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Fatty acid oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#1
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351463/intermediary-metabolism-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-novel-targets-of-electron-transport-chain-driven-injury-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#2
Qun Chen, Masood S Younus, Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, John M Hollander, Edward J Lesnefsky
BACKGROUND: Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damages the electron transport chain (ETC) causing mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte injury. Reversible blockade of the ETC at complex I during ischemia protects the ETC and decreases cardiac injury. In the present study, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to analyze the extent of ETC-driven mitochondrial injury during IR. METHODS: Isolated-perfused mouse (C57BL/6) hearts underwent 25 min global ischemia (37{degree sign}C) and 30 min reperfusion...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351249/utilizing-dietary-micronutrient-ratios-in-nutritional-research-may-be-more-informative-than-focusing-on-single-nutrients
#3
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman, Jasminka Z Ilich
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350764/the-protective-effect-of-antarctic-krill-oil-on-cognitive-function-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-of-senescence-accelerated-prone-mouse-strain-8-samp8-mice
#4
Qian Li, Fengjuan Wu, Min Wen, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350678/pik3r3-regulates-ppar%C3%AE-expression-to-stimulate-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-decrease-hepatosteatosis
#5
Xi Yang, Yinjia Fu, Fuqing Hu, Xuelai Luo, Junbo Hu, Guihua Wang
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cellular lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the role of the regulatory subunits of PI3K in lipid metabolism and NAFLD. In this study, we characterized the functional role of PIK3R3 in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. In this study, we showed that the overexpression of PIK3R3 promoted hepatic fatty acid oxidation via PIK3R3-induced expression of PPARα, thus improving the fatty liver phenotype in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice...
January 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350533/development-of-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-gliadin-proanthocyanidins-hybrid-particles-gphps-and-the-fate-of-lipid-oxidation-and-digestion
#6
Fu-Zhen Zhou, Li Yan, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan Yang
This work attempted to engineer emulsions' interface using special affinity between proline-rich gliadin and proanthocyanidins (PA), to develop surfactant-free antioxidant Pickering emulsions with digestive-resistant properties. This binding interaction between gliadin and PA benefited the interfacial adsorption of the particles to corn oil droplets. Pickering droplets as building units assembled into interconnected three-dimensional network structure, giving the emulsions viscoelasticity and ultra-stability...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350465/proteomics-analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-from-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-reveals-adaptive-remodeling-of-metabolic-characteristics-and-fiber-type-composition
#7
Milena Schönke, Marie Björnholm, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath, Atul S Deshmukh
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an early metabolic defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, may be a cause or consequence of altered protein expressions profiles. Proteomics technology offers enormous promise to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying pathologies, however, the analysis of skeletal muscle is challenging. Using state-of-the-art multi-enzyme digestion and filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and a mass spectrometry (MS) based workflow, we performed a global proteomics analysis of skeletal muscle from leptin-deficient, obese, insulin resistant (ob/ob) and lean mice in mere two fractions in a short time (8 hours/sample)...
January 19, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349633/effects-of-tetradecylthioacetic-acid-tta-treatment-on-lipid-metabolism-in-salmon-hearts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#8
Regin Arge, Jens-Erik Dessen, Tone-Kari Østbye, Bente Ruyter, Magny S Thomassen, Kjell-Arne Rørvik
In intensive farming of Atlantic salmon, a large proportion of observed mortality is related to cardiovascular diseases and circulatory failure, indicating insufficient robustness and inadequate cardiac performance. This paper reports on the use of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) where the main objective was to enhance utilisation of fatty acids (FA), considered the main energy source of the heart. In this study, three experiments were conducted: (I) an in vivo study where salmon post-smolt were administrated dietary TTA in sea, (II) an in vitro study where isolated salmon heart cells were pre-stimulated with increasing doses of TTA and (III) an in vivo experiment where salmon post-smolt were subjected to injections with increasing doses of TTA...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349500/exogenous-h2s-switches-cardiac-energy-substrate-metabolism-by-regulating-sirt3-expression-in-db-db-mice
#9
Yu Sun, Zhiliang Tian, Ning Liu, Linxue Zhang, Zhaopeng Gao, Xiaojiao Sun, Miao Yu, Jichao Wu, Fan Yang, Yajun Zhao, Huan Ren, He Chen, Dechao Zhao, Yan Wang, Shiyun Dong, Changqing Xu, Fanghao Lu, Weihua Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in diverse physiological functions, such as anti-hypertension, anti-proliferation, regulating ATP synthesis, and reactive oxygen species production. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a NAD + -dependent deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism. The role of H2S in energy metabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) may be related to regulate SIRT3 expression; however, this role remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that exogenous H2S could switch cardiac energy metabolic substrate preference by lysine acetylation through promoting the expression of SIRT3 in cardiac tissue of db/db mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348698/effects-of-fame-biodiesel-and-hvord-on-emissions-from-an-older-technology-diesel-engine
#10
A D Bugarski, J A Hummer, S E Vanderslice
The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs)...
