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Fatty acid oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549240/dietary-salecan-reverts-partially-the-metabolic-gene-expressions-and-nmr-based-metabolomic-profiles-from-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#1
Qi Sun, Minghui Li, Xiao Yang, Xi Xu, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Previous studies suggest that dietary salecan (a water-soluble β-glucan) effectively reduces high-fat-diet-induced adiposity through disturbing bile-acid-promoted emulsification in mice. However, the effects of salecan on metabolic genes and metabolites involved in lipid accumulation are mostly unknown. Here, we confirmed that dietary 3% and 6% salecan for 4 weeks markedly decreased fat accumulation in liver and adipose tissue in high-fat-diet rats, displaying a decrease in mRNA levels of SREBP1-C, FAS, SCD1 and ACC1 involved in de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of levels of GPAT1, DGAT1 and DGAT2 related to triglyceride synthesis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549111/diabetic-db-db-mice-do-not-develop-heart-failure-upon-pressure-overload-a-longitudinal-in-vivo-pet-mri-and-mrs-study-on-cardiac-metabolic-structural-and-functional-adaptations
#2
Desiree Abdurrachim, Miranda Nabben, Verena Hoerr, Michael T Kuhlmann, Philipp Bovenkamp, Jolita Ciapaite, Ilvy M E Geraets, Will Coumans, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Michael Schäfers, Klaas Nicolay, Cornelius Faber, Sven Hermann, Jeanine J Prompers
Aim: Heart failure is associated with altered myocardial substrate metabolism and impaired cardiac energetics. Comorbidities like diabetes may influence the metabolic adaptations during heart failure development. We quantified to what extent changes in substrate preference, lipid accumulation, and energy status predict the longitudinal development of hypertrophy and failure in the non-diabetic and the diabetic heart. Methods and results: Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in non-diabetic ( db /+) and diabetic ( db/db ) mice to induce pressure overload...
May 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546450/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-ap2-dependent-blt1r-expression-and-signaling
#3
Ann V Hertzel, Hongliang Xu, Michael Downey, Nicholas Kvalheim, David A Bernlohr
Previous studies have shown that reduced levels of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4, FABP4 (AFABP/aP2), result in metabolic improvement including potentiated insulin sensitivity and attenuated atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of FABP4 in macrophages upregulates UCP2, attenuates ROS production, polarizes cells towards the anti-inflammatory M2 state and reduces leukotriene secretion. At the protein level, FABP4 stabilizes LTA4 towards chemical hydrolysis thereby potentiating inflammatory LTC4 synthesis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545035/novel-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-mhy553-alleviates-hepatic-steatosis-by-increasing-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-decreasing-inflammation-during-aging
#4
Seong Min Kim, Bonggi Lee, Hye Jin An, Dae Hyun Kim, Kyung Chul Park, Sang-Gyun Noh, Ki Wung Chung, Eun Kyeong Lee, Kyung Mok Kim, Do Hyun Kim, Su Jeong Kim, Pusoon Chun, Ho Jeong Lee, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Hepatic steatosis is frequently observed in obese and aged individuals. Because hepatic steatosis is closely associated with metabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, numerous efforts have been made to develop compounds that ameliorate it. Here, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, 4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)benzene-1,3-diol (MHY553) was developed, and investigated its beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis using young and old Sprague-Dawley rats and HepG2 cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544394/muscle-metabolic-alterations-induced-by-genetic-ablation-of-4e-bp1-and-4e-bp2-in-response-to-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Olivier Le Bacquer, Kristell Combe, Christophe Montaurier, Jérôme Salles, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christelle Guillet, Katie Louche, Yves Boirie, Nahum Sonenberg, Cédric Moro, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: In recent years, several studies reported the role of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) on the development of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 4E-BP protein deletion on lipid accumulation and metabolism in skeletal muscle in response to a high fat diet-induced obesity in 4E-BP1/2 DKO mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obesity engendered increased ectopic accumulation of lipotoxic species in skeletal muscle of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 double-knockout mice (4E-BP1/2 DKO), namely diacylglycerols and ceramides...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544323/mass-spectrometric-evidence-for-the-modification-of-small-molecules-in-a-cobalt-60-irradiated-rodent-diet
