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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771329/regulation-of-the-neuropathy-associated-pmp22-gene-by-a-distal-super-enhancer
#1
Harrison Pantera, John J Moran, Holly A Hung, Evgenia Pak, Amalia Dutra, John Svaren
Peripheral nerve myelination is adversely affected in the most common form of the hereditary peripheral neuropathy called Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. This form, classified as CMT1A, is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17, which includes the abundantly expressed Schwann cell myelin gene, Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22). This is one of the most common copy number variants causing neurological disease. Overexpression of Pmp22 in rodent models recapitulates several aspects of neuropathy, and reduction of Pmp22 in such models results in amelioration of the neuropathy phenotype...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767555/protective-effect-of-the-bet-protein-inhibitor-jq1-in-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#2
Liping Sun, Jing Liu, Yanggang Yuan, Xinzhou Zhang, Zheng Dong
As a potent chemotherapy drug, cisplatin is also notorious for its side effects including nephrotoxicity in kidneys, presenting a pressing need to identify renoprotective agents. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity involves epigenetic regulations, including changes in histone acetylation. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are "readers" of the epigenetic code of histone acetylation. Here, we investigated the potential renoprotective effects of JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of BET proteins. We show that JQ1 significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice as indicated by the measurements of kidney function, histopathology, and renal tubular apoptosis...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762370/molecular-regulations-of-mucosal-maltase-expressions
#3
Toshinao Goda, Kazue Honma
Two major α-glucosidase (maltase) genes, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), respectively, are expressed in the small intestine. In this review, we have summarized whether jejunal expression of these maltase genes is regulated by dietary manipulations, which may affect carbohydrate availability from the luminal side, through changes in the binding of transcription factors and/or histone code on these genes. Studies using a model of mice fed either a low-starch or a high-starch diet for 7 days, found the mRNA levels of SI, MGAM, and Na-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) genes in the jejunum to be increased in parallel by feeding a high-starch diet...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759007/contemporary-trends-emerging-in-epigenomics-and-metabolism
#4
Assam El-Osta
Diabetes is the disease of our time. It is a complex disorder. It is increasingly appreciated that genetic factors cannot fully explain susceptibility to diabetic complications. For almost a decade, the epigenetics field has grown tremendously becoming an alternative but integral component of how we interpret gene regulation. Some consider the field an epiphenomenon with an evidence base awaiting critical testing. The advent of experimental tools combined with the development of research methods have brought with the field technological advancements that allow scientists to assess ideas that have not yet been tested critically...
May 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754779/a-linc1405-eomes-complex-promotes-cardiac-mesoderm-specification-and-cardiogenesis
#5
Xudong Guo, Yanxin Xu, Zikang Wang, Yukang Wu, Jiayu Chen, Guiying Wang, Chenqi Lu, Wenwen Jia, Jiajie Xi, Songcheng Zhu, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Xiaoping Wan, Zhongmin Liu, Shaorong Gao, Jiuhong Kang
Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751673/expression-of-ahdreb1-an-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-gene-from-peanut-is-affected-by-histone-acetylation-and-increases-abscisic-acid-sensitivity-and-tolerance-to-osmotic-stress-in-arabidopsis
#6
Baihong Zhang, Liangchen Su, Bo Hu, Ling Li
Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and development. An increasing number of reports have revealed the involvement of APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors (TFs) in biotic and abiotic stress regulation in plants. However, research on these TFs in the peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) has been limited. Here, we isolated a full-length coding sequence (CDS) of the AP2/ERF family gene AhDREB1 from the peanut plant and showed that its expression was induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000 and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745724/radiosensitivity-and-transgenerational-effects-in-non-human-species
#7
C Adam-Guillermin, T Hertal-Aas, D Oughton, L Blanchard, F Alonzo, O Armant, N Horemans
The ALLIANCE working group on effects of ionising radiation on wildlife brings together European researchers to work on the topics of radiosensitivity and transgenerational effects in non-human biota. Differences in radiation sensitivity across species and phyla are poorly understood, but have important implications for understanding the overall effects of radiation and for radiation protection; for example, sensitive species may require special attention in monitoring and radiation protection, and differences in sensitivity between species also lead to overall effects at higher levels (community, ecosystem), since interactions between species can be altered...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740006/identification-of-target-genes-regulated-by-the-drosophila-histone-methyltransferase-eggless-reveals-a-role-of-decapentaplegic-in-apoptotic-signaling
