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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821778/electrochemical-removal-of-stains-from-paper-cultural-relics-based-on-the-electrode-system-of-conductive-composite-hydrogel-and-pbo2
#1
Xingtang Liang, Lizhen Zheng, Shirong Li, Xiaoyu Fan, Shukun Shen, Daodao Hu
Constructing methods for cleaning stains on paper artworks that meet the requirements of preservation of cultural relics are still challenging. In response to this problem, a novel electrochemical cleaning method and the preparation of corresponding electrodes were proposed. For this purpose, the conductive graphene (rGO)/polyacryamide (PAM)/montmorillonite (MMT) composite hydrogel as cathode and PbO2-based material as anode were prepared and characterized. The electrochemical cleaning efficiencies of real sample and mimicking paper artifacts were evaluated, and the effects of the electrochemical cleaning on paper itself were detected...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756705/raman-microspectroscopic-mapping-with-multivariate-curve-resolution-alternating-least-squares-mcr-als-applied-to-the-high-pressure-polymorph-of-titanium-dioxide-tio2-ii
#2
Joseph P Smith, Frank C Smith, Joshua Ottaway, Alexandra E Krull-Davatzes, Bruce M Simonson, Billy P Glass, Karl S Booksh
The high-pressure, α-PbO2-structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO2-II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO2-II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO2-II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO2-II...
August 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661671/bimetallic-ions-codoped-nanocrystals-doping-mechanism-defect-formation-and-associated-structural-transition
#3
Qingbo Sun, Changlin Zheng, Larissa Q Huston, Terry J Frankcombe, Hua Chen, Chao Zhou, Zhenxiao Fu, Ray L Withers, Lasse Norén, Jodie E Bradby, Joanne Etheridge, Yun Liu
Ionic codoping offers a powerful approach for modifying material properties by extending the selection of potential dopant ions. However, it has been a major challenge to introduce certain ions that have hitherto proved difficult to use as dopants (called "difficult-dopants") into crystal structures at high concentrations, especially through wet chemical synthesis. Furthermore, the lack of a fundamental understanding of how codopants are incorporated into host materials, which types of defect structures they form in the equilibrium state, and what roles they play in material performance, has seriously hindered the rational design and development of promising codoped materials...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508594/meso-cumulenic-2h-corroles-from-meso-ethynyl-3h-corroles
#4
Kento Ueta, Koji Naoda, Shota Ooi, Takayuki Tanaka, Atsuhiro Osuka
Alkynyl-substituted 3H-corrole 9 a was converted to [3]cumulenic 2H-corrole 10 a by treatment with trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl), and 1,3-butadiyne-bridged 3H-corrole dimer 11 b was transformed into [5]cumulene-bridged 2H-corrole dimer 12 b by oxidation with PbO2 . Both 10 a and 12 b were metalated to form Zn(II) complexes 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn. The structures of 10 a-Zn and 12 b-Zn show planar conformations with bond-length alternations that are analogous to those of tetraaryl [n]cumulenes...
June 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478709/elimination-of-ethanethiol-released-from-municipal-wastes-by-absorption-sequencing-electrochemical-oxidation
#5
Xiao Gong, Xu Yang, Haoyue Zheng, Zucheng Wu
As a typical municipal waste landfill gas, ethanethiol can become an air pollutant because of its low odor threshold concentration and toxicity to human beings. A hybrid process of absorption combined with electrochemical oxidation to degrade ethanethiol was investigated. The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) was employed as an absorbent to capture ethanethiol from the air stream. Electrochemical oxidation demonstrated that ethanethiol could be oxidized on a β-PbO2 anode modified with fluoride, while [BMIM]BF4 was used as an electrolyte...
May 7, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452774/electrochemical-oxidation-of-quinoline-aqueous-solution-on-%C3%AE-pbo2-anode-and-the-evolution-of-phytotoxicity-on-duckweed
#6
Xiangjuan Ma, Lixia Bian, Jingfeng Ding, Yaping Wu, Huilong Xia, Jionghui Li
Electrochemical oxidation of quinoline on a β-PbO2 electrode modified with fluoride resin and the comprehensive toxicity of intermediates formed during oxidation on duckweed were investigated in detail. The results showed that quinoline was initially hydroxylated at the C-2 and C-8 positions by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) electro-generated on a β-PbO2 anode, yielding 2(1H)-quinolinone and 8-hydroxyquinoline, then undergoing ring cleavage to form pyridine, nicotinic acid, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetophenone, which were ultimately converted to biodegradable organic acids...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438718/the-effect-of-50-compared-to-100-inspired-oxygen-fraction-on-brain-oxygenation-and-post-cardiac-arrest-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#7
Annika Nelskylä, Jouni Nurmi, Milla Jousi, Alexey Schramko, Eero Mervaala, Giuseppe Ristagno, Markus B Skrifvars
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS(®))...
