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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089909/immunosuppression-via-loss-of-il2r%C3%AE-enhances-long-term-functional-integration-of-hesc-derived-photoreceptors-in-the-mouse-retina
#1
Jie Zhu, Helen Cifuentes, Joseph Reynolds, Deepak A Lamba
Loss of photoreceptors is a common endpoint in degenerative retinal diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells provide a potential source for photoreceptor replacement, but, even in mouse models, the efficiency and efficacy of transplantation-based repair remains poor. In this study, we examined the degree to which immune rejection contributes to these disappointing outcomes using an immunodeficient IL2 receptor γ (IL2rγ)-null mouse model. Our results show that prevention of cell rejection in the normal and degenerating retinal environment significantly improves long-term survival and integration of hESC-derived donor retinal cells...
December 29, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089818/notochordal-cell-derived-conditioned-medium-nccm-protects-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-from-stress-induced-apoptosis
#2
Arne Mehrkens, Ajay Matta, M Zia Karim, Sarah Kim, Michael G Fehlings, Stefan Schaeren, W Mark Erwin
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) remains without an effective therapy and presents a costly burden to society. PURPOSE: Based upon prior reports concerning the effects of notochordal cell conditioned medium (NCCM) upon disc cells, we performed a proof of principle study to determine whether NCCM could reduce cytotoxic stress induced apoptosis in human disc nucleus pulpous (NP) cells. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: 'in vitro' fundamental/basic science study METHODS: NP cells derived from 15 patients undergoing spinal surgery were treated with interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Fas ligand (FasL) or etoposide in the presence of NCCM...
January 9, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089775/degenerative-effects-of-cobalt-chloride-treatment-on-neurons-and-microglia-in-a-porcine-retina-organ-culture-model
#3
S Kuehn, J Hurst, F Rensinghoff, T Tsai, S Grauthoff, Y Satgunarajah, H B Dick, S Schnichels, S C Joachim
In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089419/risk-factors-for-respiratory-failure-of-motor-neuron-disease-in-a-multiracial-asian-population
#4
Xiao Deng, Ying Hao, Bin Xiao, Eng-King Tan, Yew-Long Lo
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating degenerative disorder. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common and severe form of MND. Respiratory failure arising from ventilator musculature atrophy is the most common cause of death for ALS patients. Exploring the factors correlated with respiratory failure can contribute to disease management. PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features of MND and determine the factors that may affect respiratory failure of MND patients...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089260/are-degenerative-rotator-cuff-disorders-a-cause-of-shoulder-pain-comparison-of-prevalence-of-degenerative-rotator-cuff-disease-to-prevalence-of-nontraumatic-shoulder-pain-through-three-systematic-and-critical-reviews
#5
Karl Vincent, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Olivier Gagey
HYPOTHESIS AND BACKGROUND: The role of degeneration is not well understood for rotator cuff pain. If age-related degenerative changes would be the cause of symptoms, degeneration would precede or concur with self-reported pain. We performed 3 systematic literature reviews. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence estimates for rotator cuff partial or complete tears (1) in cadavers and (2) in the general population and (3) to estimate the incidence/prevalence of self-reported nontraumatic shoulder pain in the general population in order to compare their respective age-related profiles...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#6
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087442/hydrogen-sulfide-protects-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mitochondrial-injury-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-and-ameliorates-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#7
Daoliang Xu, Haiming Jin, Jianxia Wen, Jiaoxiang Chen, Deheng Chen, Ningyu Cai, Yongli Wang, Jianle Wang, Yu Chen, Xiaolei Zhang, Xiangyang Wang
It has been suggested that excessive apoptosis in intervertebral disc cells induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, is related to the process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, has drawn attention for its anti-apoptosis role in various pathophysiological processes in degenerative diseases. To date, there has been no investigation of the correlation of H2S production and IVDD or of the effects of H2S on IL-1β-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087395/lumbar-spinal-muscles-and-spinal-canal-study-by-mri-three-dimensional-reconstruction-in-adult-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#8
Louis Boissière, Bertrand Moal, Olivier Gille, Elise De-Roquefeuil, Muriel Durieux, Ibrahim Obeid, Vincent Dousset, Jean-Marc Vital, Wafa Skalli
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative disc disease most common manifestation. If stenosis degree seems poorly related to symptom severity, lumbar muscles role is recognized. Many studies report imaging methods, to analyze muscle volumes and fat infiltration (FI), but remain limited due to the difficulty to represent entire muscle volume variability. Recently a 3D muscle reconstruction protocol (using the deformation of a parametric specific object method (DPSO) and three point Dixon images) was reported...