December 2017: Mining Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348686/defects-in-the-mitochondrial-trna-modification-enzymes-mto1-and-gtpbp3-promote-different-metabolic-reprogramming-through-a-hif-ppar%C3%AE-ucp2-ampk-axis
#11
Rachid Boutoual, Salvador Meseguer, Magda Villarroya, Elena Martín-Hernández, Mohammed Errami, Miguel A Martín, Marta Casado, M-Eugenia Armengod
Human proteins MTO1 and GTPBP3 are thought to jointly catalyze the modification of the wobble uridine in mitochondrial tRNAs. Defects in each protein cause infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with lactic acidosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Using fibroblasts from an MTO1 patient and MTO1 silenced cells, we found that the MTO1 deficiency is associated with a metabolic reprogramming mediated by inactivation of AMPK, down regulation of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and transcription factor PPARγ, and activation of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348607/evaluation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-dynamics-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-crosstalk-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-complex-i-deficiency
#12
Guilhian Leipnitz, Al-Walid Mohsen, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Bianca Seminotti, Vera Y Roginskaya, Desiree M Markantone, Mateus Grings, Stephanie J Mihalik, Peter Wipf, Bennett Van Houten, Jerry Vockley
Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most frequent cause of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorders in humans. In order to benchmark the effects of CI deficiency on mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics, respiratory chain (RC) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, and superoxide production, fibroblasts from patients with mutations in the ND6, NDUFV1 or ACAD9 genes were analyzed. Fatty acid metabolism, basal and maximal respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP levels were decreased...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348600/chinese-olive-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-regulating-lipid-metabolism
#13
Yu-Te Yeh, Yan-Yu Cho, Shu-Chen Hsieh, An-Na Chiang
Chinese olive contains plenty of polyphenols, which possess a wide range of biological actions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) in the modulation of lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo. In cellular studies, CO-EtOAc attenuated oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation; we then elucidated the molecular mechanisms of CO-EtOAc in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. CO-EtOAc suppressed the mRNA levels of fatty acid transporter genes (CD36 and FABP) and lipogenesis genes (SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC1), but upregulated genes that govern lipolysis (HSL) and lipid oxidation (PPARα, CPT-1, and ACOX)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#14
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346772/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-controls-mature-brown-adipocyte-inducibility-through-glycerol-kinase
#15
David Lasar, Matthias Rosenwald, Elke Kiehlmann, Miroslav Balaz, Bettina Tall, Lennart Opitz, Martin E Lidell, Nicola Zamboni, Petra Krznar, Wenfei Sun, Lukas Varga, Patrik Stefanicka, Jozef Ukropec, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi Virtanen, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Sven Enerbäck, Walter Wahli, Christian Wolfrum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346762/transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-analysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity-predicts-increased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Ruifang Li, Sara A Grimm, Deepak Mav, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Ruchir Shah, B Alex Merrick, Daniel Raftery, Paul A Wade
Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345292/preparation-and-characterization-of-the-antibody-recognizing-amacr-inside-its-catalytic-center
#17
Boris V Popov, Gleb I Sutula, Nikolay S Petrov, Ximing J Yang
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) catalyzes the β-oxidation of fatty acids and is overexpressed in carcinomas in various organs, while its inactivation results in the inhibition of cancer growth. In the present study, we prepared and characterized 20 different mouse monoclonal antibodies against human AMACR. In the course of biopanning of a phage peptide commercial library against in-house prepared 6H9 and 2A5, and commercial 13H4 antibodies, 10 phage mimotopes recognized by each type of the antibody were selected...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345287/intermittent-calorie-restriction-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-alteration-of-energy-metabolism-in-a-mouse-tumor-model
#18
Osamu Kusuoka, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Chie Nakashima, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Takuya Mori, Shingo Kishi, Yoshihiro Miyagawa, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Hiroki Kuniyasu
The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344811/metabolic-evolution-and-a-comparative-omics-analysis-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-for-putrescine-production
#19
Zhen Li, Yu-Ping Shen, Xuan-Long Jiang, Li-Shen Feng, Jian-Zhong Liu
Putrescine is widely used in the industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Because the highest titer of putrescine is much lower than that of its precursor L-ornithine reported in microorganisms to date, further work is needed to increase putrescine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We first compared 7 ornithine decarboxylase genes and found that the Enterobacter cloacae ornithine decarboxylase gene speC1 was most suitable for putrescine production in C. glutamicum...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344023/eicosapentaenoic-acid-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-on-hemodialysis-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Kenneth M Borow, R Preston Mason, Krishnaswami Vijayaraghavan
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis have excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden with substantially increased CV event rates compared with the general population. Summary: Traditional interventions that, according to standard clinical guidelines, reduce CV risk such as antihypertensive therapy, diet, exercise, and statins are not similarly effective in the hemodialysis population. This raises the question of whether additional risk factors, such as enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, may drive the increased CVD burden in hemodialysis patients...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
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