July 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295719/dicyano-substituted-diazaacenes
#8
Matthias Müller, Stella S Beglaryan, Silke Koser, Sebastian Hahn, Olena Tverskoy, Frank Rominger, Uwe H F Bunz
Herein, we report the synthesis, spectroscopic, and structural properties of novel 2,3-dicyano-substituted azaacenes containing three to six annelated rings as a framework. The targets were prepared by Pd-catalyzed coupling of diamino-bis(tri-isopropylsilylethynyl)benzene, -naphthalene, and -anthracene with either 4,5-dibromophthalonitrile or 6,7-dibromonaphthalene-2,3-dicarbonitrile into the respective N,N'-dihydrodiazaacenes. Oxidation with MnO2 or PbO2 furnishes the dicyano-substituted diazaacenes in reasonable to good yields...
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206983/an-immutable-array-of-tio2-nanotubes-to-pressures-over-30-gpa
#9
Yanyan Zhang, Qinglin Wang, Junkai Zhang, Xiaoxin Wu, Yanzhang Ma
We report the successful formation of an immutable array of α-PbO2 phase TiO2 nanotubes by compression of a TiO2 nanotube array in an anatase phase. During compression to 31.3 GPa, the TiO2 nanotubes started to directly transform from an anatase phase to a baddeleyite phase at 14.5 GPa and completed the transition at 30.1 GPa. Under decompression, the baddeleyite phase transformed to an α-PbO2 phase at 4.6 GPa, which was quenchable to ambient pressure. Notably the tubular array microstructure was retained after the application of ultra high pressure and undergoing a series of phase transformations...
April 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112035/electrochemical-degradation-and-mineralization-of-glyphosate-herbicide
#10
Nam Tran, Patrick Drogui, Tuan Linh Doan, Thanh Son Le, Hoai Chau Nguyen
The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102376/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-electrochemical-ozone-production-via-water-splitting-on-the-ni-and-sb-doped-sno2-catalyst
#11
Gregory Gibson, Ziyun Wang, Christopher Hardacre, Wen-Feng Lin
The H2O splitting mechanism is a very attractive alternative used in electrochemistry for the formation of O3. The most efficient catalysts employed for this reaction at room temperature are SnO2-based, in particular the Ni/Sb-SnO2 catalyst. In order to investigate the H2O splitting mechanism density functional theory (DFT) was performed on a Ni/Sb-SnO2 surface with oxygen vacancies. By calculating different SnO2 facets, the (110) facet was deemed most stable, and further doped with Sb and Ni. On this surface, the H2O splitting mechanism was modelled paying particular attention to the final two steps, the formation of O2 and O3...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094933/accurate-gas-phase-formation-enthalpies-of-alloys-and-refractories-decomposition-products
#12
Yury Minenkov, Valery V Sliznev, Luigi Cavallo
Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064142/hydroxyl-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-modified-nanocrystalline-pbo2-anode-for-removal-of-pyridine-from-wastewater
#13
Zesheng Xu, Han Liu, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Chong Wang, Yue Wang
We prepared a hydroxyl multi-wall carbon nanotube-modified nanocrystalline PbO2 anode (MWCNTs-OH-PbO2) featuring high oxygen evolution potential, large effective area, and excellent electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and effective area of the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 electrode were 1.5 and 3.7-fold higher than the traditional PbO2 electrode. Electrochemical degradation of pyridine in aqueous solution was investigated by using the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 anode. Based on pyridine decay rate (93.8%), total organic carbon reduction (84...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932217/highly-efficient-and-stable-zr-doped-nanocrystalline-pbo2-electrode-for-mineralization-of-perfluorooctanoic-acid-in-a-sequential-treatment-system
#14
Zesheng Xu, Yanxin Yu, Han Liu, Junfeng Niu
Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896347/first-principles-study-of-pressure-induced-structural-phase-transitions-in-mnf2
#15
S López-Moreno, A H Romero, J Mejía-López, A Muñoz
In this work we report a complete structural and magnetic characterization of crystalline MnF2 under pressure obtained using first principle calculations. Density functional theory was used as the theoretical framework, within the generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard formalism (GGA+U) necessary to describe the strong correlations present in this material. The vibrational, the magnetic exchange couplings and the structural characterization of MnF2 in the rutile ground state structure and potential high pressure phases are reported...
