumawat, Dinesh Khandelwal, Pankaj Gandhi
Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies...
January 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Anna Konermann, Alpdogan Kantarci, Steven Wilbert, Thomas Van Dyke, Andreas Jäger
CNS key neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its signaling components are likewise detectable in non-neuronal tissues displaying inter alia immunomodulatory functions. This study aimed at identifying potential glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GABA receptor expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vivo and in vitro, with particular regard to inflammation and mechanical loading. Gene expression was analyzed in human PDL cells at rest or in response to IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) or TNFα (5 ng/ml) challenge via qRT-PCR...
February 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ganesh Jevalikar, Chhavi Kohli, Beena Bansal, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Jasjeet Singh Wasir, Shweta Singh, Jasmine Kaur Ahuja, Parjeet Kaur, Khalid J Farooqui, Ambrish Mithal
OBJECTIVES: To identify proportion of various types of diabetes and differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in patients with youth onset diabetes (onset below 25 completed years of age). In addition, concurrent autoimmune diseases in type 1 diabetes were studied in a subset of patients. METHODS: A total of 577 patients (192 girls) with diabetes onset at median age of 14 y (range 1 mo-25 y) with median duration of 1 y (range day of diagnosis- 43 y) were included...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
N Bansal, C S Hampe, L Rodriguez, E O'Brian Smith, J Kushner, A Balasubramanyam, M J Redondo
AIM: To study whether DPD epitope-specific glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies are found more frequently in children with milder forms of Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 75 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, in whom we collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical data and measured islet autoantibodies. Glutamate decarboxylase 65 autoantibody-positive samples were analysed for epitope specificities using recombinant Fab against the DPD-defined epitope of glutamate decarboxylase 65...
January 23, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Charles A Chang, Waqas Z Haque, Gumpei Yoshimatsu, Prathab S Balajii, Michael C Lawrence, Bashoo Naziruddin
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement treatment for patients with "brittle" type 1 diabetes (T1D) or intractable chronic pancreatitis to restore or preserve pancreatic endocrine function. Early after transplant, a significant islet mass is lost due to an innate inflammatory response, and further loss of the islet graft occurs over time due to immune response, drug toxicity, or metabolic exhaustion. Thus, clinically feasible techniques are essential to monitor islet graft function and survival to maintain appropriate therapy...
March 2016: Panminerva Medica
Susanne Fauser, Ingo Uttner, Helena Ariño, Werner A Scherbaum, Albert Saiz, Jan Lewerenz
BACKGROUND: In the pathogenesis of limbic encephalitis other promoting factors besides the pure existence of autoantibodies are increasingly discussed to play a significant role. This is to our knowledge the first described patient in whom the presence of autoantibodies precedes the manifestation of limbic encephalitis for many years. CASE PRESENTATION: At the age of 38 years, in the serum of a patient with polyendocrine autoimmunity high titers of cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies and of anti-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65 antibodies were observed as an incidential finding, GAD67 antibodies were negative at that time...
2015: BMC Neurology
Christine M Ulbricht, Anthony J Rothschild, Kate L Lapane
BACKGROUND: The objectives were to characterize latent depression subtypes by symptoms, evaluate sex differences in and examine correlates of these subtypes, and examine the association between subtype and symptom remission after citalopram treatment. METHODS: Latent class analysis was applied to baseline data from 2772 participants in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression trial. Indicators were from the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Moinuddin, Nadeem A Ansari, Uzma Shahab, Safia Habeeb, Saheem Ahmad
The repertoire of known auto-antigens is limited to a very small proportion of all human proteins, and the reason why only some proteins become auto-antigens is unclear. The 65 kDa isoform of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65) is a major auto-antigen in type I diabetes, and in various neurological diseases. Most patients with type I diabetes (70-80%) have auto-antibodies against GAD-65, which often appear years before clinical onset of the autoimmune diabetes. Thus, the aim of the study is to focus on the immunogenicity of GAD65 and its reactive oxygen species (ROS) conformer in STZ-induced diabetic rats and on human diabetic patients...
