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Neurological tumors

Zühtü Özbek, Hasan Emre Aydin, Atacan Emre Koçman, Emre Özkara, Erdem Söztutar, Ezgi Bektur, Murat Vural, Aydan Köse, Ali Arslantaş, Cengiz Bayçu
AIM: In this study, we investigated the effects of genistein in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury and complete sciatic nerve transection. The effects of genistein were compared with those of gabapentin, which is widely used in clinical practice for peripheral nerve injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8 for all groups): group 1 (sham); group 2, sciatic nerve crush injury (control); group 3, sciatic nerve crush injury + genistein 20 mg/kg; group 4, sciatic nerve crush injury + gabapentin 90 mg/kg; group 5, sciatic nerve transection + genistein 20 mg/kg; group 6, sciatic nerve transection + gabapentin 90 mg/kg...
September 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Masateru Nagae, Yasuo Mikami, Kentaro Mizuno, Tomohisa Harada, Takumi Ikeda, Hitoshi Tonomura, Ryota Takatori, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
INTRODUCTION: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is useful for spinal reconstruction, but can cause complications including new vertebral fractures, neurological disorders and pulmonary embolism. We report a case in PMMA cement used for spinal reconstruction after tumor curettage dislodged and penetrated the gastrointestinal tract. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor at age 27 years. After chemotherapy and tumor resection, the tumor remained...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhen Zeng, Tijiang Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Xiaoxi Chen
Meningiomas are the most common primary nonneuroglial extra-axial neoplasms, which commonly present as spherical or oval masses with a dural attachment. Meningiomas without dural attachment are rare and, according to their locations, are classified into 5 varieties, including intraventricular, deep Sylvain fissure, pineal region, intraparenchymal, or subcortical meningiomas. To the best of our knowledge, intraparenchymal meningioma with cerebriform pattern has never been reported. In this paper, we report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with paroxysmal headaches and progressive loss of vision for 10 months and blindness for 2 weeks...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel K Amponsah, Hui Young Kim, Ik Jae Kwon, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee
: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor of the jaw, and expansional growth of a huge untreated ameloblastoma can result in disturbances in facial aesthetics and function, such as difficulty with mouth opening, swallowing, chewing, breathing, neurologic deficits, and pathologic fractures. Radical wide resection with safety margins and subsequent reconstruction is generally recommended. A fibular free flap (FFF) is commonly used to reconstruct the mandible in order to adequately restore both aesthetic appearance and function...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Prakash Aroor Sarvotham Rao, S N Nagendra Prakash, Somanath Vasudev, M Girish, Arun Srinivas, H P Guru Prasad, P Jayakumar, Venu Gopal Anandaswamy
We present a 62-year-old lady admitted in our hospital with two episodes of acute ischemic stroke about 2 weeks apart. She was evaluated for acute ischemic stroke and was thrombolysed for recent stroke in right MCA territory first time. On further evaluation, she was found to have a RVOT mass. A transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a PFO and a large, 5.1cm×2.3cm, ovoid, well circumscribed, echogenic mass in the right ventricle outflow tract attached by small pedicle to the ventricular side of anterior tricuspid leaflet, partly obstructing the right ventricular outflow tract and protruding through the pulmonic valve during systole...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Noelle V Frey, David L Porter
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are engineered molecules that can be introduced into T cells to enable them to target specific tumor antigens. CAR T cells targeting CD19 have shown promise in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell neoplasms, including those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Notably, durable responses have been observed in patients who had not undergone consolidative stem cell transplant, a finding that correlates with reports of T-cell persistence and B-cell aplasia in studies of anti-CD19 treatment in vivo...
