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muscular protein synthesis

Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter Ten Dijke, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V Lezhnina, Ivan V Ozerov, Aleksandr M Aliper, Willem M Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Cindy J M Loomans
Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Andrew Magnuson, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Casey M Owens, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( WS: ) of broiler breast muscle (Pectoralis major) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Zhi-Dong Zhou, Wuan-Ting Saw, Eng-King Tan
The coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain (CHCHD)-containing proteins are evolutionarily conserved nucleus-encoded small mitochondrial proteins with important functions. So far, nine members have been identified in this protein family. All CHCHD proteins have at least one functional coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain, which is stabilized by two pairs of disulfide bonds between two helices. CHCHD proteins have various important pathophysiological roles in mitochondria and other key cellular processes...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ruurd C Verheul, Judith C T van Deutekom, Nicole A Datson
Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) in clinical development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) aim to induce skipping of a specific exon of the dystrophin transcript during pre-mRNA splicing. This results in restoration of the open reading frame and consequently synthesis of a dystrophin protein with a shorter yet functional central rod domain. To monitor the molecular therapeutic effect of exon skip-inducing AONs in clinical studies, accurate quantification of pre- and post-treatment exon skip levels is required...
2016: PloS One
Jessica R Terrill, Marisa N Duong, Rufus Turner, Caroline Le Guiner, Amber Boyatzis, Anthony J Kettle, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species...
August 30, 2016: Redox Biology
V V Gayovych, A M Magomedov, O M Makarenko, S I Savohsko
The changes in metabolism of the amine acids, enzymes, electrolytes, fat acids (FA) in skeletal muscles of anterior and posterior extremities of rats in significant defects of peripheral nerve and its autoplasty were studied in experimental investigation. Metabolic changes in skeletal muscles are accompanied by significant intensity of proteolysis, lowering of the enzymes activity, energetic metabolism and in a less extent of the electrolytes balance and the FA metabolism. After autoplasty of big defects in the traumatized nerve the proteins' synthesis and restoration of activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase constitute the markers of muscular tissue restoration...
March 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
Naoyuki Kuwabara, Hiroshi Manya, Takeyuki Yamada, Hiroaki Tateno, Motoi Kanagawa, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Keiko Akasaka-Manya, Yuriko Hirose, Mamoru Mizuno, Mitsunori Ikeguchi, Tatsushi Toda, Jun Hirabayashi, Toshiya Senda, Tamao Endo, Ryuichi Kato
The dystrophin glycoprotein complex, which connects the cell membrane to the basement membrane, is essential for a variety of biological events, including maintenance of muscle integrity. An O-mannose-type GalNAc-β1,3-GlcNAc-β1,4-(phosphate-6)-Man structure of α-dystroglycan (α-DG), a subunit of the complex that is anchored to the cell membrane, interacts directly with laminin in the basement membrane. Reduced glycosylation of α-DG is linked to some types of inherited muscular dystrophy; consistent with this relationship, many disease-related mutations have been detected in genes involved in O-mannosyl glycan synthesis...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marzieh Mojbafan, Yalda Nilipour, Seyed Hasan Tonekaboni, Samira Dabbagh Bagheri, Hamideh Bagherian, Zohreh Sharifi, Zahra Zeinali, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Sirous Zeinali
Sarcoglycanopathies (SGPs) constitute a subgroup of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) which are caused by mutations in sarcoglycan (SGs) genes. SG proteins form a core complex consisting of α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans which are encoded by SGCA, SGCB, SGCG and SGCD genes, respectively. Genetic defect, in any of these SG proteins, results in instability of the whole complex. This effect can be helpful in interpreting muscle biopsy results. Autozygosity mapping is a gene mapping approach which can be applied in large consanguineous families for tracking the defective gene in most autosomal recessive disorders...
March 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
Meng Wang, Xiao Ming Zhang, Sheng Bo Yang
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Guillermo Escalante, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock, Phillip Harvey
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3. METHODS: Eighteen healthy strength-trained males were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed MT (n = 8, 22...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Giuseppe D'Antona, Laura Tedesco, Chiara Ruocco, Giovanni Corsetti, Maurizio Ragni, Andrea Fossati, Elisa Saba, Francesca Fenaroli, Mery Montinaro, Michele Carruba, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
AIMS: Myopathy, characterized by mitochondrial oxidative stress, occurs in approximately 10 % of statin-treated patients, and a major risk exists with potent statins, such as rosuvastatin (Rvs). We sought to determine whether a selective branched-chain amino-acid-enriched mixture (BCAAem), found to improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative stress in muscle of middle-aged mice, was able to prevent Rvs myopathy. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation of BCAAem was able to prevent the structural and functional alterations of muscle induced by Rvs in young mice...
