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Cognition, Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786916/herbal-medicine-as-a-promising-therapeutic-approach-for-the-management-of-vascular-dementia-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Samaneh Sepahi, Elham Khodaverdi, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri
Vascular dementia (VaD) generally refers to memory deficits and cognitive abnormalities that are resulted from vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literature wherein therapeutic effects of medicinal plants have been studied on VaD. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and other databases using VaD, and medicinal plants as key terms. No strict inclusion criteria were defined, and almost all clinical studies were included...
May 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786468/a-course-embedded-comparison-of-instructor-generated-videos-of-either-an-instructor-alone-or-an-instructor-and-a-student
#2
Katelyn M Cooper, Lu Ding, Michelle D Stephens, Michelene T H Chi, Sara E Brownell
Instructor-generated videos have become a popular way to engage students with material before a class, yet this is a relatively unexplored area of research. There is support for the use of videos in which instructors tutor students, but few studies have been conducted within the context of a classroom. In this study, conducted in a large-enrollment college physiology course, we used a randomized crossover design to compare the impact of two types of instructor-generated videos that students watched as part of their preclass assignments...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785732/the-mental-representation-of-human-action
#3
Sydney Levine, Alan M Leslie, John Mikhail
Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781728/positive-neuropsychology-the-science-and-practice-of-promoting-cognitive-health
#4
John J Randolph
Positive psychology has influenced multiple subfields within psychology and areas outside of psychology. While positive psychology's focus on positive mental health and character strengths did not appear to meaningfully impact neuropsychology in its earlier stages, more recent indications suggest that the neuropsychological literature, and perhaps the field as a whole, has begun to embrace related research and practice applications. In this context, positive neuropsychology has emerged as a neuropsychological orientation focused on the study and practice of promoting cognitive health...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781379/innovative-curriculum-integrating-the-bio-behavioral-and-social-science-principles-across-the-lifestages-in-basic-science-years
#5
Anuradha Lele Mookerjee, Bradford D Fischer, Susan Cavanaugh, Vijay Rajput
Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix...
May 20, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#6
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780180/engaging-experts-science-policy-interactions-and-the-introduction-of-congestion-charging-in-stockholm
#7
Anders Broström, Maureen McKelvey
This article analyzes the conditions for mobilizing the science base for development of public policy. It does so by focusing upon the science-policy interface, specifically the processes of direct interaction between scientists and scientifically trained experts, on the one hand, and agents of policymaking organizations, on the other. The article defines two dimensions - cognitive distance and expert autonomy - which are argued to influence knowledge exchange, in such a way as to shape the outcome. A case study on the implementation of congestion charges in Stockholm, Sweden, illustrates how the proposed framework pinpoints three central issues for understanding these processes: (1) Differentiating the roles of, e...
2018: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779754/introduction-art-and-the-brain-from-pleasure-to-well-being
#8
EDITORIAL
Julia F Christensen, Antoni Gomila
Empirical aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, have been very much influenced by Berlyne's psychobiological program. For him, aesthetic appreciation involved the brain's reward and aversion systems. From this point of view, art constitutes a set of potentially rewarding stimuli. Research has certainly made great advances in understanding how the process of artistic valuation takes places, and which brain circuits are involved in generating the pleasure we obtain from artistic practices, performances, and works...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774571/clustering-and-variable-selection-in-the-presence-of-mixed-variable-types-and-missing-data
#9
C B Storlie, S M Myers, S K Katusic, A L Weaver, R G Voigt, P E Croarkin, R E Stoeckel, J D Port
We consider the problem of model-based clustering in the presence of many correlated, mixed continuous, and discrete variables, some of which may have missing values. Discrete variables are treated with a latent continuous variable approach, and the Dirichlet process is used to construct a mixture model with an unknown number of components. Variable selection is also performed to identify the variables that are most influential for determining cluster membership. The work is motivated by the need to cluster patients thought to potentially have autism spectrum disorder on the basis of many cognitive and/or behavioral test scores...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772447/one-to-one-specialling-and-sitters-in-acute-care-hospitals-a-scoping-review
