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Jiade Wang, Tian Zhang, Yu Mei, Bingjun Pan
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) of printing and dyeing wastewater remains as a daunting environmental issue, which is characterized by high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), chroma and low biodegradability. In this study electro-oxidation process (PbO2 /Ti electrode) coupled with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) online monitor was applied to treat such a ROC effluent. The results show that with the increase of specific electrical charge (Qsp ), the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and chroma increased significantly at the incipience and then reached a gentle stage; the optimal total current efficiency (12...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Atsuhiro Osuka, Keisuke Fujimoto
PtII-catalyzed cyclization of β-to-β ethynylene-bridged meso-amino NiII porphyrin dimer 4 followed by oxidation with PbO2 afforded 1,5-naphthyridine-fused porphyrin dimer 5 in good yield. This dimer possesses a redox-active 1,4-diazabutadiene linkage that is interconvertible with its reduced 1,2-diaminoethene linkage upon treatments with NaBH4 or PbO2. The dimer 5 exhibits an intense NIR absorption and a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap with a remarkably low reduction potential mainly owing to effective bonding interaction in the LUMO through the 1,4-diazabutadiene linkage...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xuelian Wu, Judy Nancy Hart, Xiaoming Wen, Liang Wang, Yi Du, Shixue Dou, Yun Hau Ng, Rose Amal, Jason Scott
It has been reported that photogenerated electrons and holes can be directed toward specific crystal facets of a semiconductor particle, which is believed to arise from differences in their surface electronic structures, suggesting that different facets can act as either photo-reduction or photo-oxidation sites. This study examines the propensity for this effect to occur in faceted, plate-like bismuth molybdate (Bi2MoO6), which is a useful photocatalyst for water oxidation. Photo-excited electrons and holes are shown to be spatially separated toward the {100} and {001}/{010} facets of Bi2MoO6, respectively, by facet-dependent photo-deposition of noble metals (Pt, Au and Ag) and metal oxides (PbO2, MnOx and CoOx)...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Asghar Mesbahi, Hosein Ghiasi
The shielding properties of ordinary concrete doped with some micro and nano scaled materials were studied in the current study. Narrow beam geometry was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and the mass attenuation coefficient of ordinary concrete doped with PbO2 , Fe2 O3 , WO3 and H4 B (Boronium) in both nano and micro scales was calculated for photon and neutron beams. Mono-energetic beams of neutrons (100-3000 keV) and photons (142-1250 keV) were used for calculations. The concrete doped with nano-sized particles showed higher neutron removal cross section (7%) and photon attenuation coefficient (8%) relative to micro-particles...
February 3, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Atsuhiro Osuka, Daiki Shimizu
A benzene-1,3,5-triaminyl radical fused with three Zn(II)-porphyrins was synthesized via a three-fold oxidative fusion reaction of 1,3,5-tris(Zn(II)-porphyrinylamino)benzene followed by oxidation with PbO2 as key steps. This triaminyl radical has been proved to possess a quartet ground state with a doublet-quartet energy gap of 3.1 kJ/mol by SQUID studies. Despite the high-spin nature, this triradical is remarkably stable, allowing for its separation and recrystallization under ambient conditions. Moreover, this triradical can be stored as solids more than one year without serious deterioration...