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Jacob A Miller, Elizabeth E Bennett, Roy Xiao, Rupesh Kotecha, Samuel T Chao, Michael A Vogelbaum, Gene H Barnett, Lilyana Angelov, Erin S Murphy, Jennifer S Yu, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, John H Suh, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: The primary dose-limiting toxicity of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is radiation necrosis (RN), which occurs after approximately 5% to 10% of treatments. This adverse event may worsen neurologic deficits, increase the frequency and cost of imaging, and necessitate prolonged treatment with steroids or antiangiogenic agents. Previous investigations have primarily identified lesion size and dosimetric constraints as risk factors for RN in small populations. We hypothesized that disease histology, receptor status, and mutational status are associated with RN...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Pierre R Bourque, Gabrielle Bourque, William Miller, John Woulfe, Jodi Warman Chardon
Perineural invasion is a targeted cellular proliferation guided by neurotrophins, rather than a simple diffusion of tumor in a path of least resistance. Invasion of cranial nerves by squamous cell carcinoma can represent an important diagnostic dilemma. It commonly presents as a distinct clinical neurological syndrome of combined isolated trigeminal and facial neuropathies. The focal cancer source may have been overlooked or remain occult. This case series illustrates diverse clinical presentations and neuroimaging challenges in four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cranial nerves...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Raymond Y Huang, Patrick Y Wen
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international multidisciplinary group whose goal is to improve response criteria and define endpoints for neuro-oncology trials. The RANO criteria for high-grade gliomas attempt to address the issues of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression. Incorporation of advanced MR imaging may eventually help improve the ability of these criteria to define enhancing and nonenhancing disease better. The RANO group has also developed criteria for neurologic response and evaluation of patients receiving immunologic therapies...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault, Fang-Ming Hwang, Chuan Cheng, Cheng-Hui Lin, Hsueh-Yu Li, Li-Ang Lee
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA.Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
O Kalita, K Cwiertka, D Vrána, M Vaverka, L Tučková, M Megová
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor schwannoma (MPNST), also known as malignant schwannoma, is a very rare tumor accounting for only 2% of all sarcomas. The prognosis is relatively poor, with a 5-year survival rate of 46-69%. The treatment of MPNST has not been standardized yet. Mainstay treatment is radical resection. Oncological adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment has equivocal indications with unclear effects. CASE: The case report presents a 55-year-old patient who showed resistance in the medial-ventral area of the left lower limb...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Shusuke Yamamoto, Hideo Hamada, Shoichi Nagai, Satoshi Kuroda
We present a very rare case of suprasellar germinoma that spontaneously regressed before endoscopic biopsy. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital due to headache, polydipsia, and polyuria. Neurological examination performed on admission revealed bitemporal hemianopia. Enhanced MRI demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced tumor mass in the suprasellar region obstructing the foramen of Monro. Tests for all serum tumor markers were negative. Plain X-ray and CT scan were performed once and twice, respectively, for seven days between admission and endoscopic biopsy...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Jessyca Couto Otoni, Julia Noschang, Thábata Yaedu Okamoto, Diego Rosseman Vieira, Michel Souto Mayor Petry, Lucas de Araujo Ramos, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto Barbosa, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Rubens Chojniak
To evaluate the imaging methods used at the emergency department (ED) of a cancer center, with emphasis on computed tomography (CT). A descriptive, retrospective, single-center study was conducted by reviewing imaging exams and medical records, after approval of the institution's Ethics Review Board. The demographic data, cancer history, and imaging exam requested were evaluated for all patients and the indications and results of head, chest, and abdominopelvic CT scans were also evaluated. During the study period, there were 8710 visits to the ED, and 5999 imaging studies were requested in 3788 patients (43...
October 8, 2016: Emergency Radiology
U S Dinesh Kumar, Shyam Prasad Shetty, K R Sujay, Murugesh Wali
Left ventricular (LV) mass is a rare condition, of which the most common is thrombus. Echocardiography is a very useful modality of investigation to evaluate the LV mass. We are reporting a case of LV mass presenting with neurological symptom. The diagnosis of this mass was dilemma as the echocardiographic features were favoring tumor as well as thrombi. Mass (a) measuring 3.8 cm × 1.9 cm attached to the left ventricle apex appeared to be pedunculated tumor and mass (b) measuring 2.4 cm × 1.8 cm attached to the chordae of anterior mitral leaflet resembled a thrombus or an embolized tumor entangled in the chordae...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Jian Zhan, Wenyi Qin, Ying Zhang, Jing Jiang, Hongmei Ma, Qiongli Li, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Zinc finger protein A20 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) functions as a potent negative feedback inhibitor of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling. It exerts these effects by interrupting the activation of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ), the most critical kinase in upstream of NF-kB, and thereby controlling inflammatory homeostasis. We reported previously that electroacupuncture (EA) could effectively suppress IKKβ activation. However, the mechanism underlying these effects was unclear...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Malte Mohme, Klaus Christian Mende, Theresa Krätzig, Rosemarie Plaetke, Kerim Beseoglu, Julian Hagedorn, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Frank W Floeth, Sven O Eicker
Spinal cord or cauda equina compression (SCC) is an increasing challenge in clinical oncology due to a higher prevalence of long-term cancer survivors. Our aim was to determine the clinical relevance of SCC regarding patient outcome depending on different tumor entities and their anatomical localization (extradural/intradural/intramedullary). We retrospectively analyzed 230 patients surgically treated for SCC. Preoperative status for pain and neurological impairment were correlated to the degree of compression, tumor location, and early as well as short-term follow-up outcome parameters...
October 7, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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