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Fatty acid oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750406/a-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-induces-cardiac-and-renal-abnormalities-in-glut4-male-mice
#1
Michael Kruse, Ariana Fiallo, Jianling Tao, Katalin Susztak, Kerstin Amann, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU) and/or lactation (L) period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. METHODS: Female wild type (WT) mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C) prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension) and throughout IU/L...
July 27, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750334/effects-of-sage-distillation-by-product-salvia-lavandulifolia-vahl-dietary-supplementation-in-light-lambs-fed-on-concentrates-on-meat-shelf-life-and-fatty-acid-composition
#2
Mateo Leticia, Delgado Paola, Ortuño Jordi, Otal Julio, Bañón Sancho
Sage distillation by-product (SDB) was tested as dietary supplement in lambs for its effects on the lipid profile and meat stability. Segureño lambs from two different rearing systems (ewes grazing Mediterranean shrubland vs. ewes fed indoors on barley/lucerne) were weaned at 13kg live weight and given a basal diet (concentrate) or the SDB diet (concentrate with 100gSDBkg(-1) feed) until they reached 25kg. Intramuscular fat composition and meat stability were determined. SDB increased n-3 PUFA and polyphenol intake...
July 10, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748997/-role-of-mediterranean-diet-on-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-disease
#3
Arnoldo Miranda, Carolina Gómez-Gaete, Sigrid Mennickent
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748471/evaluation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-in-cultured-rat-hepatocytes
#4
Jean-Pierre Marchandeau, Gilles Labbe
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major mechanism whereby drugs can induce liver injury and other serious side effects, such as lactic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis, in some patients. Several in vitro and in vivo investigations can be performed in order to determine if drugs can disturb mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process, deplete hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), or trigger the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPT). Among these investigations, mitochondrial respiration is a relatively easy test to measure the potential toxicity of a drug...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748224/utility-of-genetic-testing-for-confirmation-of-abnormal-newborn-screening-in-disorders-of-long-chain-fatty-acids-a-missed-case-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1a-cpt1a-deficiency
#5
Leah Dowsett, Lauren Lulis, Can Ficicioglu, Sanmati Cuddapah
An 18-month-old male was evaluated after presenting with disproportionately elevated liver transaminases in the setting of acute gastroenteritis. He had marked hepatomegaly on physical exam that was later confirmed with an abdominal ultrasound. Given this clinical picture, suspicion for a fatty acid oxidation disorder was raised. Further investigation revealed that his initial newborn screen was positive for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency-a rare autosomal recessive disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation...
June 2017: International Journal of Neonatal Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748119/uric-acid-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-renal-and-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Usama A A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747487/plasma-f2-isoprostanes-are-positively-associated-with-glycemic-load-but-inversely-associated-with-dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-insoluble-fiber-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Andrea Y Arikawa, Hamed Samavat, Myron Gross, Mindy S Kurzer
Background: Dietary factors, such as antioxidant nutrients, contribute significantly to the maintenance of an appropriate balance between antioxidant defense and free radical production in the body.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between oxidative stress as assessed by plasma F2-isoprostane (IsoP) concentration, glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), intake of antioxidant nutrients, dietary fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).Methods: This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data collected from a random sample of 269 postmenopausal women participating in the Minnesota Green Tea Trial...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746890/aged-engineered-nanoparticles-effect-on-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-performance-and-associated-microbial-communities
#8
Samuel Eduok, Robert Ferguson, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa, Frédéric Coulon
To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0...
July 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746875/kmt5a-controls-hepatic-metabolic-pathways-by-facilitating-rna-pol-ii-release-from-promoter-proximal-regions
#9
Kostas C Nikolaou, Panagiotis Moulos, Vangelis Harokopos, George Chalepakis, Iannis Talianidis
H4K20 monomethylation maintains genome integrity by regulating proper mitotic condensation, DNA damage response, and replication licensing. Here, we show that, in non-dividing hepatic cells, H4K20Me1 is specifically enriched in active gene bodies and dynamically regulated by the antagonistic action of Kmt5a methylase and Kdm7b demethylase. In liver-specific Kmt5a-deficient mice, reduced levels of H4K20Me1 correlated with reduced RNA Pol II release from promoter-proximal regions. Genes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism were most sensitive to impairment of RNA Pol II release...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746820/the-role-of-damps-and-pamps-in-inflammation-mediated-vulnerability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#10
Vikrant Rai, Devendra K Agrawal
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Plaque formation starts with the inflammation in fatty streak and progress through atheroma, atheromatous plaque, and fibroatheroma leading to development of stable plaque. Hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia are the risk factors for atherosclerosis. Inflammation, infection with viruses and bacteria, and dysregulation in the endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells leads to advanced plaque formation...
July 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#11
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745380/bioactivity-and-chemical-characterization-of-opuntia-macrorhiza-engelm-seed-oil-potential-food-and-pharmaceutical-applications
#12
Hassiba Chahdoura, João C M Barreira, Khawla Adouni, Lamia Mhadhebi, Ricardo C Calhelha, Mejdi Snoussi, Hatem Majdoub, Guido Flamini, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Lotfi Achour
In the food industry, there is a continuous search for ingredients that might provide advantageous properties to food products, either considering their nutritional value or bioactivity, as well as flavouring and technological aspects. Crude oils are good examples of this type of ingredient, especially if obtained from nonconventional sources. Accordingly, the Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. seed oil (OMSO) was chemically characterized and evaluated for different in vitro and in vivo bioactivities. OMSO presented physicochemical characteristics appropriate to be considered as an edible oil, namely low acidity value, stability to oxidation (high peroxide value and low K232 and K270 values), and high contents of unsaturated fatty acids (as shown by the iodine value) and saponifiable matter...
