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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918496/recurrent-papillary-craniopharyngioma-with-brafv600e-mutation-treated-with-neoadjuvant-targeted-therapy
#1
Elham Rostami, Petra Witt Nyström, Sylwia Libard, Johan Wikström, Olivera Casar-Borota, Olafur Gudjonsson
Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign but locally aggressive tumors in the sellar region that may cause devastating neurological and endocrine deficits. They tend to recur following surgery with high morbidity; hence, postoperative radiotherapy is recommended following sub-total resection. BRAFV600E mutation is the principal oncogenic driver in the papillary variant of craniopharyngiomas. Recently, a dramatic tumor reduction has been reported in a patient with BRAFV600E mutated, multiply recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma using a combination therapy of BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib...
September 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917291/intraoperative-raman-spectroscopy
#2
REVIEW
Michelle Brusatori, Gregory Auner, Thomas Noh, Lisa Scarpace, Brandy Broadbent, Steven N Kalkanis
Surgical excision of brain tumors provides a means of cytoreduction and diagnosis while minimizing neurologic deficit and improving overall survival. Despite advances in functional and three-dimensional stereotactic navigation and intraoperative MRI, delineating tissue in real time with physiologic confirmation is challenging. Raman spectroscopy has potential to be an important modality in the intraoperative evaluation of tissue during surgical resection. In vitro experimental studies have shown that this technique can be used to differentiate normal brain tissue from tissue with infiltrating cancer cells and dense cancerous masses with high specificity, indicating the feasibility of this method for in vivo application...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917278/combining-functional-studies-with-intraoperative-mri-in-glioma-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Daria Krivosheya, Sujit S Prabhu
Maximal safe resection is the cornerstone of treatment for low-grade and high-grade gliomas. In addition to high-resolution anatomic MRI studies that highlight tumor architecture, it is important to determine the relationship of the tumor to the eloquent cortical and subcortical areas to avoid introducing or exacerbating a neurologic deficit. The goal of this review was to highlight imaging modalities that provide functional information and can be integrated with intraoperative MRI navigation to maximize the extent of resection while preserving a patient's neurologic function...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912682/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Federica Ciregia, Andrea Urbani, Giuseppe Palmisano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs), and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911884/anti-vegf-treatment-improves-neurological-function-in-tumors-of-the-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Na Zhang, Jie Chen, Gino Ferraro, Limeng Wu, Meenal Datta, Rakesh K Jain, Scott R Plotkin, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Lei Xu
Research of various diseases of the nervous system has shown that VEGF has direct neuroprotective effects in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and indirect effects on improving neuronal vessel perfusion which leads to nerve protection. In the tumors of the nervous system, VEGF plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. The effect of anti-VEGF treatment on nerve protection and function has been recently reported - by normalizing the tumor vasculature, anti-VEGF treatment is able to relieve nerve edema and deliver oxygen more efficiently into the nerve, thus reducing nerve damage and improving nerve function...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905151/the-role-of-the-neural-niche-in-brain-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
Cancers with neurologic metastasis are a burdensome affliction. As primary cancer care improves, the incidence of metastatic cancer increases as a result of prolonged survival time. Because of this, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis are important for the development of continuing management strategies. Knowing how metastatic tumor cells engage, survive, and proliferate in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important first step in developing treatment paradigms. The neural niche is the soil of the CNS that accommodates tumor cells, is a microenvironment of cell signaling that exists between the tumor cell and the native neural cellular network...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904989/antibodies-to-trim46-are-associated-with-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#8
Marleen H van Coevorden-Hameete, Sam F B van Beuningen, Matthieu Perrenoud, Lena M Will, Esther Hulsenboom, Jean-Francois Demonet, Lidia Sabater, Johan M Kros, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Maarten J Titulaer, Esther de Graaff, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Casper C Hoogenraad
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are often characterized by the presence of antineuronal antibodies in patient serum or cerebrospinal fluid. The detection of antineuronal antibodies has proven to be a useful tool in PNS diagnosis and the search for an underlying tumor. Here, we describe three patients with autoantibodies to several epitopes of the axon initial segment protein tripartite motif 46 (TRIM46). We show that anti-TRIM46 antibodies are easy to detect in routine immunohistochemistry screening and can be confirmed by western blotting and cell-based assay...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#9
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903184/dexmedetomidine-exerts-neuroprotective-effect-via-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Min Shen, Shan Wang, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Yong-Jian Wang, Xiu-Min Zhou, Man-He Zhang, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in rats suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. METHODS: A weight drop model was performed for TBI model establishment. A total of 150 Sprague Dawley rats were selected and assigned into control, sham, TBI, TBI+Dex, TBI+LY294002 (LY) and TBI+Dex+LY groups. Modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) was conducted in order to evaluate the neurological injury...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Lei-Lei Mao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902359/isoastragaloside-i-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-bv-2-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#12
Hongshuai Liu, Fei Huang, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Xiaojun Wu, Zhibi Hu
The excessive activation of microglia in many neurodegenerative diseases is detrimental to neuronal survival. Isoastragaloside I (ISO I) is a natural saponin molecule found within the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a famous traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects and the mechanisms of action of ISO I on activated BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated. ISO I dose‑dependently inhibited the excessive release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900754/surgery-versus-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-meningiomas-in-neurofibromatosis-type-2-illustrative-case-and-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Thien Nguyen, Lawrance K Chung, John P Sheppard, Nikhilesh S Bhatt, Cheng Hao Jacky Chen, Carlito Lagman, Tania Kaprealian, Percy Lee, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Isaac Yang
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic neoplastic disorder that presents with hallmark bilateral vestibular schwannomas and multiple meningiomas. Though the current standard of care for meningiomas includes surgery, the multiplicity of meningiomas in NF2 patients renders complete resection of all developing lesions infeasible. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be a viable non-invasive therapeutic alternative to surgery. We describe a particularly challenging case in a 39-year-old male with over 120 lesions who underwent more than 30 surgical procedures, and review the literature...
