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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535388/transgenerational-inheritance-perpetuating-rnai
#1
Kristen C Brown, Taiowa A Montgomery
Reversible changes in gene expression independent of the genetic code can be transmitted from one generation to the next via poorly understood mechanisms. In worms, a histone-modifying enzyme is necessary to keep small RNA-guided transgenerational gene silencing in check.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535307/intergenerational-impact-of-paternal-lifetime-exposures-to-both-folic-acid-deficiency-and-supplementation-on-reproductive-outcomes-and-imprinted-gene-methylation
#2
Lundi Ly, Donovan Chan, Mahmoud Aarabi, Mylène Landry, Nathalie A Behan, Amanda J MacFarlane, Jacquetta Trasler
STUDY QUESTION: Do paternal exposures to folic acid deficient (FD), and/or folic acid supplemented (FS) diets, throughout germ cell development adversely affect male germ cells and consequently offspring health outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male mice exposed over their lifetimes to both FD and FS diets showed decreased sperm counts and altered imprinted gene methylation with evidence of transmission of adverse effects to the offspring, including increased postnatal-preweaning mortality and variability in imprinted gene methylation...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534516/transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-hoxa13-by-lncrna-hottip-facilitates-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#3
C Lin, Y Wang, Y Wang, S Zhang, L Yu, C Guo, H Xu
The long non-coding RNA, HOTTIP, has an important role in tumorigenesis. It is known that HOTTIP regulates HOX gene family; however, its regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in ESCC and observed that HOTTIP/HOXA13 was upregulated in ESCC and promoted cell proliferation and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, harboring a miR-30b-binding site, HOTTIP as a molecular sponge mainly regulated miR-30b level in the nucleus and modulated the repression of HOXA13 mediated by miR-30b in the cytoplasm, resulting in the positive HOTTIP/HOXA13 correlation...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529571/epigenetic-modulation-associated-with-carcinogenesis-and-prognosis-of-human-gastric-cancer
#4
Fuminori Sonohara, Yoshikuni Inokawa, Masamichi Hayashi, Yasuhiro Kodera, Shuji Nomoto
Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, particularly in Asia. Epidemiological and other clinical studies have identified an association between a number of risk factors, including Helicobacter pylori, and GC. A number of studies have also examined genetic changes associated with the development and progression of GC. When considering the clinical significance of the expression of a specific gene, its epigenetic modulation should be considered. Epigenetic modulation appears to be a primary driver of changes in gastric tissue that promotes carcinogenesis and progression of GC and other neoplasms...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529100/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-gene-regulation-by-long-non-coding-rna
#5
REVIEW
Iain Dykes, Costanza Emanueli
Advances in genomics technology over recent years have led to the surprising discovery that the genome is far more pervasively transcribed than was previously appreciated. Much of the newly-discovered transcriptome appears to represent long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a heterogeneous group of largely uncharacterised transcripts. Understanding the biological function of these molecules represents a major challenge and in this review we discuss some of the progress made to date. One major theme of lncRNA biology seems to be the existence of a network of interactions with microRNA (miRNA) pathways...
May 18, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526340/unfolding-the-pathogenesis-of-scleroderma-through-genomics-and-epigenomics
#6
REVIEW
Pei-Suen Tsou, Amr H Sawalha
With unknown etiology, scleroderma (SSc) is a multifaceted disease characterized by immune activation, vascular complications, and excessive fibrosis in internal organs. Genetic studies, including candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-exome sequencing have supported the notion that while genetic susceptibility to SSc appears to be modest, SSc patients are genetically predisposed to this disease. The strongest genetic association for SSc lies within the MHC region, with loci in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DOA1 being the most replicated...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526334/regulatory-cis-and-trans-elements-of-mitochondrial-d-loop-driven-reporter-genes-in-budding-tunicates
#7
Kaz Kawamura, Yuhya Saitoh, Loriano Ballarin, Takeshi Sunanaga
To unveil the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial gene regulation associated with ageing and budding in the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, mitochondrial non-coding-region (NCR)-containing reporter genes were constructed. PmNCR2.3K/GFP was expressed spatiotemporally in a pattern quite similar to mitochondrial 16SrRNA. The reporter gene expression was sensitive to high dose of rifampicin similar to mitochondrial genes, suggesting that the transcription indeed occurs in mitochondria. However, the gene expression also occurred in vivo in the cell nucleus and in vitro in the nuclear extracts...
