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Retina, amd

Elizabeth A Atchison, Ahmed F Omar, Raymond Iezzi, Andrew J Barkmeier, Sophie J Bakri
PURPOSE: To examine the safety outcomes of an intravitreal injection-only clinic where patients needing long-term anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy are treated with injections at a predetermined interval for a set number of injections without an accompanying clinic visit. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of all patients with exudative macular degeneration treated in an intravitreal injection clinic over a 4-year period. Data on the outcome measures of interest were gathered from electronic medical records...
October 18, 2016: Retina
Rogan G Fraser, Rose Tan, Lauren N Ayton, Emily Caruso, Robyn H Guymer, Chi D Luu
Purpose: We determine the feasibility of using a dark-adapted chromatic (DAC) perimeter to obtain dark-adapted static and dynamic rod function at multiple retinal locations, and compare these functional parameters between subjects with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and normal controls. Methods: Perimetric dark-adapted retinal sensitivities for the 505 and 620 nm stimuli across 7 retinal locations within the central 12° were repeatedly measured after exposing to a single photobleach in 22 intermediate AMD subjects and 8 controls...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tatjana Taubitz, Laura-Pia Steinbrenner, Alexander V Tschulakow, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
PURPOSE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are used to treat neovascular eye diseases. Some of these drugs contain Fc fragments (Fc), but it is unknown how their mode of action is influenced by Fc. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Fc on rat eyes after intravitreal injection. METHODS: Eighteen Long-Evans rats were intravitreally injected with sterile, biotin-labeled rat Fc (9.1 μg in 5 μl PBS). For control, 5 μl PBS was injected in another nine rats...
October 17, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
A Krigel, M Berdugo, E Picard, R Levy-Boukris, I Jaadane, L Jonet, M Dernigoghossian, C Andrieu-Soler, A Torriglia, F Behar-Cohen
To save energy, the European directives from the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (2005/32/CE) has recommended the replacement of incandescent lamps by more economic devices such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). However, the emission spectrum of these devices is enriched in blue radiations, known to be potentially dangerous to the retina. Recent studies showed that light exposure contribute to the onset of early stages of Age related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigate, in albinos and pigmented rats, the effects of different exposure protocols...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
W Ammari, S Harrath, S Mbarek, A Mahmoud, W Chebbi, R Messaoud, M Khairallah
OBJECTIVE: To study socio-demographic characteristics and main causes related to visual impairment (VI) as a function of age bracket and to analyze their trends over time in the district of Mahdia. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed on 1487 cases of visual impairment registered with the social authorities in Mahdia, between 1980 and 2013. The social, demographic, vision exam findings and causes were ascertained and analyzed in an SPSS database. Incidence rates of VI and blindness due to various causes were calculated based on the demographic data from the NSI to estimate the time trends using the general linear regression model and Spearman correlation...
October 13, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Shira Toledano, Huayi Lu, Agustina Palacio, Boaz Kigel, Ofra Kessler, Gilad Allon, Yoreh Barak, Gera Neufeld, Shlomit Schaal
Abnormal subretinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of blindness in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current anti-angiogenic treatments by VEGF sequestering agents have been successful, but a significant proportion of patients do not respond well to these treatments, and the response of others diminishes over time, suggesting that additional anti-angiogenic agents that function by separate mechanisms may be of use to such patients. We have previously found that a point mutated form of semaphorin-3E resistant to cleavage by furin like pro-protein convertases (UNCL-Sema3E) displays potent anti-angiogenic properties...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Jie Li, Bifei Lan, Xiaoli Li, Shumao Sun, Ping Lu, Lingyun Cheng
Transscleral drug delivery may become a safe alternative to the intravitreal injection for chronic retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic macular edema. However, the drug delivered onto the sclera subjects to vigorous clearance by episcleral and choroidal circulation; in addition, the penetration from episclera to retina needs to overcome counter-directional ocular fluid current driven by intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as unfavorable drug disposition exerted by drug transporters before the drug reach retina...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
K R Chirco, E H Sohn, E M Stone, B A Tucker, R F Mullins
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating disease-causing vision loss in millions of people around the world. In advanced stages of disease, death of photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) are common. Loss of endothelial cells of the choriocapillaris is one of the earliest detectable events in AMD, and, because the outer retina relies on the choriocapillaris for metabolic support, this loss may be the trigger for progression to more advanced stages...
October 7, 2016: Eye
Marco Augustin, Stanislava Fialová, Tanja Himmel, Martin Glösmann, Theresia Lengheimer, Danielle J Harper, Roberto Plasenzotti, Michael Pircher, Christoph K Hitzenberger, Bernhard Baumann
We present a multi-functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging approach to study retinal changes in the very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor (VLDLR) knockout mouse model with a threefold contrast. In the retinas of VLDLR knockout mice spontaneous retinal-chorodoidal neovascularizations form, having an appearance similar to choroidal and retinal neovascularizations (CNV and RNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). For this longitudinal study, the mice were imaged every 4 to 6 weeks starting with an age of 4 weeks and following up to the age of 11 months...
