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Cognition, Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#1
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922416/multi-level-computational-methods-for-interdisciplinary-research-in-the-hathitrust-digital-library
#2
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920537/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-brain-injury-in-the-chronic-phase-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#3
Bertine L Stehouwer, Lisa A van der Kleij, Jeroen Hendrikse, Gabriel Je Rinkel, Jill B De Vis
Background Case-fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have decreased over the past decades. However, many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have long-term functional and cognitive impairments. Aims We sought to review all data on conventional brain MRI obtained in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to (1) analyze the proportion of patients with cerebral infarction or brain volume changes; (2) investigate baseline determinants predictive of MRI-detected damage; and (3) assess if brain damage is predictive of patient outcome...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919862/changes-in-dimensionality-and-fractal-scaling-suggest-soft-assembled-dynamics-in-human-eeg
#4
Travis J Wiltshire, Matthew J Euler, Ty L McKinney, Jonathan E Butner
Humans are high-dimensional, complex systems consisting of many components that must coordinate in order to perform even the simplest of activities. Many behavioral studies, especially in the movement sciences, have advanced the notion of soft-assembly to describe how systems with many components coordinate to perform specific functions while also exhibiting the potential to re-structure and then perform other functions as task demands change. Consistent with this notion, within cognitive neuroscience it is increasingly accepted that the brain flexibly coordinates the networks needed to cope with changing task demands...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919132/the-east-the-west-and-the-universal-machine
#5
REVIEW
Bruno Marchal
After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in (Marchal, 2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy in Eastern/Western spirituality. This paper relies entirely on my previous inter-disciplinary work in mathematical logic, computer science and machine's theology, where "theology" is used here in the sense of Plato: it is the truth, or the "truth-theory" (in the sense of logicians) about a machine that the machine can either deduce from some of its primitive beliefs, or can be intuited in some sense that eventually is made clear through the modal logic of machine self-reference...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#6
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915003/the-evolution-of-dna-templated-synthesis-as-a-tool-for-materials-discovery
#7
Rachel K O'Reilly, Andrew J Turberfield, Thomas R Wilks
Precise control over reactivity and molecular structure is a fundamental goal of the chemical sciences. Billions of years of evolution by natural selection have resulted in chemical systems capable of information storage, self-replication, catalysis, capture and production of light, and even cognition. In all these cases, control over molecular structure is required to achieve a particular function: without structural control, function may be impaired, unpredictable, or impossible. The search for molecules with a desired function is often achieved by synthesizing a combinatorial library, which contains many or all possible combinations of a set of chemical building blocks (BBs), and then screening this library to identify "successful" structures...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#8
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903893/user-acceptance-of-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-systematic-review
#9
Theresia Rost, Janine Stein, Margrit Löbner, Anette Kersting, Claudia Luck-Sikorski, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) has been proven to be effective in depression care. Moreover, cCBT packages are becoming increasingly popular. A central aspect concerning the take-up and success of any treatment is its user acceptance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to update and expand on earlier work on user acceptance of cCBT for depression. METHODS: This paper systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies regarding the user acceptance of cCBT for depression...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900390/genetically-driven-enhancement-of-dopaminergic-transmission-affects-moral-acceptability-in-females-but-not-in-males-a-pilot-study
#10
Silvia Pellegrini, Sara Palumbo, Caterina Iofrida, Erika Melissari, Giuseppina Rota, Veronica Mariotti, Teresa Anastasio, Andrea Manfrinati, Rino Rumiati, Lorella Lotto, Michela Sarlo, Pietro Pietrini
Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899609/constructing-experience-event-models-from-perception-to-action
#11
REVIEW
Lauren L Richmond, Jeffrey M Zacks
Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#12
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899121/unconscious-fantasy-and-the-priming-phenomenon
#13
Anne Erreich
This paper is the third in a series of investigations into (1) the nature and development of unconscious fantasy, (2) its place in a contemporary model of mind that, parenthetically, suggests a possible solution to the problem of theoretical pluralism, and (3) its mode of operation in the mind. The aim of these investigations is to update the notion of unconscious fantasy, an indispensable construct in psychoanalytic theories that assume out-of-awareness mentation, and to situate that construct within contemporary views of mental functioning in disciplines such as philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and developmental psychology...
