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Cognition, Cognitive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#1
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715598/aerobic-exercise-effects-upon-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
D M Cammisuli, A Innocenti, F Franzoni, C Pruneti
Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714497/admitting-deserving-medical-students-from-rural-and-disadvantaged-patan-academy-of-health-sciences-approach
#3
S K Upadhyay, S Bhandary, D B Bhandari, R K Dulal, K P Baral, R N Gongal, P K Acharya, S Shrestha, J N Shah, A Karki
BACKGROUND: Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) aims to produce physicians who would be able and willing to serve in the rural areas. Recognizing the critical importance of student selection strategy, among others, in achieving the program goals, it has adopted an innovative scheme for selecting medical students. This paper describes PAHS medical student selection scheme that favors enrollment of deserving applicants from rural and disadvantaged groups so as to help improve distribution of physicians in rural Nepal...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714391/dancing-as-an-intervention-tool-for-people-with-dementia-a-mini-review-dancing-and-dementia
#4
Blanka Klimova, Martin Valis, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: Research studies show a positive impact of physical activities such as dancing on the improvement of cognitive reserves of people with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore dancing efficacy on people with dementia and list the key benefits and limitations of dancing therapy for these people. METHODS: The methods used in this study include a method of literature review of available English-written sources with respect to the dancing therapy and dementia in the acknowledged databases PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, and Scopus, and a method of comparison and evaluation of their findings...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713258/relationship-of-topology-multiscale-phase-synchronization-and-state-transitions-in-human-brain-networks
#5
Minkyung Kim, Seunghwan Kim, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
How the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after a major perturbation like general anesthesia is an important question with significant neuroscientific and clinical implications. Recent empirical studies in animals and humans suggest that the recovery of consciousness after anesthesia is not random but ordered. Emergence patterns have been classified as progressive and abrupt transitions from anesthesia to consciousness, with associated differences in duration and electroencephalogram (EEG) properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711663/cognitive-workload-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-impairments-a-systematic-review-of-physiological-measures
#6
REVIEW
Maud Ranchet, John C Morgan, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
Our objective was to identify the physiological measures that are sensitive to assessing cognitive workload across the spectrum of cognitive impairments. Three database searches were conducted: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies from the last decade that used physiological measures of cognitive workload in older adults (mean age >65 years-old) were reviewed. The cognitive workload of healthy older individuals was compared with the cognitive workload of younger adults, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD)...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708753/effectiveness-of-preoperative-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-compared-with-oral-midazolam-for-the-prevention-of-emergence-delirium-in-the-pediatric-patient-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-systematic-review
#7
James FitzSimons, Laura S Bonanno, Stephanie Pierce, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707866/two-orthodoxies-and-science-comparative-reflections
#8
COMMENT
Yakov M Rabkin
This essay offers a comparative discussion of attitudes to science within Jewish and Christian Orthodoxies. When it touches on the contemporary period, it deals with different varieties of Jewish Orthodoxy rather than the more liberal Jewish denominations. Debates about science and religion, rarely involving active—let alone prominent—scientists, take place within both religious traditions. The issues can be roughly divided in two categories—cognitive and social—even though the two may occasionally intersect...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707202/executive-functioning-impairment-in-women-treated-with-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Christie Yao, Lori J Bernstein, Jill B Rich
PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have reported adverse cognitive effects following chemotherapy. Evidence is mixed on whether executive functioning is particularly impaired in women treated with chemotherapy, in part due to the wide range of tasks used to measure executive processes. We performed a systematic review of the published literature to evaluate whether some subcomponents of executive functioning are more vulnerable to impairment than others among breast cancer survivors who had been treated with chemotherapy...
July 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704287/developing-team-cognition-a-role-for-simulation
#10
Rosemarie Fernandez, Sachita Shah, Elizabeth D Rosenman, Steve W J Kozlowski, Sarah Henrickson Parker, James A Grand
Simulation has had a major impact in the advancement of healthcare team training and assessment. To date, most simulation-based training and assessments focus on the teamwork behaviors that impact team performance, often ignoring critical cognitive, motivational, and affective team processes. Evidence from team science research demonstrates a strong relationship between team cognition and team performance and suggests a role for simulation in the development of this team-level construct. In this article, we synthesize research from the broader team science literature to provide foundational knowledge regarding team cognition and highlight best practices for using simulation to target team cognition...