#6
J K Prasain, L S Wilson, A Arabshahi, C Grubbs, S Barnes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of radiation on the content of animal diet constituents using global metabolomics. Aqueous methanolic extracts of control and cobalt-60 irradiated NIH 7001 diets were comprehensively analyzed using nanoLC-MS/MS. Among the over two thousand ions revealed by XCMS followed by data preprocessing, 94 positive and 143 negative metabolite ions had greater than 1.5 fold changes and p-values <0.01. Use of Metaboanalyst statistical software demonstrated complete separation of the irradiated and non-radiated diets in unsupervised principal components analysis and supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542224/is-spaceflight-induced-immune-dysfunction-linked-to-systemic-changes-in-metabolism
#7
Michael J Pecaut, Xiao Wen Mao, Denise L Bellinger, Karen R Jonscher, Louis S Stodieck, Virginia L Ferguson, Ted A Bateman, Robert P Mohney, Daila S Gridley
The Space Shuttle Atlantis launched on its final mission (STS-135) on July 8, 2011. After just under 13 days, the shuttle landed safely at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the last time. Female C57BL/6J mice flew as part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module-3 (CBTM-3) payload. Ground controls were maintained at the KSC facility. Subsets of these mice were made available to investigators as part of NASA's Bio-specimen Sharing Program (BSP). Our group characterized cell phenotype distributions and phagocytic function in the spleen, catecholamine and corticosterone levels in the adrenal glands, and transcriptomics/metabolomics in the liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541810/effects-of-a-carbohydrate-glutamine-and-antioxidant-enriched-oral-nutrition-supplement-on-major-surgery-induced-insulin-resistance-a-randomized-pilot-study
#8
Mireille F M van Stijn, Maarten R Soeters, Paul A M van Leeuwen, W H Schreurs, Margreet G Schoorl, Jos W R Twisk, Jean-Pascal De Bandt, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Luc Cynober, Mariette T Ackermans, Mireille J Serlie, Alexander P J Houdijk
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance after surgery hampers recovery. Oxidative stress is shown to be involved in the occurrence of postoperative insulin resistance. Preoperative carbohydrate-rich oral nutrition supplements reduce but do not prevent insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-, glutamine-, and antioxidant-enriched preoperative oral nutrition supplement on postoperative insulin resistance. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in 18 patients with rectal cancer, who received either the supplement (S) or the placebo (P) 15, 11, and 4 hours preoperatively, was conducted...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541534/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-placental-lipid-metabolism
#9
Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Patricia Glazebrook, Geraldine Cheyana Ranasinghe, Charles Hoppel, Sylvie Hauguel de-Mouzon, Patrick Catalano, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
Obese women, on average, give birth to babies with high fat mass. Placental lipid metabolism alters fetal lipid delivery, potentially moderating neonatal adiposity, yet how it is affected by maternal obesity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fatty acid (FA) accumulation (esterification) is higher, and FA oxidation (FAO) is lower, in placentas from obese, compared to lean women. We assessed acylcarnitine profiles (lipid oxidation intermediates) in mother-baby-placenta triads, in addition to lipid content, and mRNA/protein expression of key regulators of FA metabolism pathways, in placentas of lean and obese women with normal glucose tolerance recruited at scheduled term Cesarean delivery...