April 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898968/systematic-review-factors-associated-with-return-to-work-in-burnout
#14
R Kärkkäinen, T Saaranen, S Hiltunen, O P Ryynänen, K Räsänen
Background: Professional burnout predicts sick leave and even permanent withdrawal from the labour force. However, knowledge of the barriers to and facilitators of return to work (RTW) in such burnout is limited. Aims: To identify factors associated with RTW of burned-out individuals to inform occupational health care (OHC) RTW policy. Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed quantitative and mixed-method studies published from January 2005 to July 2016 in English and Finnish in ARTO, CINAHL (EBSCO), Medic, PsycINFO (ProQuest), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, followed by a manual search...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898163/incorporating-interpersonal-skills-into-otolaryngology-resident-selection-and-training
#15
Yemeng Lu-Myers, Christopher G Myers
Increasing attention has been paid to the selection of otolaryngology residents, a highly competitive process but one with room for improvement. A recent commentary in this journal recommended that residency programs more thoroughly incorporate theory and evidence from personnel psychology (part of the broader field of organizational science) in the resident selection process. However, the focus of this recommendation was limited to applicants' cognitive abilities and independent work-oriented traits (eg, conscientiousness)...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891971/risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrea Mary Loftus
It was has been my pleasure to have acted as the guest editor for the Brain Sciences Special Issue on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).[...].
September 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890924/measuring-attitudes-towards-interprofessional-learning-testing-two-german-versions-of-the-tool-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning-scale-on-interprofessional-students-of-health-and-nursing-sciences-and-of-human-medicine
#17
Christiane Luderer, Matthias Donat, Ute Baum, Angelika Kirsten, Patrick Jahn, Dietrich Stoevesandt
Objective: In order to verify the methodological quality of two versions of a tool for measuring attitudes towards interprofessional learning, we adapted - in terms of translation and scale form - the Heidelberg Version [1] of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale - RIPLS [2], a methodologically controversial tool that had been translated into German, and compared both the original and new versions. Method: Three items were reworded and the scale form altered (from five to four levels), leading to the Halle Version that was validated by means of a cognitive pretest (n=6)...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885938/hidden-hearing-injury-the-emerging-science-and-military-relevance-of-cochlear-synaptopathy
#18
Victoria Tepe, Christopher Smalt, Jeremy Nelson, Thomas Quatieri, Kenneth Pitts
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon recently described as "hidden hearing loss" was the subject of a meeting co-hosted by the Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence and MIT Lincoln Laboratory to consider the potential relevance of noise-related synaptopathic injury to military settings and performance, service-related injury scenarios, and military medical priorities. Participants included approximately 50 researchers and subject matter experts from academic, federal, and military laboratories...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885875/post-traumatic-growth-and-resilience-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-patients-an-overview
#19
Suzanne R Greup, Suzanne E J Kaal, Rosemarie Jansen, Eveliene Manten-Horst, Melissa S Y Thong, Winette T A van der Graaf, Judith B Prins, Olga Husson
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882808/mobile-phone-interventions-for-sleep-disorders-and-sleep-quality-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Jong Cheol Shin, Julia Kim, Diana Grigsby-Toussaint
BACKGROUND: Although mobile health technologies have been developed for interventions to improve sleep disorders and sleep quality, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. OBJECTIVE: A systematic literature review was performed to determine the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving sleep disorders and sleep quality. METHODS: Four electronic databases (EBSCOhost, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for articles on mobile technology and sleep interventions published between January 1983 and December 2016...
September 7, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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