December 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853777/synthesis-structure-and-properties-of-new-bimetallic-sodium-and-potassium-lanthanum-borohydrides
#16
SeyedHosein Payandeh GharibDoust, Michael Heere, Magnus H Sørby, Morten B Ley, Dorthe B Ravnsbæk, Bjørn C Hauback, Radovan Černý, Torben R Jensen
Two new bimetallic sodium or potassium lanthanum borohydrides, NaLa(BH4)4 and K3La(BH4)6, are formed using La(BH4)3 free of metal halide by-products. NaLa(BH4)4 crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system with unit cell parameters, a = 6.7987(19), b = 17.311(5), c = 7.2653(19) Å and space group symmetry Pbcn. This compound has a new structure type built from brucite-like layers of octahedra (hcp packing of anions) with half of the octahedral sites empty leading to octahedral chains similar to rutile (straight chains) or α-PbO2 (zig-zag chains)...
November 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773260/synergistic-effects-of-ultrasounds-in-the-sonoelectrochemical-oxidation-of-pharmaceutical-carbamazepine-pollutant
#17
Nam Tran, Patrick Drogui, Satinder K Brar, Arnaud De Coninck
The synergistic effects were evaluated during the oxidation of carbamazepine using a sono-electrochemical process. The sono-electrochemical oxidation was performed using two types of experimental units (having 1L and 100L of working volume, respectively) and containing one anode (Ti/PbO2) and one cathode (Ti). Different operating parameters, including power of ultrasounds, current intensity and reaction time were investigated. The degree of synergy increased when the current intensity decreased, whereas it increased with the power of ultrasounds imposed...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700999/chemical-composition-and-direct-electrochemical-oxidation-of-table-olive-processing-wastewater-using-high-oxidation-power-anodes
#18
Boutheina Gargouri, Olfa Dridi Gargouri, Ibtihel Khmakhem, Sonda Ammar, Ridha Abdelhèdi, Mohamed Bouaziz
Table olive processing wastewater (TOW) is a notoriously polluting due to its high organic and phenol content. To reduce them, an electrochemical process has been studied for the treatment of this effluent. Experiments were performed with a cell equipped with lead dioxide (PbO2) or boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode and platinum as cathode, where Table Olive Wastewater (TOW) were destroyed by hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation. The comparative study of both systems shows the performance of the BDD anode compared to PbO2, explained by the large amounts of hydroxyl radicals generated effective at BDD anode and its synthesis characteristics...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658731/substantial-band-gap-tuning-and-a-strain-controlled-semiconductor-to-gapless-band-inverted-semimetal-transition-in-rutile-lead-stannic-dioxide
#19
Fengxian Ma, Yalong Jiao, Guoping Gao, Yuantong Gu, Ante Bilic, Stefano Sanvito, Aijun Du
By first-principle calculations, we have systematically studied the effect of strain/pressure on the electronic structure of rutile lead/stannic dioxide (PbO2/SnO2). We find that pressure/strain has a significant impact on the electronic structure of PbO2/SnO2. Not only can the band gap be substantially tuned by pressure/strain, but also a transition between a semiconductor and a gapless/band-inverted semimetal can be manipulated. Furthermore, the semimetallic state is robust under strain, indicating a bright perspective for electronics applications...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648669/dissolved-organic-matter-or-salts-change-the-bioavailability-processes-and-toxicity-of-the-nanoscale-tetravalent-lead-corrosion-product-pbo2-to-medaka-fish
#20
Chun-Wei Chiang, Ding-Quan Ng, Yi-Pin Lin, Pei-Jen Chen
Nanoscale lead dioxide (nPbO2(s)) is a corrosion product formed from the chlorination of lead-containing plumbing materials. This metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) plays a key role in determining lead pollution in drinking water and receiving water bodies. This study uses nPbO2(s) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) as surrogates to investigate the aqueous fate and toxicological risk of metal oxide NPs associated with water matrices. The larvae of medaka were treated with solutions containing nPbO2(s) or Pb(II)aq in different water matrices for 7-14 days to investigate the in vivo toxic effects of NPs...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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