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Kang Liu, Jiakuan Yang, Sha Liang, Huijie Hou, Ye Chen, Junxiong Wang, Bingchuan Liu, Keke Xiao, Jingping Hu, Jin Wang
Spent lead-acid battery recycling by using conventional technologies is usually accompanied with releases of lead-containing wastewater as well as emissions of sulfur oxides and lead particulates that may potentially cause secondary pollution. This study developed a vacuum chlorinating process for simultaneous sulfur fixation and high-purity lead chloride (PbCl2) recovery from spent lead paste by using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as reagents. The process train includes pretreatment, simultaneous PbCl2 production and sulfur fixation, and PbCl2 volatilization...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Szymon Z Konieczka, Florian Schlüter, Christoph Sindorf, Christoph Kerpen, Eduard Bernhardt, Maik Finze
Eleven-vertex closo- and nido-boron clusters with one or two exo-cyano groups have been obtained via a series of consecutive cage-opening and -closure reactions starting from K2[closo-B11H11] (K21). In the first step, K21 reacts with KCN in water at elevated temperatures to yield [7-NC-nido-B11H12]2- (5a). Oxidation of 5a with PbO2 gives [NC-closo-B11H10]2- (2). In analogous, subsequent reactions, dianion 2 is converted with KCN regioselectively into [7,9-(NC)2-nido-B11H11]2- (6a) and is further oxidized to [(NC)2-closo-B11H9]2- (3)...
December 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Catherine Hirel, Ismail Fidan, Dominique Luneau, Vefa Ahsen
Phthalocyanines derivatives does not cease to aroused attention due to their numerous properties and applications (e.g.,sensor, PDT). This makes them unique scaffold for the design of new material. In this expectative, we were interested to develop the synthesis of an imino nitroxyde-substituted phthalocyanine via the Ullman's procedure; a challenge due to intrinsic low solubility of most phthalocyanine derivative in much solvents. To overcome this solubility problem we designed phthalocyanine with bulky neopentyl substituents in peripheral position as counterpart to the imino nitroxyde moieties...
December 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Wei Liu, Xuebang Wu, Yunfeng Liang, Changsong Liu, Caetano R Miranda, Sandro Scandolo
High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a high-pressure octahedral (HPO) phase, or coesite-II and coesite-III. Given that the pressure is believed to be hydrostatic in two recent experiments, the different transformation pathways are striking...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yapeng He, Xue Wang, Weimin Huang, Rongling Chen, Wenli Zhang, Hongdong Li, Haibo Lin
A hydrophobic networked PbO2 electrode was deposited on mesh titanium substrate and utilized for the electrochemical elimination towards paracetamol drug. Three dimensional growth mechanism of PbO2 layer provided more loading capacity of active materials and network structure greatly reduced the mass transfer for the electrochemical degradation. The active electrochemical surface area based on voltammetric charge quantity of networked PbO2 electrode is about 2.1 times for traditional PbO2 electrode while lower charge transfer resistance (6...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Chen Zhang, Yingfeng Xu, Ping Lu, Xiaohua Zhang, Fangfang Xu, Jianlin Shi
A significant overpotential necessary for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most serious disadvantages in water electrolysis, which, on the contrary, gives the probability to electrochemically produce ozone alternative to the common corona discharge. To effectively suppress the competitive OER and improve gaseous ozone escaping, here we present a capillary effect-enabled electrolysis strategy by employing an unusual partial-submersed mode of anode composed of a β-PbO2 cuboids-loaded bulk porous Pb, and realize a much enhanced electrocatalytic gaseous ozone production in comparison to the cases of solid Pb counterpart and/or usual submersion operation...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaolei Kang, Wei Sun, Limei Cao, Ji Yang
A novel cryptomelane-Ir (cry-Ir) electrode is prepared for Ir to enter into the cryptomelane (named as cry-Mn) structure and used for aspirin degradation. This catalyst can efficiently reduce the Ir usage from 85 to 34%. Also, the onset potential of cry-Ir is about 1.40 V and the over potential is about 0.34 V at 10 mA cm(-2), indicating that cry-Ir has an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity to produce oxidizing species and can decrease electrolytic voltage during the electro-oxidation process...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xingtang Liang, Lizhen Zheng, Shirong Li, Xiaoyu Fan, Shukun Shen, Daodao Hu
Constructing methods for cleaning stains on paper artworks that meet the requirements of preservation of cultural relics are still challenging. In response to this problem, a novel electrochemical cleaning method and the preparation of corresponding electrodes were proposed. For this purpose, the conductive graphene (rGO)/polyacryamide (PAM)/montmorillonite (MMT) composite hydrogel as cathode and PbO2-based material as anode were prepared and characterized. The electrochemical cleaning efficiencies of real sample and mimicking paper artifacts were evaluated, and the effects of the electrochemical cleaning on paper itself were detected...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph P Smith, Frank C Smith, Joshua Ottaway, Alexandra E Krull-Davatzes, Bruce M Simonson, Billy P Glass, Karl S Booksh
The high-pressure, α-PbO2-structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO2-II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO2-II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO2-II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO2-II...