May 16, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523554/alzheimer-s-disease-and-histone-code-alterations
#8
Pritika Narayan, Mike Dragunow
Substantial progress has been made in identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk-associated variants using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The majority of these risk variants reside in noncoding regions of the genome making their functional evaluation difficult; however, they also infer the presence of unconventional regulatory regions that may reside at these locations. We know from these studies that rare familial cases of AD account for less than 5% of all AD cases and autosomal dominant mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 account for less than 10% of the genetic basis of these familial cases [1]...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523544/drug-addiction-and-histone-code-alterations
#9
Hee-Dae Kim, Tanessa Call, Samantha Magazu, Deveroux Ferguson
Acute and prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes in gene expression, synaptic function, and neural plasticity in brain regions involved in reward. Numerous genes are involved in this process, and persistent changes in gene expression coincide with epigenetic histone modifications and DNA methylation. Histone modifications are attractive regulatory mechanisms, which can encode complex environmental signals in the genome of postmitotic cells, like neurons. Recently, it has been demonstrated that specific histone modifications are involved in addiction-related gene regulatory mechanisms, by a diverse set of histone-modifying enzymes and readers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521327/epigenomics-pharmacoepigenomics-and-personalized-medicine-in-cervical-cancer
#10
Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Sanjiban Chakrabarty, Supriti Ghosh, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Epigenomics encompasses the study of genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs leading to altered transcription, chromatin structure, and posttranscription RNA processing, respectively, resulting in an altered rate of gene expression. The role of epigenetic modifications facilitating human diseases is well established. Previous studies have identified histone and cytosine code during normal and pathological conditions with special emphasis on how these modifications regulate transcriptional events...
May 19, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518085/analysis-of-chromosome-segregation-histone-acetylation-and-spindle-morphology-in-horse-oocytes
#11
Federica Franciosi, Irene Tessaro, Rozenn Dalbies-Tran, Cecile Douet, Fabrice Reigner, Stefan Deleuze, Pascal Papillier, Ileana Miclea, Valentina Lodde, Alberto M Luciano, Ghylene Goudet
The field of assisted reproduction has been developed to treat infertility in women, companion animals, and endangered species. In the horse, assisted reproduction also allows for the production of embryos from high performers without interrupting their sports career and contributes to an increase in the number of foals from mares of high genetic value. The present manuscript describes the procedures used for collecting immature and mature oocytes from horse ovaries using ovum pick-up (OPU). These oocytes were then used to investigate the incidence of aneuploidy by adapting a protocol previously developed in mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515277/histone-chaperone-hira-regulates-neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-neurogenesis-via-%C3%AE-catenin
#12
Yanxin Li, Jianwei Jiao
Histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA) is a histone chaperone and has been identified as an epigenetic regulator. Subsequent studies have provided evidence that HIRA plays key roles in embryonic development, but its function during early neurogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HIRA is enriched in neural progenitor cells, and HIRA knockdown reduces neural progenitor cell proliferation, increases terminal mitosis and cell cycle exit, and ultimately results in premature neuronal differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that HIRA enhances β-catenin expression by recruiting H3K4 trimethyltransferase Setd1A, which increases H3K4me3 levels and heightens the promoter activity of β-catenin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513547/epigenetic-regulation-of-telomere-maintenance-for-therapeutic-interventions-in-gliomas
#13
REVIEW
Elisabeth Naderlinger, Klaus Holzmann
High-grade astrocytoma of WHO grade 4 termed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common human brain tumor with poor patient outcome. Astrocytoma demonstrates two known telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) based on telomerase activity (TA) and on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). ALT is associated with lower tumor grades and better outcome. In contrast to ALT, regulation of TA in tumors by direct mutation and epigenetic activation of the hTERT promoter is well established. Here, we summarize the genetic background of TMMs in non-malignant cells and in cancer, in addition to clinical and pathological features of gliomas...