June 1, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neurons degeneration and muscular atrophy. There is no effective SMA treatment. Loganin is a botanical candidate with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, glucose-lowering and anti-diabetic nephropathy activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of loganin on SMA using two cellular models, SMN-deficient NSC34 cells and SMA patient fibroblasts, and an animal disease model, SMAΔ7 mice...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ignazio Maggio, Xiaoyu Chen, Manuel A F V Gonçalves
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The DMD gene, spanning over 2.4 megabases along the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21.2), is the largest genetic locus known in the human genome. The size of DMD, combined with the complexity of the DMD phenotype and the extent of the affected tissues, begs for the development of novel, ideally complementary, therapeutic approaches. Genome editing based on the delivery of sequence-specific programmable nucleases into dystrophin-defective cells has recently enriched the portfolio of potential therapies under investigation...
2016: Genome Medicine
Domenico Di Raimondo, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Gaia Musiari, Caterina Schimmenti, Alessandra D'Angelo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: The concept of the muscle as a secretory organ, developed during the last decades, partially answers to the issue of how the crosstalk between skeletal muscle and distant tissues happens. The beneficial effects of exercise transcend the simple improved skeletal muscle functionality: systemic responses to exercise have been observed in distal organs like heart, kidney, brain and liver. Increasing data have accumulated regarding the synthesis, the kinetics of release and the biological roles of muscular cytokines, now called myokines...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Paul G Donlin-Asp, Gary J Bassell, Wilfried Rossoll
Localization and local translation of mRNA plays a key role in neuronal development and function. While studies in various systems have provided insights into molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport and local protein synthesis, the factors that control the assembly of mRNAs and mRNA binding proteins into messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) transport granules remain largely unknown. In this review we will discuss how insights on a motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is advancing our understanding of regulated assembly of transport competent mRNPs and how defects in their assembly and delivery may contribute to the degeneration of motor neurons observed in SMA and other neurological disorders...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Hongbo Zhang, Dongryeol Ryu, Yibo Wu, Karim Gariani, Xu Wang, Peiling Luan, Davide D'Amico, Eduardo R Ropelle, Matthias P Lutolf, Ruedi Aebersold, Kristina Schoonjans, Keir J Menzies, Johan Auwerx
Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice...
June 17, 2016: Science
James McKendry, Alberto Pérez-López, Michael McLeod, Dan Luo, Jessica R Dent, Benoit Smeuninx, Jinglei Yu, Angela E Taylor, Andrew Philp, Leigh Breen
What is the central question of this study? Does shorter rest between sets of resistance exercise promote a superior circulating hormonal and acute muscle anabolic response compared with longer rest periods? What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that short rest (1 min) between sets of moderate-intensity, high-volume resistance exercise blunts the acute muscle anabolic response compared with a longer rest period (5 min), despite a superior circulating hormonal milieu. These data have important implications for the development of training regimens to maximize muscle hypertrophy...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Jeremy P Loenneke, Paul D Loprinzi, Caoileann H Murphy, Stuart M Phillips
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that for older adults evenly distributing consumption of protein at 30-40 g per meal throughout the day may result in more favorable retention of lean mass and muscular strength. Such a thesis has not, to our knowledge, been tested outside of short-term studies or acute measures of muscle protein synthesis. AIMS: To examine whether the number of times an individual consumed a minimum of 30 g of protein at a meal is associated with leg lean mass and knee extensor strength...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ratchakrit Srikuea, Muthita Hirunsai
The recent discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in regenerating muscle raises the question regarding the action of vitamin D3 on skeletal muscle regeneration. To investigate the action of vitamin D3 on this process, the tibialis anterior muscle of male C57BL/6 mice (10 wk of age) was injected with 1.2% BaCl2 to induce extensive muscle injury. The bioactive form of vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] was administered daily via intramuscular injections during the regenerative phase (days 4-7 postinjury). Physiological and supraphysiological doses of 1α,25(OH)2D3 relative to 1 μg/kg muscle wet weight and mouse body weight were investigated...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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