#8
Igojo Kang, Yourim Choi, Sueun Jung, Jae Yun Lim, Dooyoung Lee, Sumeet Gupta, Woongjoon Moon, Chanseok Shin
Epigenetic gene regulation is essential for developmental processes. Eggless (Egg), the Drosophila orthologue of the mammalian histone methyltransferase, SETDB1, is known to be involved in the survival and differentiation of germline stem cells and piRNA cluster transcription during Drosophila oogenesis; however the detailed mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we investigated target genes regulated by Egg in an unbiased manner. We show that Egg plays diverse roles in particular piRNA pathway gene expression, some long non-coding RNA expression, apoptosis-related gene regulation, and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling during Drosophila oogenesis...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733910/the-contribution-of-cholesterol-and-epigenetic-changes-to-the-pathophysiology-of-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Maliha T Munir, Christopher Ponce, Catherine A Powell, Kaiser Tarafdar, Teru Yanagita, Mahua Choudhury, Lauren S Gollahon, Shaikh M Rahman
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women. Accumulating evidence suggests that cholesterol plays an important role in the development of breast cancer. Even though the mechanistic link between these two factors is not well understood, one possibility is that dysregulated cholesterol metabolism may affect lipid raft and membrane fluidity and can promote tumor development. Current studies have shown oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC) as a critical regulator of cholesterol and breast cancer pathogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732466/novel-insights-into-the-regulation-of-mirna-transcriptional-control-implications-for-t2d-and-related-complications
#10
Lucia La Sala, Stefano Micheloni, Valeria De Nigris, Francesco Prattichizzo, Antonio Ceriello
In recent years, epigenetics has emerged as an important form of biological regulation involving chromatin control of gene expression. The mechanisms of this fine-tuned regulation are susceptible to changes forced by environmental stimuli and nutritional factors and may be potentially reversible. Dysregulation of epigenetic processes has important consequences for the pathogenesis of complex and multifactorial diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vascular complications. Along with DNA methylation (DNA-me), histone modifications and RNA-based mechanisms as the major epigenetic controllers, small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have their own important implications for the pathogenesis of diabetes...
May 7, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732173/alterations-in-sperm-dna-methylation-non-coding-rna-expression-and-histone-retention-mediate-vinclozolin-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease
#11
Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Margaux McBirney, Eric Nilsson, Rachel Klukovich, Yeming Xie, Chong Tang, Wei Yan, Michael K Skinner
Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation can be induced by several toxicants, such as vinclozolin. This phenomenon can involve DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and histone retention, and/or modification in the germline (e.g. sperm). These different epigenetic marks are called epimutations and can transmit in part the transgenerational phenotypes. This study was designed to investigate the vinclozolin-induced concurrent alterations of a number of different epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, ncRNA, and histone retention in rat sperm...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724186/genome-wide-expert-annotation-of-the-epigenetic-machinery-of-the-plant-parasitic-nematodes-meloidogyne-spp-with-a-focus-on-the-asexually-reproducing-species
#12
Loris Pratx, Corinne Rancurel, Martine Da Rocha, Etienne G J Danchin, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Pierre Abad, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch
BACKGROUND: The renewed interest in epigenetics has led to the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle can directly interact with the epigenome to influence its dynamics. Epigenetic phenomena are mediated by DNA methylation, stable chromatin modifications and non-coding RNA-associated gene silencing involving specific proteins called epigenetic factors. Multiple organisms, ranging from plants to yeast and mammals, have been used as model systems to study epigenetics...
May 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722951/-epigenetics-of-male-infertility-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Qi-Jie Zhang, Jie Xu, Chao Qin
Epigenetic factors play an important role in male infertility though about 60%-65% of the disease is idiopathic and its underlying causes are not yet clear. Many studies have indicated that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs, may be involved in idiopathic male infertility. Abnormal methylation is associated with decreased sperm quality and fertility. It is known that 1 881 miRNAs are related to male fertility and such non-coding RNAs as piRNA, IncRNA, and circRNA play a regulating role in male reproduction...