July 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744771/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-stearidonic-acid-mediated-by-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-map-kinase-pathways-in-macrophages
#13
Jeehye Sung, Heemang Jeon, In-Hwan Kim, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in oils derived from plants of the Boraginaceae family. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effects of SDA isolated from echium oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages. SDA significantly downregulated the levels of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, thereby suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, SDA inhibited the nuclear translocation and promoter activity of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N terminal kinase, and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
July 25, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742939/disparate-peroxisome-related-defects-in-arabidopsis-pex6-and-pex26-mutants-link-peroxisomal-retrotranslocation-and-oil-body-utilization
#14
Kim L Gonzalez, Wendell A Fleming, Yun-Ting Kao, Zachary J Wright, Savina V Venkova, Meredith J Ventura, Bonnie Bartel
Catabolism of fatty acids stored in oil bodies is essential for Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling development. This fatty acid breakdown occurs in peroxisomes, organelles that sequester oxidative reactions. Import of peroxisomal enzymes is facilitated by peroxins including PEX5, a receptor that delivers cargo proteins from the cytosol to the peroxisomal matrix. After cargo delivery, a complex of the PEX1 and PEX6 ATPases and the PEX26 tail-anchored membrane protein removes ubiquitinated PEX5 from the peroxisomal membrane...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742081/serum-fatty-acid-patterns-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-targeted-metabonomics-study
#15
X Yang, L Sun, A Zhao, X Hu, Y Qing, J Jiang, C Yang, T Xu, P Wang, J Liu, J Zhang, L He, W Jia, C Wan
Previous studies have indicated that schizophrenia is linked to abnormal lipid metabolism. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in peripheral blood can reflect the status of lipid metabolism in human body. The purpose of this study was to scan the FFA pattern and elucidate the characteristics of lipid metabolic abnormality in schizophrenia patients. One hundred and ten patients with schizophrenia (SCZs) and 109 healthy controls (HCs) were included in the study and divided into a discovery set and a validation set. Forty-seven serum FFAs were detected by UPLC-QTOF-MS and 39 of them were absolutely quantified by establishing standard curves...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740291/effect-of-high-pressure-processing-on-quality-and-stability-of-green-mango-blended-mayonnaise
#16
Swati Sethi, O P Chauhan, Rahul K Anurag
The present work was aimed to study and optimize the high pressure treated green mango blended mayonnaise in terms of oxidative and emulsion stability, as a function of technical parameters; pressure intensity, dwell period and level of green mango pulp. Mayonnaise samples were treated at different combinations of pressure (400-600 MPa), holding time (5-10 min) and level of green mango pulp (10-30%) following Box-Behnken design. Mayonnaise quality was evaluated in terms of oxidative stability and emulsion stability using response surface methodology to optimize the best possible combination among all...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740245/fish-oil-diet-may-reduce-inflammatory-levels-in-the-liver-of-middle-aged-rats
#17
Yingqiu Li, Fan Zhao, Qiayu Wu, Mengjie Li, Yingying Zhu, Shangxin Song, Jing Zhu, Yafang Ma, He Li, Xuebin Shi, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou, Chunbao Li
The impact of dietary soybean oil, lard and fish oil on physiological responses in middle age is little studied. In this study, we investigated the changes of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, telomere length, and age-related gene expression in the liver of middle-aged rats in response to the above three fat diets. Male Sprague Dawley rats (12 months old) were fed AIN-93M diets for 3 months, in which soybean oil was equivalently replaced by lard or fish oil. As compared to the lard diet, intake of fish oil diet significantly decreased body weight gain, white blood cell count, and levels of hepatic triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fat accumulation, low-density lipoprotein, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines (P < 0...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739841/the-goldilocks-zone-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-to-ensure-that-the-relationship-with-cardiac-function-is-just-right
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Kerr, Michael S Dodd, Lisa C Heather
Fatty acids (FA) are the main fuel used by the healthy heart to power contraction, supplying 60-70% of the ATP required. FA generate more ATP per carbon molecule than glucose, but require more oxygen to produce the ATP, making them a more energy dense but less oxygen efficient fuel compared with glucose. The pathways involved in myocardial FA metabolism are regulated at various subcellular levels, and can be divided into sarcolemmal FA uptake, cytosolic activation and storage, mitochondrial uptake and β-oxidation...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739531/oxidative-and-er-stress-dependent-ask1-activation-in-steatotic-hepatocytes-and-kupffer-cells-sensitizes-mice-fatty-liver-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Chiara Imarisio, Elisa Alchera, Bangalore R Chandrashekar, Guido Valente, Antonia Follenzi, Elena Trisolini, Renzo Boldorini, Rita Carini
Steatosis intensifies hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increasing hepatocyte damage and hepatic inflammation. This study evaluates if this process is associated to a differential response of steatotic hepatocytes (HP) and Kupffer cells (KC) to I/R injury and investigates the molecular mechanisms involved. Control or steatotic (treated with 50 μmol palmitic acid, PA) mouse HP or KC were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). C57BL/6 mice fed 9 week with control or High Fat diet underwent to partial hepatic IR...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738845/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-isomers-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-inflammatory-state-of-retina-in-obesity-induced-high-fat-diet-rodent-model
#20
Mehmet Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Omer Ersin Muz, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu, Kazım Sahin
BACKGROUND: Several studies associated high-fat intakes with a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein and Zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi) may counteract reactive oxygen species produced by oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to determine the possible effects of L/Zi administration on lipid profile, protein genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation pathways in the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rodents. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups as follows: (i) Control, (ii) Control + L/Zi, (iii) High Fat Diet (HFD), and (iv) HFD+ L/Z...
July 24, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
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