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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548892/immune-related-neurological-toxicities-among-solid-tumor-patients-treated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#1
Mostafa Eltobgy, Hani Oweira, Ulf Petrausch, Daniel Helbling, Jan Schmidt, Arianeb Mehrabi, Othmar Schöb, Anwar Giryes, Michael Decker, Omar Abdel-Rahman
Immune-related neurologic toxicities are uncommon but serious adverse events that may be associated with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The objective of this review is to assess the incidence and risk of neurologic toxicities which are potentially immune-related and occur with immune checkpoint treatment of solid tumors. Areas covered: PubMed database has been searched till January 2017. Clinical trials, case series and case reports reporting the occurrence of immune-related neurologic toxicities in solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were included...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548710/measurement-of-glycine-in-healthy-and-tumorous-brain-by-triple-refocusing-mrs-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-vivo
#2
Vivek Tiwari, Zhongxu An, Sandeep K Ganji, Jeannie Baxter, Toral R Patel, Edward Pan, Bruce E Mickey, Elizabeth A Maher, Marco C Pinho, Changho Choi
Glycine (Gly) has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including malignant brain tumors. The precise measurement of Gly is challenging largely as a result of the spectral overlap with myo-inositol (mI). We report a new triple-refocusing sequence for the reliable co-detection of Gly and mI at 3 T and for the evaluation of Gly in healthy and tumorous brain. The sequence parameters were optimized with density-matrix simulations and phantom validation. With a total TE of 134 ms, the sequence gave complete suppression of the mI signal between 3...
May 26, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548599/an-extent-of-resection-threshold-for-seizure-freedom-in-patients-with-low-grade-gliomas
#3
David S Xu, Al-Wala Awad, Chad Mehalechko, Jeffrey R Wilson, Lynn S Ashby, Stephen W Coons, Nader Sanai
OBJECTIVE Seizures are the most common presenting symptom of newly diagnosed WHO Grade II gliomas (low-grade glioma [LGG]) and significantly impair quality of life. Although gross-total resection of LGG is associated with better seizure control, it remains unclear whether an extent of resection (EOR) "threshold" exists for long-term seizure control. Specifically, what proportion of FLAIR-positive tissue in patients with newly diagnosed LGG must be removed to achieve Engel Class I seizure freedom? To clarify the EOR threshold for long-term seizure control, the authors analyzed data from a consecutive series of patients with newly diagnosed LGG who presented with seizures and subsequently underwent microsurgical resection...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548479/insular-gliomas-a-surgical-reappraisal-based-on-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Domenico Murrone, Rodolfo Maduri, Afif Afif, Domenico Chirchiglia, Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat, Jacques Guyotat, Francesco Signorelli
INTRODUCTION: Insular gliomas are heterogeneous lesions whose management presents multiple challenges for their tendency to affect young patients in good neurological and cognitive conditions, their deep anatomic location and proximity with critical functional and vascular structures. The appropriate management of insular gliomas requires a multidisciplinary evidence-centred teamwork grounded on the best anatomic, neurophysiological and oncological knowledge. The present study provides a reappraisal of the management of insular gliomas based on a systematic review of the literature with the aim of guiding clinicians in the management of such tumors...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546872/cervical-osteochondroma-with-neurological-symptoms-literature-review-and-a-case-report
#5
Iraj Lotfinia, Amir Vahedi, Kamkar Aeinfar, Richard S Tubbs, Payman Vahedi
INTRODUCTION: Osteochondromas are common benign tumors of bone and spinal involvement is uncommon. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to adjacent neural structures. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we present a case of solitary osteochondroma arising from the posterior arch of C1, causing left-sided ascending numbness and paresthesia and difficulty walking. The lesion was totally resected through a posterior approach...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546328/microrna-15a-16-1-antagomir-ameliorates-ischemic-brain-injury-in-experimental-stroke
#6
Xinxin Yang, Xuelian Tang, Ping Sun, Yejie Shi, Kai Liu, Sulaiman H Hassan, R Anne Stetler, Jun Chen, Ke-Jie Yin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysregulation of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in plasma has been reported in patients with stroke as a potential biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic use. However, the essential role and therapeutic potential of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic stroke are poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the regulatory role of the miR-15a/16-1 cluster in ischemic brain injury and insight mechanisms. METHODS: Adult male miR-15a/16-1 knockout and wild-type mice, or adult male C57 BL/6J mice injected via tail vein with the miR-15a/16-1-specific inhibitor (antagomir, 30 pmol/g), were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 72 hours of reperfusion...