April 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702788/how-do-physicians-become-medical-experts-a-test-of-three-competing-theories-distinct-domains-independent-influence-and-encapsulation-models
#11
Claudio Violato, Hong Gao, Mary Claire O'Brien, David Grier, E Shen
The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories-knowledge encapsulation, independent influence, distinct domains-of the development of medical expertise employing structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 548 physicians (292 men-53.3%; 256 women-46...
July 12, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#12
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701978/academic-achievement-in-physics-chemistry-the-predictive-effect-of-attitudes-and-reasoning-abilities
#13
Paulo N Vilia, Adelinda A Candeias, António S Neto, Maria Da Glória S Franco, Madalena Melo
Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students' attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student's attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700647/cultural-effects-on-the-association-between-election-outcomes-and-face-based-trait-inferences
#14
Chujun Lin, Ralph Adolphs, R Michael Alvarez
How competent a politician looks, as assessed in the laboratory, is correlated with whether the politician wins in real elections. This finding has led many to investigate whether the association between candidate appearances and election outcomes transcends cultures. However, these studies have largely focused on European countries and Caucasian candidates. To the best of our knowledge, there are only four cross-cultural studies that have directly investigated how face-based trait inferences correlate with election outcomes across Caucasian and Asian cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691507/genetic-basis-of-positive-and-negative-symptom-domains-in-schizophrenia
#15
Rose Mary Xavier, Allison Vorderstrasse
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, the genetic etiology of which has been well established. Yet despite significant advances in genetics research, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder largely remain unknown. This gap has been attributed to the complexity of the polygenic disorder, which has a heterogeneous clinical profile. Examining the genetic basis of schizophrenia subphenotypes, such as those based on particular symptoms, is thus a useful strategy for decoding the underlying mechanisms...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689160/effects-of-self-management-on-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Mei-Yu Lin, Megan F Liu, Lan-Fang Hsu, Pei-Shan Tsai
BACKGROUND: Self-management programs may facilitate the improvement of outcomes in medical, role, and emotional management and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease. Studies on the effect of three self-management tasks have reported conflicting findings. In addition, systematic reviews are unavailable. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of self-management programs on medical, role, and emotional management and health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686564/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-%C3%AE-eurodevelopmental-continuum-or-separated-clinical-entities
#17
Chr Anomitri, H Lazaratou
This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684518/cognitive-science-in-the-field-a-preschool-intervention-durably-enhances-intuitive-but-not-formal-mathematics
#18
Moira R Dillon, Harini Kannan, Joshua T Dean, Elizabeth S Spelke, Esther Duflo
Many poor children are underprepared for demanding primary school curricula. Research in cognitive science suggests that school achievement could be improved by preschool pedagogy in which numerate adults engage children's spontaneous, nonsymbolic mathematical concepts. To test this suggestion, we designed and evaluated a game-based preschool curriculum intended to exercise children's emerging skills in number and geometry. In a randomized field experiment with 1540 children (average age 4.9 years) in 214 Indian preschools, 4 months of math game play yielded marked and enduring improvement on the exercised intuitive abilities, relative to no-treatment and active control conditions...
July 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682093/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation
#19
(no author information available yet)
One in 5 Americans experiences disability that affects daily function because of impairments in mobility, impairments in cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD] & NIH Medical Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee [MRCC], 2016)...
July 6, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682086/constructing-bias-conceptualization-breaks-the-link-between-implicit-bias-and-fear-of-black-americans
#20
Kent M Lee, Kristen A Lindquist, B Keith Payne
Negative affect toward outgroup members has long been known to predict discriminatory behavior. However, psychological constructionist theories of emotion suggest that negative affect may not always reflect antipathy for outgroup members. Rather, the subjective experience depends on how negative affect is conceptualized as specific discrete emotions (e.g., fear vs. sympathy). Our current research integrates theories of implicit bias with psychological constructionist theories of emotion to understand the implications of negative affect toward outgroup members...
July 6, 2017: Emotion
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