#12
REVIEW
Victoria J Wood, Cecilia Vindrola-Padros, Nick Swart, Michelle McIntosh, Sonya Crowe, Stephen Morris, Naomi J Fulop
BACKGROUND: One to one specialling is a type of care which is provided to ensure the safety of patients who may be suffering from cognitive impairment, exhibit challenging behaviour, or may be at risk of falls or of causing harm to themselves or others. Care such as this, often referred to as 'specialling' or 'sitting' is common practice in most hospitals around the world, but there is a lack of evidence regarding its cost effectiveness and the quality of care provided. AIM: The aim of this scoping review was to explore the breadth and scope of literature on one to one specialling, sitters and similar types of care in acute secondary care settings, in order to identify the challenges and concerns relating to the quality of care (process and outcomes) and cost effectiveness emerging from the literature, and determine the implications of this for policy, practice and future research...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771323/multiple-regions-of-a-cortical-network-commonly-encode-the-meaning-of-words-in-multiple-grammatical-positions-of-read-sentences
#13
Andrew James Anderson, Edmund C Lalor, Feng Lin, Jeffrey R Binder, Leonardo Fernandino, Colin J Humphries, Lisa L Conant, Rajeev D S Raizada, Scott Grimm, Xixi Wang
Deciphering how sentence meaning is represented in the brain remains a major challenge to science. Semantically related neural activity has recently been shown to arise concurrently in distributed brain regions as successive words in a sentence are read. However, what semantic content is represented by different regions, what is common across them, and how this relates to words in different grammatical positions of sentences is weakly understood. To address these questions, we apply a semantic model of word meaning to interpret brain activation patterns elicited in sentence reading...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769096/a-methodology-for-generating-a-tailored-implementation-blueprint-an-exemplar-from-a-youth-residential-setting
#14
Cara C Lewis, Kelli Scott, Brigid R Marriott
BACKGROUND: Tailored implementation approaches are touted as more likely to support the integration of evidence-based practices. However, to our knowledge, few methodologies for tailoring implementations exist. This manuscript will apply a model-driven, mixed methods approach to a needs assessment to identify the determinants of practice, and pilot a modified conjoint analysis method to generate an implementation blueprint using a case example of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) implementation in a youth residential center...
May 16, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768436/the-effectiveness-of-various-computer-based-interventions-for-patients-with-chronic-pain-or-functional-somatic-syndromes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Miel A P Vugts, Margot C W Joosen, Jessica E van der Geer, Aglaia M E E Zedlitz, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef
Computer-based interventions target improvement of physical and emotional functioning in patients with chronic pain and functional somatic syndromes. However, it is unclear to what extent which interventions work and for whom. This systematic review and meta-analysis (registered at PROSPERO, 2016: CRD42016050839) assesses efficacy relative to passive and active control conditions, and explores patient and intervention factors. Controlled studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#16
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765313/can-tai-chi-and-qigong-postures-shape-our-mood-toward-an-embodied-cognition-framework-for-mind-body-research
#17
Kamila Osypiuk, Evan Thompson, Peter M Wayne
Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#18
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758626/balancing-selfishness-and-norm-conformity-can-explain-human-behavior-in-large-scale-prisoner-s-dilemma-games-and-can-poise-human-groups-near-criticality
#19
John Realpe-Gómez, Giulia Andrighetto, Luis Gustavo Nardin, Javier Antonio Montoya
Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754119/a-pilot-study-and-brief-overview-of-rehabilitation-via-virtual-environment-in-patients-suffering-from-dementia
#20
Th Fasilis, P Patrikelis, A Siatouni, A Alexoudi, A Veretzioti, L Zachou, S-St Gatzonis
Dementia is one of the increasing problems of modern societies. The immediate cure is not a possible solution, at least at the moment, but science has found a number of new ways to retard and under specific conditions to halt its development. A potential, and constantly evolving scientific field is the use of Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation (CCR) and Virtual Environments (Vr.E). According to the existing literature, subjecting patients to various neuro-rehabilitative conditions within 3D virtual environments, allows them to obtain significant therapeutic benefits in which both transferability and durations over time are observed, in relation to the training period of the intervention...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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