January 10, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087283/benefits-of-using-the-ultrasonic-bonescalpel%C3%A2-in-temporomandibular-joint-reconstruction
#9
Rebeka Silva, Rishi Gupta, Gianluca Tartaglia, Stephen Connelly
PURPOSE: The main objective of this retrospective study is to analyze and report on our operative experiences and outcomes using the ultrasonic BoneScalpel™ (BoneScalpel) versus a conventional reciprocating saw (RecipSaw) for the purpose of completing the osteotomies in total temporomandibular joint reconstruction (TJR) surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 23 consecutive patients presented with a diagnosis of either degenerative joint disease (n = 23), a failing autogenous TJR (n = 1), heterotrophic bone formation (n = 1) or a subcondylar fracture (n = 1) for a total of 26 joints that received a TJR...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#10
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#11
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086781/effects-of-the-intradiscal-implantation-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-plus-platelet-rich-plasma-in-patients-with-degenerative-disc-disease
#12
Comella Kristin, Silbert Robert, Parlo Michelle
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue and platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be obtained from peripheral blood. The SVF contains a mixture of cells including ADSCs and growth factors and has been depleted of the adipocyte (fat cell) population. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering SVF and PRP intra-discally into patients with degenerative disc disease. METHODS: A total of 15 patients underwent a local tumescent liposuction procedure to remove approximately 60 ml of fat tissue...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079507/do-micrornas-have-a-key-epigenetic-role-in-osteoarthritis-and-in-mechanotransduction
#13
REVIEW
Anna De Palma, Sara Cheleschi, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Sara Tenti, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease affecting joint tissues. The pathogenesis of OA is complex and poorly understood, as well as the multiple factors contributing to its development and progression. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as regulators of cartilage biology and in the pathogenesis of OA. It has been demonstrated that mechanical loading, important for the regulation of cartilage metabolism, affects miRNAs expression. Furthermore, miRNAs present in human plasma and in synovial fluid could represent promising biological markers for OA...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078641/staple-line-leak-after-primary-sleeve-gastrectomy-risk-factors-and-mid-term-results-do-patients-still-benefit-from-the-weight-loss-procedure
#14
Frank Benedix, Oliver Poranzke, Daniele Adolf, Stephanie Wolff, Hans Lippert, Jörg Arend, Thomas Manger, Christine Stroh
BACKGROUND: Staple line leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) still represents the most feared complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are factors that increase the risk for a leakage. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the impact of a leak on weight change and resolution of comorbidities. METHODS: Since 2005, data from obese patients that undergo bariatric procedures in Germany are prospectively registered. For the current analysis, all adult subjects that had undergone primary LSG from 2005 to 2014 were considered...
January 11, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078606/arterial-stiffness-in-aortic-stenosis-relationship-with-severity-and-echocardiographic-procedures-response
#15
Giuseppe Bruschi, Alessandro Maloberti, Paola Sormani, Giulia Colombo, Stefano Nava, Paola Vallerio, Francesca Casadei, Jolie Bruno, Antonella Moreo, Bruno Merlanti, Claudio Russo, Fabrizio Oliva, Silvio Klugmann, Cristina Giannattasio
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis (AS) is more than only a degenerative disease, it could be also an atherosclerotic-like process involving the valve instead of the vessels. Little is known about the relation of arterial stiffness and AS. AIM: We sought to determine wether pulse wave velocity (PWV), is related to AS severity and to the procedures response, both as surgical aortic-valve-replacement (AVR) and trascatheter-aortic-valve-implantation (TAVI). METHODS: 30 patients with severe AS were treated (15 AVR, 15 TAVI)...
January 11, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078564/mri-measurements-of-brainstem-structures-in-patients-with-vascular-parkinsonism-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Byeong C Kim, Seong-Min Choi, Kang-Ho Choi, Tai-Seung Nam, Joon-Tae Kim, Seung-Han Lee, Man-Seok Park, Woong Yoon
Magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brainstem structures have been reported to be useful in differentiating patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from those with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative measurements of brainstem structures on MR images can help differentiate vascular parkinsonism (VaP) from degenerative parkinsonism (PD and PSP). Areas of the midbrain and pons, and widths of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) were measured in 62 patients with PD, 25 patients with PSP (11 probable and 14 possible), and 24 patients with VaP on T 1-weighted MR images...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078315/degenerative-ataxias-challenges-in-clinical-research
#17
REVIEW
Sub H Subramony
The degenerative ataxias are a very heterogeneous group of disorders that include numerous genetic diseases as well as apparently "sporadic" entities. There has been an explosion of discoveries related to genetic defects and related pathomechanisms that has brought us to the threshold of meaningful therapies in some but not all of these diseases. There also continues to be lack of knowledge of the causation of disease in a sizeable proportion of these patients. The overall rarity of ataxias as a whole and certainly of the individual genetic entities together with slow and variable progression and variable prognosis in juxtaposition with a rapid development of possible therapies in the horizon such as gene replacement and gene knock-down strategies places the ataxias in a unique position distinct from other similar neurodegenerative diseases...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078067/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-reduces-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-c2c12-myoblasts-by-regulating-expression-of-apoptotic-proteins
#18
Felicia Carotenuto, Dario Coletti, Paolo Di Nardo, Laura Teodori
Impaired regeneration and consequent muscle wasting is a major feature of muscle degenerative diseases. Nutritional interventions such as adjuvant strategy for preventing these conditions are recently gaining increasing attention. Ingestion of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as having a positive impact on muscle diseases. We recently demonstrated that a diet enriched with plant derived n3-fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), exerts potent beneficial effects in preserving skeletal muscle regeneration in models of muscle dystrophy...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077570/ktcnlncdb-a-first-platform-to-investigate-lncrnas-expressed-in-human-keratoconus-and-non-keratoconus-corneas
#19
Michał W Szcześniak, Michal Kabza, Justyna A Karolak, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Dorota M Nowak, Barbara Ginter-Matuszewska, Piotr Polakowski, Rafal Ploski, Jacek P Szaflik, Marzena Gajecka
Keratoconus (KTCN, OMIM 148300) is a degenerative eye disorder characterized by progressive stromal thinning that leads to a conical shape of the cornea, resulting in optical aberrations and even loss of visual function. The biochemical background of the disease is poorly understood, which motivated us to perform RNA-Seq experiment, aimed at better characterizing the KTCN transcriptome and identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might be involved in KTCN etiology. The in silico functional studies based on predicted lncRNA:RNA base-pairings led us to recognition of a number of lncRNAs possibly regulating genes with known or plausible links to KTCN...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076987/antioxidant-activity-and-cholinesterase-inhibition-studies-of-four-flavouring-herbs-from-alentejo
#20
Sílvia Arantes, Andreia Piçarra, Fátima Candeias, A Teresa Caldeira, M Rosário Martins
Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power...
January 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
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