May 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506839/evolutionary-relationships-among-protein-lysine-deacetylases-of-parasites-causing-neglected-diseases
#14
Larissa L S Scholte, Marina M Mourão, Fabiano Sviatopolk-Mirsky Pais, Jelena Melesina, Dina Robaa, Angela C Volpini, Wolfgang Sippl, Raymond J Pierce, Guilherme Oliveira, Laila A Nahum
The availability of the genomic data of diverse parasites provides an opportunity to identify new drug candidates against neglected tropical diseases affecting people worldwide. Histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) are potential candidates since they play key roles in the regulation of chromatin modifications, thus globally regulating gene expression. Furthermore, aberrant epigenetic states are often associated with human diseases, leading to great interest in HMEs as therapeutic targets. Our work focused on two families of protein lysine deacetylases (HDACs and sirtuins)...
May 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503202/stabilization-of-foxp3-expression-by-crispr-dcas9-based-epigenome-editing-in-mouse-primary-t-cells
#15
Masahiro Okada, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Kazue Someya, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Akihiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: Epigenome editing is expected to manipulate transcription and cell fates and to elucidate the gene expression mechanisms in various cell types. For functional epigenome editing, assessing the chromatin context-dependent activity of artificial epigenetic modifier is required. RESULTS: In this study, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-dCas9-based epigenome editing to mouse primary T cells, focusing on the Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) gene locus, a master transcription factor of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501850/the-epigenetic-integrator-uhrf1-on-the-road-to-become-a-universal-biomarker-for-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Waseem Ashraf, Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim, Mahmoud Alhosin, Liliyana Zaayter, Khalid Ouararhni, Christophe Papin, Tanveer Ahmad, Ali Hamiche, Yves Mély, Christian Bronner, Marc Mousli
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world causing record number of mortalities in both developed and undeveloped countries. Despite a lot of advances and breakthroughs in the field of oncology still, it is very hard to diagnose and treat the cancers at early stages. Here in this review we analyze the potential of Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and Ring Finger domain 1 (UHRF1) as a universal biomarker for cancers. UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator maintaining DNA methylation and histone code in the cell...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501774/tuning-of-major-signaling-networks-tgf-%C3%AE-wnt-notch-and-hedgehog-by-mirnas-in-human-stem-cells-commitment-to-different-lineages-possible-clinical-application
#17
REVIEW
Sedigheh Fekri Aval, Hajie Lotfi, Roghayeh Sheervalilou, Nosratollah Zarghami
Two distinguishing characteristics of stem cells, their continuous division in the undifferentiated state and growth into any cell types, are orchestrated by a number of cell signaling pathways. These pathways act as a niche factor in controlling variety of stem cells. The core stem cell signaling pathways include Wingless-type (Wnt), Hedgehog (HH), and Notch. Additionally, they critically regulate the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. Conversely, stem cells' main properties, lineage commitment and stemness, are tightly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA-mediated regulatory events...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500253/linc00341-exerts-an-anti-inflammatory-effect-on-endothelial-cells-by-repressing-vcam1
#18
Tse-Shun Huang, Kuei-Chun Wang, Sara Quon, Phu Nguyen, Ting-Yu Chang, Zhen Chen, Yi-Shuan Li, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy, Shu Chien
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which constitute a large portion of the transcriptome, have gained intense research interest because of their roles in regulating physiological and pathophysiological functions in the cell. We identified from RNA-seq profiling a set of lncRNAs in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that are differentially regulated by atheroprotective vs. atheroprone shear flows. Among the comprehensively annotated lncRNAs, including both known and novel transcripts, LINC00341 is one of the most abundant lncRNAs in endothelial cells...
May 12, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500085/the-most-common-vices-of-men-can-damage-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-next-generation
#19
Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox, Michelle Lane
There is growing evidence from animal and human studies that demonstrate that acquired paternal traits can impair both a male's fertility and the health of his offspring, including advanced age, smoking, stress, trauma, under-nutrition, infection, toxin exposure, and obesity. Curiously, many of these factors manifest as impaired neurological, behavioural, and/or metabolic functioning in offspring. The underlying molecular mechanisms that respond to the paternal environment and act as vectors of intergenerational transmission are beginning to emerge...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497038/epigenetics-and-vascular-diseases-influence-of-non-coding-rnas-and-their-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Leonardo Elia, Manuela Quintavalle
Epigenetics refers to heritable mechanisms able to modulate gene expression that do not involve alteration of the genomic DNA sequence. Classically, mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications were part of this classification. Today, this field of study has been expanded and includes also the large class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Indeed, with the extraordinary possibilities introduced by the next-generation sequencing approaches, our knowledge of the mammalian transcriptome has greatly improved...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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