February 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Seok Hyeon Gwon, Jeong-Hwan Oh, Minseok Kim, Sooseok Choi, Kyu Hwan Oh, Jeong-Yun Sun
Soft shields are required to protect the human body during a radioactive accident. However, the modulus of most soft shields, such as HDPE and epoxy, is high, thereby making it difficult to process them in wearable forms like gloves and clothes. We synthesized a soft shield based on a hydrogel that is very compliant, stretchable, and biocompatible. The shields were fabricated by integrating γ-ray-shield particles into hydrogels with an interpenetrating network. The soft shields containing 3.33 M of PbO2 exhibited a high attenuation coefficient (0...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kang Liu, Jiakuan Yang, Sha Liang, Huijie Hou, Ye Chen, Junxiong Wang, Bingchuan Liu, Keke Xiao, Jingping Hu, Jin Wang
Spent lead-acid battery recycling by using conventional technologies is usually accompanied with releases of lead-containing wastewater as well as emissions of sulfur oxides and lead particulates that may potentially cause secondary pollution. This study developed a vacuum chlorinating process for simultaneous sulfur fixation and high-purity lead chloride (PbCl2) recovery from spent lead paste by using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as reagents. The process train includes pretreatment, simultaneous PbCl2 production and sulfur fixation, and PbCl2 volatilization...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Szymon Z Konieczka, Florian Schlüter, Christoph Sindorf, Christoph Kerpen, Eduard Bernhardt, Maik Finze
Eleven-vertex closo- and nido-boron clusters with one or two exo-cyano groups have been obtained via a series of consecutive cage-opening and -closure reactions starting from K2[closo-B11H11] (K21). In the first step, K21 reacts with KCN in water at elevated temperatures to yield [7-NC-nido-B11H12]2- (5a). Oxidation of 5a with PbO2 gives [NC-closo-B11H10]2- (2). In analogous, subsequent reactions, dianion 2 is converted with KCN regioselectively into [7,9-(NC)2-nido-B11H11]2- (6a) and is further oxidized to [(NC)2-closo-B11H9]2- (3)...
December 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Catherine Hirel, Ismail Fidan, Dominique Luneau, Vefa Ahsen
Phthalocyanines derivatives does not cease to aroused attention due to their numerous properties and applications (e.g.,sensor, PDT). This makes them unique scaffold for the design of new material. In this expectative, we were interested to develop the synthesis of an imino nitroxyde-substituted phthalocyanine via the Ullman's procedure; a challenge due to intrinsic low solubility of most phthalocyanine derivative in much solvents. To overcome this solubility problem we designed phthalocyanine with bulky neopentyl substituents in peripheral position as counterpart to the imino nitroxyde moieties...
December 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Wei Liu, Xuebang Wu, Yunfeng Liang, Changsong Liu, Caetano R Miranda, Sandro Scandolo
High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a high-pressure octahedral (HPO) phase, or coesite-II and coesite-III. Given that the pressure is believed to be hydrostatic in two recent experiments, the different transformation pathways are striking...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yapeng He, Xue Wang, Weimin Huang, Rongling Chen, Wenli Zhang, Hongdong Li, Haibo Lin
A hydrophobic networked PbO2 electrode was deposited on mesh titanium substrate and utilized for the electrochemical elimination towards paracetamol drug. Three dimensional growth mechanism of PbO2 layer provided more loading capacity of active materials and network structure greatly reduced the mass transfer for the electrochemical degradation. The active electrochemical surface area based on voltammetric charge quantity of networked PbO2 electrode is about 2.1 times for traditional PbO2 electrode while lower charge transfer resistance (6...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Chen Zhang, Yingfeng Xu, Ping Lu, Xiaohua Zhang, Fangfang Xu, Jianlin Shi
A significant overpotential necessary for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most serious disadvantages in water electrolysis, which, on the contrary, gives the probability to electrochemically produce ozone alternative to the common corona discharge. To effectively suppress the competitive OER and improve gaseous ozone escaping, here we present a capillary effect-enabled electrolysis strategy by employing an unusual partial-submersed mode of anode composed of a β-PbO2 cuboids-loaded bulk porous Pb, and realize a much enhanced electrocatalytic gaseous ozone production in comparison to the cases of solid Pb counterpart and/or usual submersion operation...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaolei Kang, Wei Sun, Limei Cao, Ji Yang
A novel cryptomelane-Ir (cry-Ir) electrode is prepared for Ir to enter into the cryptomelane (named as cry-Mn) structure and used for aspirin degradation. This catalyst can efficiently reduce the Ir usage from 85 to 34%. Also, the onset potential of cry-Ir is about 1.40 V and the over potential is about 0.34 V at 10 mA cm-2 , indicating that cry-Ir has an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity to produce oxidizing species and can decrease electrolytic voltage during the electro-oxidation process...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xingtang Liang, Lizhen Zheng, Shirong Li, Xiaoyu Fan, Shukun Shen, Daodao Hu
Constructing methods for cleaning stains on paper artworks that meet the requirements of preservation of cultural relics are still challenging. In response to this problem, a novel electrochemical cleaning method and the preparation of corresponding electrodes were proposed. For this purpose, the conductive graphene (rGO)/polyacryamide (PAM)/montmorillonite (MMT) composite hydrogel as cathode and PbO2-based material as anode were prepared and characterized. The electrochemical cleaning efficiencies of real sample and mimicking paper artifacts were evaluated, and the effects of the electrochemical cleaning on paper itself were detected...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph P Smith, Frank C Smith, Joshua Ottaway, Alexandra E Krull-Davatzes, Bruce M Simonson, Billy P Glass, Karl S Booksh
The high-pressure, α-PbO2-structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO2-II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO2-II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO2-II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO2-II...