August 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Qingbo Sun, Changlin Zheng, Larissa Q Huston, Terry J Frankcombe, Hua Chen, Chao Zhou, Zhenxiao Fu, Ray L Withers, Lasse Norén, Jodie E Bradby, Joanne Etheridge, Yun Liu
Ionic codoping offers a powerful approach for modifying material properties by extending the selection of potential dopant ions. However, it has been a major challenge to introduce certain ions that have hitherto proved difficult to use as dopants (called "difficult-dopants") into crystal structures at high concentrations, especially through wet chemical synthesis. Furthermore, the lack of a fundamental understanding of how codopants are incorporated into host materials, which types of defect structures they form in the equilibrium state, and what roles they play in material performance, has seriously hindered the rational design and development of promising codoped materials...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kento Ueta, Koji Naoda, Shota Ooi, Takayuki Tanaka, Atsuhiro Osuka
Alkynyl-substituted 3H-corrole 9 a was converted to [3]cumulenic 2H-corrole 10 a by treatment with trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl), and 1,3-butadiyne-bridged 3H-corrole dimer 11 b was transformed into [5]cumulene-bridged 2H-corrole dimer 12 b by oxidation with PbO2 . Both 10 a and 12 b were metalated to form Zn(II) complexes 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn. The structures of 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn show planar conformations with bond-length alternations that are analogous to those of tetraaryl [n]cumulenes...
June 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Xiao Gong, Xu Yang, Haoyue Zheng, Zucheng Wu
As a typical municipal waste landfill gas, ethanethiol can become an air pollutant because of its low odor threshold concentration and toxicity to human beings. A hybrid process of absorption combined with electrochemical oxidation to degrade ethanethiol was investigated. The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) was employed as an absorbent to capture ethanethiol from the air stream. Electrochemical oxidation demonstrated that ethanethiol could be oxidized on a β-PbO2 anode modified with fluoride, while [BMIM]BF4 was used as an electrolyte...
July 2017: Environmental Technology
Xiangjuan Ma, Lixia Bian, Jingfeng Ding, Yaping Wu, Huilong Xia, Jionghui Li
Electrochemical oxidation of quinoline on a β-PbO2 electrode modified with fluoride resin and the comprehensive toxicity of intermediates formed during oxidation on duckweed were investigated in detail. The results showed that quinoline was initially hydroxylated at the C-2 and C-8 positions by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) electro-generated on a β-PbO2 anode, yielding 2(1H)-quinolinone and 8-hydroxyquinoline, then undergoing ring cleavage to form pyridine, nicotinic acid, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetophenone, which were ultimately converted to biodegradable organic acids...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Annika Nelskylä, Jouni Nurmi, Milla Jousi, Alexey Schramko, Eero Mervaala, Giuseppe Ristagno, Markus B Skrifvars
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS®)...
July 2017: Resuscitation
Matthias Müller, Stella S Beglaryan, Silke Koser, Sebastian Hahn, Olena Tverskoy, Frank Rominger, Uwe H F Bunz
Herein, we report the synthesis, spectroscopic, and structural properties of novel 2,3-dicyano-substituted azaacenes containing three to six annelated rings as a framework. The targets were prepared by Pd-catalyzed coupling of diamino-bis(tri-isopropylsilylethynyl)benzene, -naphthalene, and -anthracene with either 4,5-dibromophthalonitrile or 6,7-dibromonaphthalene-2,3-dicarbonitrile into the respective N,N'-dihydrodiazaacenes. Oxidation with MnO2 or PbO2 furnishes the dicyano-substituted diazaacenes in reasonable to good yields...
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yanyan Zhang, Qinglin Wang, Junkai Zhang, Xiaoxin Wu, Yanzhang Ma
We report the successful formation of an immutable array of α-PbO2 phase TiO2 nanotubes by compression of a TiO2 nanotube array in an anatase phase. During compression to 31.3 GPa, the TiO2 nanotubes started to directly transform from an anatase phase to a baddeleyite phase at 14.5 GPa and completed the transition at 30.1 GPa. Under decompression, the baddeleyite phase transformed to an α-PbO2 phase at 4.6 GPa, which was quenchable to ambient pressure. Notably the tubular array microstructure was retained after the application of ultra high pressure and undergoing a series of phase transformations...
April 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
Nam Tran, Patrick Drogui, Tuan Linh Doan, Thanh Son Le, Hoai Chau Nguyen
The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency...
December 2017: Environmental Technology
Gregory Gibson, Ziyun Wang, Christopher Hardacre, Wen-Feng Lin
The H2O splitting mechanism is a very attractive alternative used in electrochemistry for the formation of O3. The most efficient catalysts employed for this reaction at room temperature are SnO2-based, in particular the Ni/Sb-SnO2 catalyst. In order to investigate the H2O splitting mechanism density functional theory (DFT) was performed on a Ni/Sb-SnO2 surface with oxygen vacancies. By calculating different SnO2 facets, the (110) facet was deemed most stable, and further doped with Sb and Ni. On this surface, the H2O splitting mechanism was modelled paying particular attention to the final two steps, the formation of O2 and O3...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yury Minenkov, Valery V Sliznev, Luigi Cavallo
Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zesheng Xu, Han Liu, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Chong Wang, Yue Wang
We prepared a hydroxyl multi-wall carbon nanotube-modified nanocrystalline PbO2 anode (MWCNTs-OH-PbO2) featuring high oxygen evolution potential, large effective area, and excellent electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and effective area of the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 electrode were 1.5 and 3.7-fold higher than the traditional PbO2 electrode. Electrochemical degradation of pyridine in aqueous solution was investigated by using the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 anode. Based on pyridine decay rate (93.8%), total organic carbon reduction (84...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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