May 25, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542306/gene-signature-associated-with-benign-neurofibroma-transformation-to-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#7
Marta Martínez, Carlos O S Sorzano, Alberto Pascual-Montano, Jose M Carazo
Benign neurofibromas, the main phenotypic manifestations of the rare neurological disorder neurofibromatosis type 1, degenerate to malignant tumors associated to poor prognosis in about 10% of patients. Despite efforts in the field of (epi)genomics, the lack of prognostic biomarkers with which to predict disease evolution frustrates the adoption of appropriate early therapeutic measures. To identify potential biomarkers of malignant neurofibroma transformation, we integrated four human experimental studies and one for mouse, using a gene score-based meta-analysis method, from which we obtained a score-ranked signature of 579 genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540905/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-bourneville-pringle-disease-in-a-25-year-old-female-with-bilateral-renal-angiomyolipoma-and-secondary-hypertension
#8
Sahar El Aoud, Faten Frikha, Mouna Snoussi, Raida Ben Salah, Zouhir Bahloul
Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurocutaneous disorder that variably affects the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and other organs. It is characterized by skin and renal lesions in addition to central and peripheral nervous system tumors, with neurological and psychiatric findings. We report such a rare case of tuberous sclerosis in a 25-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and hypertension. Physical examination showed dermatological signs that included hypopigmented maculae, shagreen plaque, angiofibromas on the centrofacial areas, periungual fibromas on toes, and molluscum pendulum around the neck...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536991/diffuse-midline-skull-base-meningiomas-identification-of-a-rare-and-aggressive-subgroup-of-meningiomas
#9
Matthieu Peyre, Loïc Feuvret, Marc Sanson, Soledad Navarro, Anne-Laure Boch, Hugues Loiseau, Michel Kalamarides
Skull base meningiomas may present as clinically aggressive tumors despite being histologically benign. Here we describe a clinico-radiological entity of diffuse midline skull base meningiomas responsible for several neurological morbidities, including hearing and vision loss, intracranial hypertension, secondary hydrocephalus and tonsillar herniation with spinal cord compression. Surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective in stopping the clinical course of those tumors. After targeted sequencing of known mutated genes in meningiomas, we discovered TRAF7 mutations in two out of four tumors, stressing the importance of focusing the research efforts of the meningioma community in understanding the mechanisms underlying TRAF7 related meningioma tumorigenesis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535981/protective-effect-of-remote-limb-post-conditioning-via-upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-bdnf-pathway-in-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#10
Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev Taliyan
AIM: Remote ischemic Post Conditioning (RIPOC) has shown to be neuroprotective against cerebral Ischemic Reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the RIPOC protection against I/R injury induced cognitive abnormalities still remains elusive. Abundant evidence from earlier studies highlighted the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neuronal survival in various neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the possible contribution of HO-1 in RIPOC mediated neuroprotection against cerebral I/R injury and associated cognitive deficits...
May 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533876/-surgical-treatment-of-spinal-bone-metastases
#11
REVIEW
Abderrazzak El Saqui, Mohamed Aggouri, Mohamed Benzagmout, Khalid Chakour, Mohamed El Faiz Chaoui
Surgery for metastatic tumor is usually a palliative surgery, especially for spinal metastases, due to their anatomical localization. Surgical procedure should be accurately established to have simple outcomes and to start adjuvant treatment as soon as clinically possible. Therapeutic strategy should proceed after multidisciplinary consultation meeting (RCP). The main risk of spinal bone metastases is neurological, hence this surgery should be most commonly preventive. Its main objective is to improve patient's quality of life...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531394/predictive-factors-of-early-mortality-after-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-placement-the-importance-of-c-reactive-protein
#12
Mara Barbosa, Joana Magalhaes, Carla Marinho, Jose Cotter
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is considered one of the preferred routes for long-term enteral feeding. However, early mortality after PEG placement is high. We aimed at analyzing overall and early mortality in patients who underwent PEG insertion and at identifying risk factors of increased mortality after the procedure. METHODS: Retrospective study which included patients who had a PEG insertion at our department between May 2007 and January 2013...