2016: PloS One
Sofia Theodoropoulou, David A Copland, Jian Liu, Jiahui Wu, Peter J Gardner, Ema Ozaki, Sarah L Doyle, Matthew Campbell, Andrew D Dick
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss worldwide. Loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major pathological hallmark in AMD with or without pathological neovascularization. Although activation of the immune system is implicated in disease progression, pathological pathways remain diverse and unclear. Here, we report an unexpected protective role of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33) in ocular angiogenesis. IL-33 and its receptor (ST2) are expressed constitutively in human and murine retina and choroid...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Janusz Blasiak, Russel J Reiter, Kai Kaarniranta
Melatonin, an indoleamine, is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, but it is produced in many other organs, including the retina, which seems to be especially important as the eye is a primary recipient of circadian signals. Melatonin displays strong antioxidative properties, which predispose it to play a protective role in many human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, including premature aging and degenerative disease. Therefore, melatonin may play a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease affecting photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an established role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Peter A Campochiaro, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Philip J Rosenfeld
The association of retinal hypoxia with retinal neovascularization has been recognized for decades, causing Michaelson to postulate in 1948 that a factor secreted by hypoxic retina was involved. The isolation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), characterization of its angiogenic activity, and demonstration that its expression was increased in hypoxic tissue made it a prime candidate. Intraocular levels of VEGF are elevated in patients with retinal or iris neovascularization, and VEGF-specific antagonists markedly suppress retinal neovascularization in mice and primates with ischemic retinopathy...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Stuart L Fine, Morton F Goldberg, William Tasman
We were challenged and delighted when Dr. Sharon Solomon, guest editor of this Retina Supplement, invited us to reminisce about caring for patients with common retinal disorders before there was access to the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are readily available today. We agreed to confine our remarks to 3 common, but serious, conditions: age-related macular degeneration (Dr. Fine), diabetic retinopathy (Dr. Goldberg), and retinal detachment (Dr. Tasman). Each of us completed our ophthalmology training about half a century ago...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Patricia Berber, Felix Grassmann, Christina Kiel, Bernhard H F Weber
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of blindness in developed countries, and is the third leading cause worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that beside environmental and genetic factors, epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNA (miRNA) regulation of gene expression, are relevant to AMD providing an exciting new avenue for research and therapy. MiRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs thought to be imperative for coping with cellular stress. Numerous studies have analyzed miRNA dysregulation in AMD patients, although with varying outcomes...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Junhua Wang, Peter D Westenskow, Mingliang Fang, Martin Friedlander, Gary Siuzdak
Photoreceptor degeneration is characteristic of vision-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Photoreceptors are metabolically demanding cells in the retina, but specific details about their metabolic behaviours are unresolved. The quantitative metabolomics of retinal degeneration could provide valuable insights and inform future therapies. Here, we determined the metabolomic 'fingerprint' of healthy and dystrophic retinas in rat models using optimized metabolite extraction techniques...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Cassie A Ludwig, Theodore Leng
The authors report two cases of posterior retinotomy closure following subretinal stem cell transplantation for age-related macular degeneration with a 30-gauge needle - a larger bore needle than those used in prior studies. Partial retinotomy closure was seen on optical coherence tomography within 24 hours in one patient, whereas complete closure occurred by the 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. A trace retinal hemorrhage occurred in one case, with resolution by 12 weeks. These findings demonstrate the likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous retinotomy closure following subretinal stem cell transplantation with a 30-gauge needle...
September 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Joel Kaluzny, Patryk Purta, Zach Poskin, Jeremy D Rogers, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: We investigated the autofluorescence (AF) signature of the microscopic features of retina with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 488 nm excitation. METHODS: The globes of four donors with AMD and four age-matched controls were embedded in paraffin and sectioned through the macula. Sections were excited using a 488 nm argon laser, and the AF emission was captured using a laser scanning confocal microscope (496-610 nm, 6 nm resolution). The data cubes were then analyzed to compare peak emission spectra between the AMD and the controls...
2016: PloS One
Lisa Toto, Enrico Borrelli, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Luca Di Antonio, Emanuele Doronzo, Paolo Carpineto, Leonardo Mastropasqua
AIMS: To investigate associations between changes in retinal vessels and alterations detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans in intermediate stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with intermediate dry AMD were enrolled in the study. Of the cohort study, 15 eyes (changes-AMD group) showed OCT changes preceding the development of drusen-associated atrophy. A control group of healthy subjects was selected for statistical comparisons...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Junhong Guo, Li Hong, Xiaoxia Z West, Hua Wang, Robert G Salomon
Oxidative stress causes lipid-derived oxidative modification of biomolecules that has been implicated in many pathological states. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are major targets of free radical-initiated oxidation. Phospholipids that incorporate docosahexaenoate (DHA) are highly enriched in important neural structures including the brain and retina, where DHA comprises 40% and 60% of total fatty acids, respectively. Oxidative fragmentation of 2-docosahexaenoyl-1-palmityl-sn-glycerophosphocholine generates esters of 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) and 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (KOHA) with 2-lysophosphatidylcholine, HOHA-PC, and KOHA-PC...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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