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Immunometabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445885/the-interplay-of-lipids-lipoproteins-and-immunity-in-atherosclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Fabrizia Bonacina, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Alberico Luigi Catapano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the arterial wall, in which several players contribute to the onset and progression of the disease. Besides the well-established role of lipids, specifically cholesterol, and immune cell activation, new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the atherogenic process have emerged. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-inflammation, a condition of low-grade immune response caused by metabolic dysregulation, immunological memory of innate immune cells (referred to as "trained immunity"), cholesterol homeostasis in dendritic cells, and immunometabolism, i...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445452/exploiting-immune-cell-metabolic-machinery-for-functional-hiv-cure-and-the-prevention-of-inflammaging
#2
REVIEW
Clovis S Palmer, Riya Palchaudhuri, Hassan Albargy, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Suzanne M Crowe
An emerging paradigm in immunology suggests that metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activation and functions are intricately linked. Viral infections, such as HIV infection, as well as cancer force immune cells to undergo major metabolic challenges. Cells must divert energy resources in order to mount an effective immune response. However, the fact that immune cells adopt specific metabolic programs to provide host defense against intracellular pathogens and how this metabolic shift impacts immune cell functions and the natural course of diseases have only recently been appreciated...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434595/immunometabolism-and-pi-3-k-signaling-as-a-link-between-il-2-foxp3-expression-and-suppressor-function-in-regulatory-t-cells
#3
REVIEW
Martin Y Fan, Laurence A Turka
CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an essential component of immune homeostasis. Modulation of Treg function has been proposed as a means of treating autoimmune conditions and preventing rejection of organ transplants, although achieving this goal will require a detailed understanding of Treg signaling pathways. Signaling within Tregs is known to differ considerably from that observed in other T cell subsets. Of note, Tregs are the only cell type known to constitutively express CD25, the main ligand-binding subunit of the IL-2 receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413421/inflammatory-reprogramming-with-ido1-inhibitors-turning-immunologically-unresponsive-cold-tumors-hot
#4
REVIEW
George C Prendergast, Arpita Mondal, Souvik Dey, Lisa D Laury-Kleintop, Alexander J Muller
We discuss how small-molecule inhibitors of the tryptophan (Trp) catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) represent a vanguard of new immunometabolic adjuvants to safely enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or 'immunogenic' chemotherapy by leveraging responses to tumor neoantigens. IDO inhibitors re-program inflammatory processes to help clear tumors by blunting tumor neovascularization and restoring immunosurveillance. Studies of regulatory and effector pathways illuminate IDO as an inflammatory modifier...
January 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404877/o-glcnac-a-novel-regulator-of-immunometabolism
#5
REVIEW
Miranda Machacek, Chad Slawson, Patrick E Fields
The rapidly expanding field of immunometabolism focuses on how metabolism controls the function of immune cells. CD4+ T cells are essential for the adaptive immune response leading to the eradication of specific pathogens. However, when T cells are inappropriately over-active, they can drive autoimmunity, allergic disease, and chronic inflammation. The mechanisms by which metabolic changes influence function in CD4+ T cells are not fully understood. The post-translational protein modification, O-GlcNAc (O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine), dynamically cycles on and off of intracellular proteins as cells respond to their environment and flux through metabolic pathways changes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403049/metabolic-exhaustion-in-infection-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
E F McKinney, K G C Smith
It has become increasingly clear that changes in metabolism are not just consequences of T cell activation but instead are also essential drivers of that process that shape the extent and nature of differentiation and function. The process of T cell exhaustion has been linked to the outcome of chronic immune responses in multiple contexts, including chronic infection, cancer and autoimmunity. Factors that regulate the development and maintenance of exhaustion are of increasing interest as targets of therapeutic modulation...
February 5, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395037/metabolic-regulation-of-macrophages-in-tissues
#7
Jan Van den Bossche, Doina L Saraber
Macrophages are innate immune cells that provide host defense and have tissue-specific roles in the maintenance of organ homeostasis and integrity. In most cases macrophages keep us healthy but when their balanced response to damage or homeostatic signals is perturbed, they can drive chronic inflammatory responses and pathology. To fulfil their broad range of functions, macrophages adopt a plethora of activation states. Understanding their regulation and phenotypic heterogeneity is crucial because macrophages are critical in many diseases...
