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Fatty acid oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110245/bipartite-network-analysis-reveals-metabolic-gene-expression-profiles-that-are-highly-associated-with-the-clinical-outcomes-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#1
Fanfan Xie, Mingxiong He, Li He, Keqin Liu, Menglong Li, Guoquan Hu, Zhining Wen
Dysregulated and reprogrammed metabolism are one of the most important characteristics of cancer, and exploiting cancer cell metabolism can aid in understanding the diverse clinical outcomes for patients. To investigate the differences in metabolic pathways among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and differential survival outcomes, we systematically conducted microarray data analysis of the metabolic gene expression profiles from 384 patients available from the Gene Expression Omnibus and Cancer Genome Atlas databases...
January 6, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110046/response-of-spirodela-polyrhiza-to-cerium-subcellular-distribution-growth-and-biochemical-changes
#2
Qinsong Xu, Yuji Jiang, Weiyue Chu, Chunlei Su, Dan Hu, Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang
Rare earth elements are new and emerging contaminants in freshwater systems. Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) is a common aquatic plant widely used in phytotoxicity tests for xenobiotic substances. In this study, the cerium (Ce) accumulation potential, the distribution of Ce in bio-molecules, and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in greater duckweed fronds when they were exposed to Ce (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60μM). There was a concentration dependent increase in Ce accumulation, which reached a maximum of 67mgg(-1) of dry weight (DW) at 60μM Ce after 14 d...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110019/cancer-cell-metabolism-and-mitochondria-nutrient-plasticity-for-tca-cycle-fueling
#3
REVIEW
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
Warburg's hypothesis that cancer cells take up a lot of glucose in the presence of ambient oxygen but convert pyruvate into lactate due to impaired mitochondrial function led to the misconception that cancer cells rely on glycolysis as their major source of energy. Most recent (13)C-based metabolomic studies, including in cancer patients, indicate that cancer cells may also fully oxidize glucose. In addition to glucose-derived pyruvate, lactate, fatty acids and amino acids supply substrates to the TCA cycle to sustain mitochondrial metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109892/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Bellanti, Rosanna Villani, Antonio Facciorusso, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Gaetano Serviddio
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the major public health challenge for hepatologists in the twenty-first century. NAFLD comprises a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis or fatty liver, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It can be categorized into two principal phenotypes: (1) non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and (2) non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms of NAFLD progression consist of lipid homeostasis alterations, redox unbalance, insulin resistance, and inflammation in the liver...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108554/genome-wide-analysis-of-lncrna-and-mrna-expression-during-differentiation-of-abdominal-preadipocytes-in-the-chicken
#5
Tao Zhang, Xiangqian Zhang, Kunpeng Han, Genxi Zhang, Jinyu Wang, Kaizhou Xie, Qian Xue
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipogenesis and other processes associated with metabolic tissue development and function. However, little is known about the function and profile of lncRNAs during preadipocyte differentiation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Herein, lncRNA and mRNA expression in preadipocytes at different stages of differentiation were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A total of 1,300,074,528 clean reads and 27,023 novel lncRNAs were obtained from 12 samples. The number of genes (1,336 lncRNAs and 1,759 mRNAs; 3,095 in total) differentially expressed across various stages declined as differentiation progressed...
January 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108519/survival-of-acute-monocytic-leukemia-cells-is-driven-by-fatty-acid-oxidation-mediated-activation-of-ampk-in-bone-marrow-adipocytes
#6
Yoko Tabe, Shinichi Yamamoto, Kaori Saitoh, Kazumasa Sekihara, Norikazu Monma, Kazuho Ikeo, Kaoru Mogushi, Masato Shikami, Vivian R Ruvolo, Jo Ishizawa, Numsen Hail, Saiko Kazuno, Mamoru Igarashi, Hiromichi Matsushita, Yasunari Yamanaka, Hajime Arai, Isao Nagaoka, Takashi Miida, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Marina Konopleva, Michael Andreeff
Leukemia cells in the bone marrow (BM) must meet the biochemical demands of increased cell proliferation by continually adapting to fluctuations in nutrient and oxygen availability. Thus, targeting metabolic abnormalities in leukemia cells located in the BM may provide an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we report the discovery of a metabolic role for BM adipocytes in supporting the growth of leukemic blasts. Preventing nutrient starvation-induced apoptosis of leukemic cells by BM adipocytes, as well as the metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in this process, were investigated using various analytical techniques...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108329/exercise-increases-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-drp1-expression-in-the-brains-of-aged-mice
#7
Aaron M Gusdon, Jason Callio, Giovanna DiStefano, Robert M O'Doherty, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen, Charleen T Chu
Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. While exercise elicits positive effects on memory, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, the effects of exercise on brain mitochondrial energetics remain relatively unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of exercise training in old and young mice on brain mitochondrial energetics, in comparison to known effects on peripheral tissues that utilize fatty acid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108035/feline-hepatic-lipidosis
#8
REVIEW
Chiara Valtolina, Robert P Favier
Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies...