September 13, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898798/free-disease-long-term-survival-in-primary-thoracic-spine-leiomyosarcoma-after-total-en-bloc-spondylectomy-a-case-report
#14
José Ramirez-Villaescusa, Adriana Canosa-Fernández, Antonio Martin-Benlloch, David Ruiz-Picazo, Jesús López-Torres Hidalgo
INTRODUCTION: To describe an unusual primary vertebral leiomyosarcoma in thoracic spine. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An isolated lesion of the T11 vertebra in a 62-year-old woman with no neurologic deficit is reported. Imaging findings indicated a nonspecific high-grade malignant lesion. TC-guided biopsy failed thus open incisional biopsy was needed. A diagnosis of low-intermediate mesenchymal sarcoma was made. A total en bloc spondylectomy of T11 was performed with three-column reconstruction...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895098/recurrent-cerebral-attack-caused-by-thrombosis-in-the-pulmonary-vein-stump-in-a-patient-with-left-upper-lobectomy-on-anticoagulant-therapy-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Takahito Nakano, Mayumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Kaneda
BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation in the pulmonary vein stump after pulmonary resection has recently been identified as a cause of systemic thrombosis including brain infarction. However, there is limited research focusing on the clinical course of pulmonary vein stump thrombus, and optimal treatment and prevention strategies of this important complication have not been established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung cancer of the left upper lobe, cT4N2M0, cStage IIIB...
September 11, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894709/prognosis-and-risk-factors-influencing-recurrence-in-surgery-treated-patients-with-primary-sacral-tumors
#16
Xiliang Dang, Liping Lian, Dongsheng Wu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the prognosis and risk factors influencing tumor recurrence in surgery-treated patients with primary sacral tumors. METHODS: Fifty-six patients between February 2011 and December 2016 in Yishui Central Hospital with primary sacral tumors were selected and treated with radical surgeries. The perioperative outcomes and postoperative neurological functions were observed. After postoperative follow-up, the overall survival time (OS), disease-free survival time (DFS), and recurrence were recorded to analyze the potential risk factors influencing tumor recurrence...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891898/vascular-anomalies-of-posterior-fossa-and-their-implications
#17
Rajani Singh, Raj Kumar, Arushi Kumar
Posterior fossa houses very vital and sensitive structures namely midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. These structures are irrigated by vertebral, posterior inferior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries. Parts of brain located in posterior fossa control important parts of body so any variation pertaining to stenosis, atresia, hypoplasia, fenestration, agenesis, and duplication in the arteries supplying these parts alter the irrigation pattern culminating into various morbid and mortal neurologic disorders...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890044/recursive-partitioning-analysis-for-disease-progression-in-adult-intracranial-ependymoma-patients
#18
Sang Woo Song, Yun-Sik Dho, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Sung-Hye Park, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Il Han Kim, Sang Hyung Lee, Chul-Kee Park
Intracranial ependymomas are rare tumors in adults. Although recent advancements from demographic, clinical, and biological studies provide new perspectives on this rare tumor, they are not yet widely applied in clinical practice. Currently, most ependymoma patients are treated in the same way: via surgical resection with adjuvant radiation therapy. However, it is reasonable to apply more aggressive treatment for high-risk patients. From this point of view, we performed a study to investigate risk grouping for disease progression of intracranial ependymomas in adults...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890010/lumbosacral-subdural-hematoma-following-glioblastoma-multiforme-resection-possible-radiographic-evidence-for-the-downward-migration-of-intracranial-blood
#19
Gabriella M Paisan, Thomas J Buell, Daniel Raper, Ashok Asthagiri
Spinal subdural hematomas (SSDHs) are rare and usually associated with bleeding diatheses, trauma, iatrogenic injury, spinal vascular malformations, or intraspinal tumors. We report a case of a 75-year-old male who developed a symptomatic lumbosacral SSDH after undergoing resection of a right temporal glioblastoma multiforme. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged home. Over the next two weeks he developed progressively worsening symptoms of lower back pain, lower extremity weakness, and urinary retention...
September 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884726/-polyneuropathies-in-intestinal-diseases
#20
I V Damulin, D A Degterev
Different aspects of polyneuropathies (PN) developed due to the deficit of group B vitamins in intestinal diseases are considered. Neurological disturbances related to intestinal diseases are caused by malabsorption that leads to the deficit of some compounds extremely important for normal cell metabolism, pathological changes of mucous coat of the stomach and intestine and higher sensitivity to the plant protein gluten. Vitamin B12 deficit can lead to a number of neurological disturbances; patients with pernicious anemia most often develop myelopathy and PN...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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