June 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721215/epigenetic-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-gastric-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Zhixia Zhou, Zhijuan Lin, Xin Pang, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Xiang Ao, Peifeng Li, Jianxun Wang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is urgent to explore new molecular biomarkers for early diagnosis, early treatment and prognosis for gastric cancer patients. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic changes, such as aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) expression, play substantial roles in the development and progression of malignancies. Among these changes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a novel class of ncRNAs, are emerging as highly versatile actors in a variety of cellular processes by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic level as well as at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718737/current-knowledge-of-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-drug-metabolism-in-humans
#15
Masataka Nakano, Miki Nakajima
Understanding the factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in drug metabolism potencies is required for the practice of personalized or precision medicine, as well as for the promotion of efficient drug development. The expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is controlled by transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors, epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and post-translational modification. In addition to such regulation mechanisms, recent studies revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through the translational repression and degradation of mRNAs, significantly contribute to post-transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes...
May 2, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#16
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707539/the-emerging-field-of-epitranscriptomics-in-neurodevelopmental-and-neuronal-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Margarita T Angelova, Dilyana G Dimitrova, Nadja Dinges, Tina Lence, Lina Worpenberg, Clément Carré, Jean-Yves Roignant
Analogous to DNA methylation and histone modifications, RNA modifications represent a novel layer of regulation of gene expression. The dynamic nature and increasing number of RNA modifications offer new possibilities to rapidly alter gene expression upon specific environmental changes. Recent lines of evidence indicate that modified RNA molecules and associated complexes regulating and "reading" RNA modifications play key roles in the nervous system of several organisms, controlling both, its development and function...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699480/enhanced-jbrowse-plugins-for-epigenomics-data-visualization
#18
Brigitte T Hofmeister, Robert J Schmitz
BACKGROUND: New sequencing techniques require new visualization strategies, as is the case for epigenomics data such as DNA base modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and histone modifications. RESULTS: We present a set of plugins for the genome browser JBrowse that are targeted for epigenomics visualizations. Specifically, we have focused on visualizing DNA base modifications, small non-coding RNAs, stranded read coverage, and sequence motif density. Additionally, we present several plugins for improved user experience such as configurable, high-quality screenshots...
April 25, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695738/malat1-an-epigenetic-regulator-of-inflammation-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Saumik Biswas, Anu Alice Thomas, Shali Chen, Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Biao Feng, John Gonder, Bekim Sadikovic, Subrata Chakrabarti
Despite possessing limited protein-coding potential, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in a myriad of pathologic conditions. Most well documented in cancer, one prominent intergenic lncRNA known as MALAT1 is notorious for its role in impacting epigenetic mechanisms. In this study, we established a novel epigenetic paradigm for MALAT in diabetic retinopathy (DR) by employing siRNA-mediated MALAT1 knockdown in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), a Malat1 knockout animal model, vitreous humor from diabetic patients, pharmacological inhibitors for histone and DNA methylation, RNA immunoprecipitation, western blotting, and a unique DNA methylation array to determine glucose-related alterations in MALAT1...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695490/acetylation-dependent-recruitment-of-the-fact-complex-and-its-role-in-regulating-pol-ii-occupancy-genome-wide-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Rakesh Pathak, Priyanka Singh, Sudha Ananthakrishnan, Sarah Adamczyk, Olivia Schimmel, Chhabi K Govind
Histone chaperones, chromatin remodelers, and histone modifying complexes play a critical role in alleviating the nucleosomal barrier for DNA-dependent processes. Here, we have examined the role of two highly conserved yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) histone chaperones, FACT and Spt6, in regulating transcription. We show that the H3 tail contributes to the recruitment of FACT to coding sequences in a manner dependent on acetylation. We found that deleting a H3 HAT Gcn5 or mutating lysines on the H3 tail impairs FACT recruitment at ADH1 and ARG1 genes...
April 25, 2018: Genetics
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