August 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Qingbo Sun, Changlin Zheng, Larissa Q Huston, Terry J Frankcombe, Hua Chen, Chao Zhou, Zhenxiao Fu, Ray L Withers, Lasse Norén, Jodie E Bradby, Joanne Etheridge, Yun Liu
Ionic codoping offers a powerful approach for modifying material properties by extending the selection of potential dopant ions. However, it has been a major challenge to introduce certain ions that have hitherto proved difficult to use as dopants (called "difficult-dopants") into crystal structures at high concentrations, especially through wet chemical synthesis. Furthermore, the lack of a fundamental understanding of how codopants are incorporated into host materials, which types of defect structures they form in the equilibrium state, and what roles they play in material performance, has seriously hindered the rational design and development of promising codoped materials...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kento Ueta, Koji Naoda, Shota Ooi, Takayuki Tanaka, Atsuhiro Osuka
Alkynyl-substituted 3H-corrole 9 a was converted to [3]cumulenic 2H-corrole 10 a by treatment with trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl), and 1,3-butadiyne-bridged 3H-corrole dimer 11 b was transformed into [5]cumulene-bridged 2H-corrole dimer 12 b by oxidation with PbO2 . Both 10 a and 12 b were metalated to form Zn(II) complexes 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn. The structures of 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn show planar conformations with bond-length alternations that are analogous to those of tetraaryl [n]cumulenes...
June 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Xiao Gong, Xu Yang, Haoyue Zheng, Zucheng Wu
As a typical municipal waste landfill gas, ethanethiol can become an air pollutant because of its low odor threshold concentration and toxicity to human beings. A hybrid process of absorption combined with electrochemical oxidation to degrade ethanethiol was investigated. The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) was employed as an absorbent to capture ethanethiol from the air stream. Electrochemical oxidation demonstrated that ethanethiol could be oxidized on a β-PbO2 anode modified with fluoride, while [BMIM]BF4 was used as an electrolyte...
July 2017: Environmental Technology
Xiangjuan Ma, Lixia Bian, Jingfeng Ding, Yaping Wu, Huilong Xia, Jionghui Li
Electrochemical oxidation of quinoline on a β-PbO2 electrode modified with fluoride resin and the comprehensive toxicity of intermediates formed during oxidation on duckweed were investigated in detail. The results showed that quinoline was initially hydroxylated at the C-2 and C-8 positions by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) electro-generated on a β-PbO2 anode, yielding 2(1H)-quinolinone and 8-hydroxyquinoline, then undergoing ring cleavage to form pyridine, nicotinic acid, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetophenone, which were ultimately converted to biodegradable organic acids...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Annika Nelskylä, Jouni Nurmi, Milla Jousi, Alexey Schramko, Eero Mervaala, Giuseppe Ristagno, Markus B Skrifvars
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS®)...
July 2017: Resuscitation
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