August 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530316/-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-adenomas
#13
REVIEW
Or Cohen-Inbar
Pituitary adenomas represent one of the most common types of intracranial tumors, accounting for 10-20% of intracranial tumors. While their macroscopic appearance and anatomical location are relatively homogeneous, pituitary tumors differ widely, generating a variety of neurological and endocrine clinical sequelae. Treatment options include hormone suppressive medical therapy, microscopic or endoscopic neurosurgical resection, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, or observation depending on the biochemical profile and the clinical status of the patient...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530107/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-in-a-young-patient-with-obstructive-colorectal-signet-ring-cell-adenocarcinoma
#14
Alejandro Lusilla, Jorge de Tomás
We present the case report of a twenty-five-year-old Moroccan male patient who suffered from leptomeningeal carcinomatosis related to a signet-ring cell carcinoma of the rectum. He presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, constipation, weight loss and rectal bleeding. The rectal examination showed a rectal tumor and a CT scan revealed a large bowel obstruction due to rectal diffuse thickening. An emergency transverse colostomy was performed, with a rectal biopsy and a cytological sample collection...
May 22, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529055/intraoperative-mapping-and-monitoring-of-the-pyramidal-tract-using-endoscopic-depth-electrodes
#15
Yukinori Akiyama, Shunya Ohtaki, Katsuya Komatsu, Kentaro Toyama, Rei Enatsu, Takeshi Mikami, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor function during neuroendoscopic resectioning of deep-seated brain tumors using endoscopically guided depth electrodes. METHODS: For 12 cases of thalamic tumors including high-grade gliomas, germinomas, and malignant lymphomas, depth electrodes were inserted using endoscopic guides between the tumor and the pyramidal tract in the thalamus. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were continuously recorded during neuroendoscopic resectioning of the tumors...
May 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527875/magnolol-attenuates-the-inflammation-and-apoptosis-through-the-activation-of-sirt1-in-experimental-stroke-rats
#16
Dong-Quan Kou, Yan-Ling Jiang, Jia-Hua Qin, Yin-Hui Huang
BACKGROUND: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, plays a protective role in ischemic brain injury. Previous studies have shown that magnolol has a beneficial effect on ischemic stroke; however, the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of magnolol against cerebral ischemia has not been investigated. METHODS: We used a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Before stroke induction, the rats received intraperitoneal injections of magnolol with or without the SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527574/nuclear-receptor-tlx-in-development-and-diseases
#17
Guoqiang Sun, Qi Cui, Yanhong Shi
The nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a transcription factor that is critical for neural development and adult neurogenesis through its actions in regulating neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and fate determination. These roles are primarily executed by regulating TLX downstream target genes involved in myriad pathways such as cell cycle progression, RNA processing, angiogenesis, and senescence. Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of TLX pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders and brain tumors...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527387/analysis-of-electroencephalogram-characteristics-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-patients-in-china
#18
Yan Zhang, Gang Liu, Meng Di Jiang, Li Ping Li, Ying Ying Su
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients admitted to the Department of Neurology between January 2012 and June 2016 were enrolled. All patients underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) at least once in the disease peak stage, and received tumor screening, symptomatic therapy, and immunotherapy. Patients received outcome evaluation every 6months after the immunotherapy, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2 was defined as favorable outcome...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527076/the-role-of-visual-system-in-migraine
#19
Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Alessandra Criscuoli
The visual system is involved in different ways in migraine. Visual auras are the most common form of migraine aura. It may consist of positive or negative visual symptoms and cortical spreading depression is felt to be the phenomenon that underlies it. Even in migraine without aura, vision it is not totally excluded given that one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of migraine is photophobia. In persistent visual aura, patients refer symptoms defined as visual snow and television static. In retinal migraine unilateral decreased vision or complete visual loss occurs...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527004/comparative-volumetric-analysis-of-the-extent-of-resection-of-molecularly-and-histologically-distinct-low-grade-gliomas-and-its-role-on-survival
#20
Chikezie I Eseonu, Francisco Eguia, Karim ReFaey, Oscar Garcia, Fausto J Rodriguez, Kaisorn Chaichana, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
The authors investigate the role of extent of resection (EOR) and genetic markers on patient outcome and survival for LGGs. We conducted a retrospective cohort between 2005 and 2015, of 109 adult patients who underwent surgery for a LGG by a single surgeon. Volumetric computations of MRI studies were conducted to evaluate the EOR, and genetic markers (IDH1, 1p/19q co-deletion, and p53) were assessed and their effects on survival and neurological outcome were evaluated. The median EOR was 88.1%. Permanent postoperative neurological deficits were seen in 4...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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