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Cognition, Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445589/a-network-engineering-perspective-on-probing-and-perturbing-cognition-with-neurofeedback
#1
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati
Network science and engineering provide a flexible and generalizable tool set to describe and manipulate complex systems characterized by heterogeneous interaction patterns among component parts. While classically applied to social systems, these tools have recently proven to be particularly useful in the study of the brain. In this review, we describe the nascent use of these tools to understand human cognition, and we discuss their utility in informing the meaningful and predictable perturbation of cognition in combination with the emerging capabilities of neurofeedback...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443355/investigational-dopamine-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#2
Sheng-Min Wang, Changsu Han, Soo-Jung Lee, Tae-Youn Jun, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae
Introduction Schizophrenia is a debilitating illness with a chronic impact on social function and daily living. Although various antipsychotics are available, there are still many challenges and unmet needs. Thus, many compounds with diverse mechanisms have been investigated, but all approved antipsychotics still require interactions with dopamine D2 receptors. Areas Covered We searched for investigational drugs using the key words 'dopamine' and 'schizophrenia' in American and European clinical trial registers (clinicaltrials...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442480/structure-function-relations-in-physiology-education-where-s-the-mechanism
#3
Matthew E Lira, Stephanie M Gardner
Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such as structure-function relations, selectively neglect mechanisms by not mentioning this term explicitly. We explored how students characterized mechanisms and functions to shed light on how students make sense of these terms...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440839/refugee-health-and-rehabilitation-challenges-and-response
#4
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya
BACKGROUND: The current global refugee crisis poses major challenges in providing effective healthcare to refugees, particularly for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management and disability. This article provides an overview of refugee health and potential challenges from the rehabilitation perspective. METHODS: A literature search (both academic and grey literature) was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases and internet search engines (2001-2016)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440193/neurocognitive-correlates-in-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis
#5
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini, Julia Klein, Natale Mario di Luca
Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is commonly identified in blood samples from arrested drivers assumed to drive under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for comprehensive understanding of the severe neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and EMBASE databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive...
April 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439807/generating-explanations-via-analogical-comparison
#6
Christian Hoyos, Dedre Gentner
Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting learning in both adults and children. Our interest is in the mechanisms that underlie this effect and in whether and how they operate in early learning. In adult reasoning, explanation may call on many subprocesses-including comparison, counterfactual reasoning, and reasoning by exclusion; but it is unlikely that all these processes are available to young children. We propose that one process that may serve both children and adults is comparison. In this study, we asked whether children would use the results of a comparison experience when asked to explain why a model skyscraper was stable...
April 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#7
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433667/cognitive-impairment-and-heart-failure-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Jane A Cannon, Peter Moffitt, Ana Cristina Perez-Moreno, Matthew R Walters, Niall M Broomfield, John J V McMurray, Terence J Quinn
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and dementia are associated with a range of cardiovascular conditions including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. We aimed to describe the association with heart failure, summarising published data to give estimates around prevalence, incidence and relative risk of cognitive impairment/dementia in heart failure. METHODS: We searched multidisciplinary databases including MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsychINFO (EBSCO), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) from inception until 31(st) May 2015...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431680/two-paradigms-for-religious-representation-the-physicist-and-the-playground-a-reply-to-levy
#9
Neil Van Leeuwen
In an earlier issue, I argue (2014) that psychology and epistemology should distinguish religious credence from factual belief. These are distinct cognitive attitudes. Levy (2017) rejects this distinction, arguing that both religious and factual "beliefs" are subject to "shifting" on the basis of fluency and "intuitiveness." Levy's theory, however, (1) is out of keeping with much research in cognitive science of religion and (2) misrepresents the notion of factual belief employed in my theory. So his claims don't undermine my distinction...
April 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424374/mechanisms-of-vascular-disease-in-dementia-what-does-industry-want-to-know
#10
EDITORIAL
Paul B Wren, Derek Hill, Andrew Lockhart
Despite recent advances in basic and clinical science, dementia remains an area of high unmet medical need. The role of cerebrovascular mechanisms in the pathogenesis and progression of cognitive and functional impairment in dementia is being revived. In order to facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches, it is critical that a number of fundamental elements are integrated into research strategies investigating cerebrovascular pathologies as these will maximize the opportunity of bringing medicines to patients in a timely manner...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419474/using-advances-from-cognitive-behavioral-models-of-anxiety-to-guide-treatment-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#11
Rachel K Narr, Bethany A Teachman
This case features an adult male with moderate social anxiety disorder and mild depressive symptoms who showed an initial positive response to an earlier experience of cognitive behavior therapy, but then relapsed when he started avoiding social situations again because of continuing beliefs that experiencing anxiety was unacceptable. His treatment at our clinic focused on shifting unhelpful thinking about the likelihood and consequences of becoming anxious and reengaging in avoided social situations so he could learn to tolerate negative affect and uncertainty...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418899/an-exploration-of-the-role-of-a-fish-oriented-diet-in-cognitive-decline-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Ling-Feng Zeng, Ye Cao, Wei-Xiong Liang, Wen-Hu Bao, Jian-Ke Pan, Qi Wang, Jun Liu, Hao-Dong Liang, Hui Xie, Yan-Ting Chai, Zi-Tong Guan, Qian Cao, Xiao-Yan Li, Lei Yang, Wei-Hua Xu, Sui-Qing Mi, Ning-Sheng Wang
Epidemiological studies have presented inconsistent evidence of the correlation between a fish-oriented dietary intake (FDI) and the risk of cognitive decline. To address these controversies, we performed this systematic review of prospective studies published in December 2016 and earlier using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers conducted the eligibility assessment and data extraction; all discrepancies were solved by discussion with a third researcher. The pooled relative risks (RRs) focused on the incidence of events were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415968/how-to-explore-the-needs-of-informal-caregivers-of-individuals-with-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-or-related-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-studies
#13
T Novais, V Dauphinot, P Krolak-Salmon, C Mouchoux
BACKGROUND: This study aims to review the methodologies used to identify the needs, the existing needs assessment instruments and the main topics of needs explored among caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment to dementia. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Web of science were searched from January 1980 to January 2017. Research studies in English or French were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled the following criteria: quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies that used instrument, focus group or semi-structured interviews to assess the informal caregiver's needs in terms of information, coping skills, support and service...