May 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540526/high-fat-diet-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-suppressive-effect-on-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hepatocytes
#10
Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Vanessa Jacob Victorino, Isabela Casagrande Jeremias, Ricardo Costa Petroni, Suely Kunimi Kubo Ariga, Thiago A Salles, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the expression of genes implicated in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Its role in liver steatosis is well established, since mice with liver-specific deletion of PGC-1α exhibit lipid accumulation and high-fat diet reduces hepatic PGC-1α expression in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in the inflammatory changes observed in steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539734/honey-and-health-a-review-of-recent-clinical-research
#11
REVIEW
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Fariborz Samini
Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#12
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539586/whole-blood-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potential-competition-in-metabolic-pathways-between-negative-energy-balance-and-response-to-inflammatory-challenge
#13
Juliette Bouvier-Muller, Charlotte Allain, Guillaume Tabouret, Francis Enjalbert, David Portes, Céline Noirot, Rachel Rupp, Gilles Foucras
Negative Energy Balance (NEB) is considered to increase susceptibility to mastitis. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by comparing transcriptomic profiles following NEB and a concomitant mammary inflammation. Accordingly, we performed RNA-seq analysis of blood cells in energy-restricted ewes and control-diet ewes at four different time points before and after intra mammary challenge with phlogogenic ligands. Blood leucocytes responded to NEB by shutting down lipid-generating processes, including cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, probably under transcriptional control of SREBF 1...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539549/the-metabolic-regulation-in-immune-cells-and-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-%C3%A2-toward-new-therapeutic-applications%C3%A2
#14
Yusuke Takeshima, Yukiko Iwasaki, Tomohisa Okamura, Keishi Fujio, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
  The importance of cellular metabolism has long been known as Warburg effect; cancer cells are characterized by mitochondrial defect that shifts towards aerobic glycolysis. Recently, many reports have revealed that immune metabolism is a key factor for controlling immune cell proliferation and differentiation. Resting lymphocytes generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, whereas activated lymphocytes rapidly shift to glycolysis. Especially in T cells, more precise mechanism of regulating metabolism have been clarified on differentiation from naïve T cells to effector T cells...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539223/dietary-effects-of-raphanus-sativus-cv-sango-on-lipid-and-oxysterols-accumulation-in-rat-brain-a-lipidomic-study-on-a-non-genetic-obesity-model
#15
V Cardenia, F Vivarelli, S Cirillo, M Paolini, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Donatella Canistro
The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprout juice (SSJ) administration (75mg/kg b.w. SSJ/day) on the brain lipidomic profile (fatty acid, sterols, cholesterol oxidation) of rats (non-genetic model) subjected to a high-fat (34% crude fat) dietary regimen. The SSJ did not affect the lipid infiltration (7.7-9.3%) and the fatty acid composition of the rat brain, which was mainly composed by unsaturated fatty acids (∼58%); however, the high-fat diet regimen significantly halved linoleic acid (LA)...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538813/mechanisms-of-endothelial-protection-by-natural-bioactive-compounds-from-fruit-and-vegetables
#16
Bernardita Monsalve, Anibal Concha-Meyer, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Under disease conditions, including the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, the endothelium loses its protective role and becomes a proatherosclerotic structure. In this article we searched for strategies from PUBMED and Science Direct databases using the following key words: endothelium, natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases. The search was restricted to english language papers. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537816/effect-of-vitamin-e-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cryopreserved-sperm-quality-in-bos-taurus-bulls-under-testicular-heat-stress
#17
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Andressa Dalmazzo, Carolina C Rocha, Maíra M Brito, Eduardo G A Perez, Roberta H Tsunoda, Paola A A Góes, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality...
May 24, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536966/a-comprehensive-review-of-the-bioenergetics-of-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-the-healthy-and-failing-heart-in-nondiabetic-condition
#18
REVIEW
Ashish Gupta, Brian Houston
The function of the heart is defined by its ability to deliver adequate cardiac output to meet the requirements of the body both at rest and with exertion. To fill this role, the heart demonstrates an impressive capacity to tightly regulate energy generation and consumption. Energy production and transfer within cardiac myocytes primarily relies on the process of oxidative phosphorylation. In the failing heart, there is an imbalance between the work of the cardiac system and the energy required to generate this work...
May 24, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536862/mechanisms-of-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-the-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-bal30072
#19
Franziska Paech, Simon Messner, Jochen Spickermann, Mathias Wind, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne Therese Witschi, Brett A Howell, Rachel J Church, Jeff Woodhead, Marc Engelhardt, Stephan Krähenbühl, Martina Maurer
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534401/physical-and-oxidative-stability-of-flaxseed-oil-in-water-emulsions-fabricated-from-sunflower-lecithins-impact-of-blending-lecithins-with-different-phospholipid-profiles
#20
Li Liang, Fang Chen, Xing-Guo Wang, Qingzhe Jin, Eric A Decker, David Julian McClements
There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 C in the dark...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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