January 17, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390039/serum-amyloid-a3-is-required-for-normal-weight-and-immunometabolic-function-in-mice
#8
Jennifer L Ather, Matthew E Poynter
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an apolipoprotein that is robustly upregulated in numerous inflammatory diseases and has been implicated as a candidate pro-inflammatory mediator. However, studies comparing endogenous SAAs and recombinant forms of the acute phase protein have generated conflicting data on the function of SAA in immunity. We generated SAA3 knockout mice to evaluate the contribution of SAA3 to immune-mediated disease, and found that mice lacking SAA3 develop adult-onset obesity and metabolic dysfunction along with defects in innate immune development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363063/metabolomics-in-immunology-research
#9
Bart Everts
There is a growing appreciation that metabolic processes and individual metabolites can shape the function of immune cells and thereby play important roles in the outcome of immune responses. In this respect, the use of MS- and NMR spectroscopy-based platforms to characterize and quantify metabolites in biological samples has recently yielded important novel insights into how our immune system functions and has contributed to the identification of biomarkers for immune-mediated diseases. Here, these recent immunological studies in which metabolomics has been used and made significant contributions to these fields will be discussed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#10
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330325/cutting-edge-plasmodium-falciparum-induces-trained-innate-immunity
#11
Jacob E Schrum, Juliet N Crabtree, Katherine R Dobbs, Michael C Kiritsy, George W Reed, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Mihai G Netea, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#12
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328913/an-integrated-view-of-immunometabolism
#13
REVIEW
Yun Sok Lee, Joshua Wollam, Jerrold M Olefsky
The worldwide obesity epidemic has emerged as a major cause of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Chronic tissue inflammation is a well-recognized feature of obesity, and the field of immunometabolism has witnessed many advances in recent years. Here, we review the major features of our current understanding with respect to chronic obesity-related inflammation in metabolic tissues and focus on how these inflammatory changes affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, food intake, and glucose homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286048/immunometabolism-in-2017-metabolism-and-the-inflammasome-in-health-and-ageing
#14
Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247038/discovery-of-ido1-inhibitors-from-bench-to-bedside
#15
REVIEW
George C Prendergast, William P Malachowski, James B DuHadaway, Alexander J Muller
Small-molecule inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) are emerging at the vanguard of experimental agents in oncology. Here, pioneers of this new drug class provide a bench-to-bedside review on preclinical validation of IDO1 as a cancer therapeutic target and on the discovery and development of a set of mechanistically distinct compounds, indoximod, epacadostat, and navoximod, that were first to be evaluated as IDO inhibitors in clinical trials. As immunometabolic adjuvants to widen therapeutic windows, IDO inhibitors may leverage not only immuno-oncology modalities but also chemotherapy and radiotherapy as standards of care in the oncology clinic...
December 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233860/pathway-analysis-of-transcriptomic-data-shows-immunometabolic-effects-of-vitamin-d
#16
Amadeo Muñoz Garcia, Martina Kutmon, Lars Eijssen, Martin Hewison, Chris T Evelo, Susan L Coort
Unbiased genomic screening analyses have highlighted novel immunomodulatory properties of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). However, clearer interpretation of the resulting gene expression data is limited by cell model specificity. The aim of the current study was to provide a broader perspective on common gene regulatory pathways associated with innate immune responses to 1,25(OH)2D, through systematic re-interrogation of existing gene expression databases from multiple related monocyte models (the THP-1 monocytic cell line (THP-1), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and monocytes)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226911/immunometabolism-in-2017-driving-immunity-all-roads-lead-to-metabolism
#17
Edward J Pearce, Erika L Pearce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#18
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222582/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-dietary-control-of-immunometabolism
#19
EDITORIAL
Ludger Scheja, Joerg Heeren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222040/prohibitin-a-new-player-in-immunometabolism-and-in-linking-obesity-and-inflammation-with-cancer
#20
Yang Xin Zi Xu, Sudharsana Rao Ande, Suresh Mishra
Immunometabolism, which has important implications in cancer biology, has emerged as a major regulator of different immune cell types. Various factors that integrate metabolic switches within immune cells with signal directed program that promote or inhibit their functions remain largely unidentified. Furthermore, sex differences are known to exist in immune functions and cancer incidences in the body and sex steroid hormones are integral component of these differences. However, factors that mediate such differences, and the potential link between the two fundamental aspects of immune cell biology that contributes to sex differences in health and disease remain unexplored...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
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