April 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415881/hip-and-pelvic-fracture-patients-with-fear-of-falling-development-and-description-of-the-step-by-step-treatment-protocol
#14
Karin Kampe, Michaela Kohler, Diana Albrecht, Clemens Becker, Martin Hautzinger, Ulrich Lindemann, Klaus Pfeiffer
OBJECTIVE: Based on a theoretical framework and sound evidence, this article describes a rehabilitation programme for patients with fear of falling after hip and pelvic fracture. RATIONALE: Based on exercise science principles, current knowledge from fall prevention, emotion regulation, and the Health Action Process Approach we developed a theoretical framework, from which the components of the intervention were derived. Description of the intervention: The intervention consists of 6 components: (1) relaxation, (2) meaningful activities and mobility-based goals, (3) falls related cognitions and emotions, coping with high risk tasks and situations, (4) individual exercise programme, (5) planning and implementing exercises and activities, and (6) fall risks and hazards...
May 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412578/communicating-with-scientific-graphics-a-descriptive-inquiry-into-non-ideal-normativity
#15
Benjamin Sheredos
Scientists' graphical practices have recently become a target of inquiry in the philosophy of science, and in the cognitive sciences. Here I supplement our understanding of graphical practices via a case study of how researchers crafted the graphics for scientific publication in the field of circadian biology. The case highlights social aspects of graphical production which have gone understudied - especially concerning the negotiation of publication. I argue that it also supports a challenge to the claim that empirically-informed "cognitive design principles" offer an apt understanding of the norms of success which govern good scientific graphic design to communicate data and hypotheses to other experts...
April 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409486/dutch-taboo-norms
#16
Sander A Roest, Tessa A Visser, René Zeelenberg
This article provides norms for general taboo, personal taboo, insult, valence, and arousal for 672 Dutch words, including 202 taboo words. Norms were collected using a 7-point Likert scale and based on ratings by psychology students from the Erasmus University Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The sample consisted of 87 psychology students (58 females, 29 males). We obtained high reliability based on split-half analyses. Our norms show high correlations with arousal and valence ratings collected by another Dutch word-norms study (Moors et al...
April 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404830/implications-of-plan-based-generalization-in-sensorimotor-adaptation
#17
Samuel David McDougle, Krista M Bond, Jordan A Taylor
Generalization is a fundamental aspect of behavior, allowing for the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The details of this transfer are thought to reveal how the brain represents what it learns. Generalization has been a central focus in studies of sensorimotor adaptation, and its pattern has been well-characterized: learning of new dynamic and kinematic transformations in one region of space tapers off in a Gaussian-like fashion to neighboring untrained regions, echoing tuned population codes in the brain...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403333/assessment-of-risk-of-falls-in-elderly-living-at-home
#18
Adriana de Azevedo Smith, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes Moreira, Jordana de Almeida Nogueira, Luiz Fernando Rangel Tura
Objective: to assess the risk of falls in elderly, by comparing the sociodemographic and cognitive factors, history of falls and self-reported comorbidities. Method: cross-sectional and quantitative study with 240 elderly. Data were collected based on the social profile, through the instrument of risk of falls and assessment of falls, by univariate analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 was used for statistical analysis...
April 6, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399881/the-influence-of-parental-practices-on-child-promotive-and-preventive-food-consumption-behaviors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Andrew Z H Yee, May O Lwin, Shirley S Ho
BACKGROUND: The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398574/can-rdoc-help-find-order-in-thought-disorder
#20
Alex S Cohen, Thanh P Le, Taylor L Fedechko, Brita Elvevåg
Thought disorder is a pernicious and nonspecific aspect of numerous serious mental illnesses (SMIs) and related conditions. Despite decades of empirical research on thought disorder, our present understanding of it is poor, our clinical assessments focus on a limited set of extreme behaviors, and treatments are palliative at best. Applying a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to thought disorder research offers advantages to explicate its phenotype; isolate its mechanisms; and develop more effective assessments, treatments, and potential cures...
May 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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