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Fatty acid oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339984/the-link-between-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Dan-Qian Chen, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ming Wang, Xiang-Ri Li, Ying-Yong Zhao
Background.: The kidney plays a central role in elimination of metabolic waste products and regulation of low-molecular weight metabolites via glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption. Disruption of these processes results in profound changes in the biochemical milieu of the body fluids, which contribute to complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation. Insight into the changes of the composition of metabolites and dysregulation of target genes and proteins enhances the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#2
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#3
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339706/differential-proliferation-and-metabolic-activity-of-sertoli-cells-in-the-testes-of-broiler-and-layer-breeder-chickens
#4
Mélanie Faure, Edith Guibert, Sabine Crochet, Pascal Chartrin, Jean-Pierre Brillard, Anne Collin, Pascal Froment
Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335462/therapeutic-potentials-of-microalgae-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tosin A Olasehinde, Ademola O Olaniran, Anthony I Okoh
Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#6
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335383/a-biomedical-investigation-of-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-radix-salviae-miltiorrhizae-and-network-pharmacology-based-prediction-of-the-active-compounds-and-molecular-targets
#7
Ming Hong, Sha Li, Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Fan Cheung, Yibin Feng
Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334528/why-prodrugs-and-propesticides-succeed
#8
John E Casida
What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales with corresponding values of 20, 37 and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides and profungicides...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334508/dietary-fatty-acids-influence-sperm-quality-and-function
#9
A Ferramosca, N Moscatelli, M Di Giacomo, V Zara
Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2...
March 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334197/ppar%C3%AE-regulates-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-senescence-via-a-novel-target-gene-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1c
#10
Yixin Chen, Yongtao Wang, Yaoyao Huang, Hang Zeng, Bingfang Hu, Lihuan Guan, Huizhen Zhang, Ai-Ming Yu, Caroline H Johnson, Frank J Gonzalez, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), an enzyme located in the outer mitochondria membrane, has a crucial role in fatty acid transport and oxidation. It is also involved in cell proliferation and is a potential driver for cancer cell senescence. However, its upstream regulatory mechanism is unknown. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid metabolism and tumor progression. The current study aimed to elucidate whether and how PPARα regulates CPT1C and then affects cancer cell proliferation and senescence...
March 3, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#11
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332117/fructose-metabolism-from-a-functional-perspective-implications-for-athletes
#12
REVIEW
Luc Tappy, Robin Rosset
Substantial amounts of fructose are present in our diet. Unlike glucose, this hexose cannot be metabolized by most cells and has first to be converted into glucose, lactate or fatty acids by enterocytes, hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, which all express specific fructose-metabolizing enzymes. This particular metabolism may then be detrimental in resting, sedentary subjects; however, this may also present some advantages for athletes. First, since fructose and glucose are absorbed through distinct, saturable gut transporters, co-ingestion of glucose and fructose may increase total carbohydrate absorption and oxidation...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331812/the-plasma-lipidome-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-at-diagnosis-in-relation-to-clinical-disease-features
#13
Thomas Pabst, Linda Kortz, Georg M Fiedler, Uta Ceglarek, Jeffrey R Idle, Diren Beyoğlu
BACKGROUND: Early studies established that certain lipids were lower in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells than normal leukocytes. Because lipids are now known to play an important role in cell signaling and regulation of homeostasis, and are often perturbed in malignancies, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomic survey of plasma from AML patients at time of diagnosis and also healthy blood donors. METHODS: Plasma lipid profiles were measured using three mass spectrometry platforms in 20 AML patients and 20 healthy blood donors...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330968/examination-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-abundance-in-white-adipose-tissue-implications-in-obesity-research
#14
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Olga S Dubuisson, Sydney M Hodgeson, Carrie M Elks, Eric Ravussin, Randall L Mynatt
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is essential for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Recently, it was reported that decreased CPT1b mRNA in adipose tissue was a contributing factor for obesity in rats. We therefore closely examined the expression level of Cpt1 in adipose tissue from mice, rats, and humans. Cpt1a is the predominate isoform in adipose tissue from all three species. Rat white adipose tissue has a moderate amount of Cpt1b mRNA, but it is very minor compared to Cpt1b expression in muscle...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#15
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330275/phytochemicals-of-moringa-oleifera-a-review-of-their-nutritional-therapeutic-and-industrial-significance
#16
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Young-Soo Keum
Moringa oleifera Lam., also known as the 'drumstick tree,' is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines, functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel production. The multiple biological activities including antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective, as well as folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera (MO) are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327516/an-extract-from-shrimp-processing-by-products-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-neurotoxicity-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35
#17
Yongping Zhang, Guangling Jiao, Cai Song, Shelly Gu, Richard E Brown, Junzeng Zhang, Pingcheng Zhang, Jacques Gagnon, Steven Locke, Roumiana Stefanova, Claude Pelletier, Yi Zhang, Hongyu Lu
Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25-35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
March 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327084/a-transcriptome-multi-tissue-analysis-identifies-biological-pathways-and-genes-associated-with-variations-in-feed-efficiency-of-growing-pigs
#18
Florence Gondret, Annie Vincent, Magalie Houée-Bigot, Anne Siegel, Sandrine Lagarrigue, David Causeur, Hélène Gilbert, Isabelle Louveau
BACKGROUND: Animal's efficiency in converting feed into lean gain is a critical issue for the profitability of meat industries. This study aimed to describe shared and specific molecular responses in different tissues of pigs divergently selected over eight generations for residual feed intake (RFI). RESULTS: Pigs from the low RFI line had an improved gain-to-feed ratio during the test period and displayed higher leanness but similar adiposity when compared with pigs from the high RFI line at 132 days of age...
March 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#19
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325998/glucomannan-and-glucomannan-plus-spirulina-enriched-pork-affect-liver-fatty-acid-profile-ldl-receptor-expression-and-antioxidant-status-in-zucker-fa-fa-rats-fed-atherogenic-diets
#20
Laura González-Torres, Cátia Matos, Miguel Vázquez-Velasco, Jorge A Santos-López, Iria Sánchez-Martínez, Camino García-Fernández, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
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