October 2015: IUBMB Life
Yoko Hanno-Iijima, Masami Tanaka, Takatoshi Iijima
Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, or synaptic scaling, is a mechanism that tunes neuronal transmission to compensate for prolonged, excessive changes in neuronal activity. Both excitatory and inhibitory neurons undergo homeostatic changes based on synaptic transmission strength, which could effectively contribute to a fine-tuning of circuit activity. However, gene regulation that underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity in GABAergic (GABA, gamma aminobutyric) neurons is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrated activity-dependent dynamic scaling in which NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) activity regulated the expression of GABA synthetic enzymes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67)...
2015: PloS One
Efrat Neter, Nili Stein, Gad Rennert, Lea Hagoel
Self-rated health (SRH) is a consistent predictor of mortality and other health outcomes. One of the mechanisms hypothesized to explain its validity as a predictor is that SRH affects the adoption of health behaviors. The present study examined the prospective association between SRH and performance of a recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test. One thousand four hundred and seventy-six men and women aged 50-74 years, eligible for CRC screening, who had undergone the test a year before were interviewed 1-2 weeks (long interview, before testing) or 2 months (short interview, after testing) following the mailing of a test kit...
July 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Daniel J Millstein, Susan M Orsillo, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Lizabeth Roemer
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the role interpersonal problems play in response to two treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) and applied relaxation (AR), and to examine how the development of mindfulness may be related to change in interpersonal problems over treatment and at follow-up. METHOD: Eighty-one individuals diagnosed with GAD (65.4% female, 80.2% identified as white, average age 32.92) were randomized to receive 16 sessions of either ABBT or AR...
2015: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
M P Malter, C Frisch, H Zeitler, R Surges, H Urbach, C Helmstaedter, C E Elger, C G Bien
PURPOSE: Temporal lobe epilepsy with antibodies (abs) against the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 isoform (GAD-TLE) is known as an immune-mediated neurological syndrome. Here we evaluate the therapy response to various immunotherapies and epilepsy surgery in this syndrome. METHOD: All patients with GAD-TLE and follow-up data and stored serum and CSF samples, identified and treated at the Bonn centre from 2002 to 2010, were studied retrospectively. Seizure freedom for ≥1 year and reduction of ≥50%, i...
August 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Amr H Shendy, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Sohair A Gad Alla, Hayam M Lotfy
LC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated according to EU guidelines for determination of nitrofuran metabolites and nitroimidazole residues in honey. Crude samples were acid-treated to liberate matrix-bound residues and a modified QuEChERS protocol was employed. Nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, furaltadone and nitrofurazone were determined via analysis of their metabolites AHD, AOZ, AMOZ and SEM, respectively while nitroimidazole residues; ronidazole (RNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) were determined directly. For all analytes, neat standard calibration curves, after correction for matrix effect were successfully employed...
January 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Mohamed F Abdel Rahman, Ingy M Hashad, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Sahar M Abdel-Maksoud, Mohamed Z Gad
INTRODUCTION: The enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) represents an endogenous defense mechanism against vascular oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Several polymorphisms have been reported in the PON1 gene, including Q192R. PON1 phenotype is commonly expressed as the paraoxonase/arylesterase ratio (PON/ARE). The major aim of this study was to investigate the association between PON1 Q192R polymorphism, PON1 phenotypes and the incidence of early-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Egyptians...
June 19, 2015: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Javier Del Pino, María Teresa Frejo, María José Anadon Baselga, Paula Moyano, María Jesús Díaz
Amitraz is a formamidine pesticide that has been reported to be a neurotoxic compound that induces convulsions among other effects. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated mainly by glutamate and GABA, respectively, so their alteration could be responsible for induction of seizures. In this regard, amitraz α2 adrenergic agonist action, which has been suggested as likely responsible for this effect, could alter these neurotransmitter systems and lead to seizure induction. Moreover, other amitraz mechanisms such as histamine H1 receptor inhibition could be involved...
July 2015: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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