January 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107949/a-microcalorimetry-study-on-the-oxidation-of-linoleic-acid-and-the-control-of-rancidity
#9
Nabil Haman, Andrea Romano, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Giovanna Ferrentino, Franco Biasioli, Matteo Scampicchio
The oxidative deterioration of unsaturated lipids fatty acids is a great concern for the food industry as it is associated with the development of rancid off-odors and the reduction of food quality. This work describes the potential use of isothermal microcalorimetry to monitor the oxidation of linoleic acid, an important conjugated fatty acid responsible for the development of rancidity. The heat flow signal developed during the oxidation process reflects a multistep mechanism typical of radical chain reactions...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107461/inhibition-of-fatty-acid-synthase-reduces-blastocyst-hatching-through-regulation-of-the-akt-pathway-in-pigs
#10
Jing Guo, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. During oncogenesis, FASN plays a role in growth and survival rather than acting within the energy storage pathways. Here, the function of FASN during early embryonic development was studied using its specific inhibitor, C75. We found that the presence of the inhibitor reduced blastocyst hatching. FASN inhibition decreased Cpt1 expression, leading to a reduction in mitochondria numbers and ATP content. This inhibition of FASN resulted in the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, thereby triggering apoptosis through the activation of the p53 pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105936/pathways-of-aging-comparative-analysis-of-gene-signatures-in-replicative-senescence-and-stress-induced-premature-senescence
#11
Kamil C Kural, Neetu Tandon, Mikhail Skoblov, Olga V Kel-Margoulis, Ancha V Baranova
BACKGROUND: In culturing normal diploid cells, senescence may either happen naturally, in the form of replicative senescence, or it may be a consequence of external challenges such as oxidative stress. Here we present a comparative analysis aimed at reconstruction of molecular cascades specific for replicative (RS) and stressinduced senescence (SIPS) in human fibroblasts. RESULTS: An involvement of caspase-3/keratin-18 pathway and serine/threonine kinase Aurora A/ MDM2 pathway was shared between RS and SIPS...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104914/docosahexaenoic-acid-mediated-protein-aggregates-may-reduce-proteasome-activity-and-delay-myotube-degradation-during-muscle-atrophy-in-vitro
#12
Seung Kyun Shin, Ji Hyeon Kim, Jung Hoon Lee, Young Hoon Son, Min Wook Lee, Hak Joong Kim, Sue Ah Noh, Kwang Pyo Kim, In-Gyu Kim, Min Jae Lee
Proteasomes are the primary degradation machinery for oxidatively damaged proteins that compose a class of misfolded protein substrates. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase with age and this cellular propensity is particularly harmful when combined with the age-associated development of various human disorders including cancer, neurodegenerative disease and muscle atrophy. Proteasome activity is reportedly downregulated in these disease conditions. Herein, we report that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, mediates intermolecular protein cross-linkages through oxidation, and the resulting protein aggregates potently reduce proteasomal activity both in vitro and in cultured cells...
January 20, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104576/nitro-fatty-acids-in-plant-signaling-new-key-mediators-of-nitric-oxide-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Capilla Mata-Pérez, Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo, María N Padilla, Juan C Begara-Morales, Raquel Valderrama, Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso
Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs). They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet...
January 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104476/combined-effects-of-vitamin-e-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-protecting-ambient-pm2-5-induced-cardiovascular-injury-in-rats
#14
Xihao Du, Shuo Jiang, Liang Bo, Jie Liu, Xuejiao Zeng, Yuquan Xie, Qing He, Xingwang Ye, Weiming Song, Jinzhuo Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to observe whether the combined treatment with vitamin E (vit E) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3 FA) could prevent the fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced cardiovascular injury through alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress. At the same time, the appropriate combination dosage of vit E and Ω-3 FA was explored to find an optimized protective dose to protect the injury induced by PM2.5. METHODS: The SD rats were pretreated with different concentration of vit E and Ω-3 FA separately or jointly...
January 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103623/metabolic-inflexibility-with-obesity-and-the-effects-of-fenofibrate-on-skeletal-muscle-fatty-acid-oxidation
#15
Kristen E Boyle, Jacob E Friedman, Rachel C Janssen, Chantal Underkofler, Joseph A Houmard, Neda Rasouli
This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of lipid metabolic inflexibility in human obesity and the ability of fenofibrate (FENO) to increase skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in primary human skeletal muscle cell cultures (HSkMC) exhibiting metabolic inflexibility. HSkMC from 10 lean and 10 obese, insulin resistant subjects were treated with excess fatty acid for 24 h (24hFA) to gauge lipid-related metabolic flexibility. Metabolically inflexible HSkMC from obese individuals were then treated with 24hFA in combination with FENO to determine effectiveness for increasing FAO...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101467/some-qualitative-and-rheological-properties-of-virgin-olive-oil-apple-vinegar-salad-dressing-stabilized-with-xanthan-gum
#17
Solmaz Abedinzadeh, Mohammadali Torbati, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi
Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100886/characterization-of-volatile-compounds-with-hs-spme-from-oxidized-n-3-pufa-rich-oils-via-rancimat-tests
#18
Kai-Min Yang, Ming-Ching Cheng, Chih-Wei Chen, Chin-Yin Tseng, Li-Yun Lin, Po-Yuan Chiang
Algae oil and fish oil are n-3 PUFA mainstream commercial products. The various sources for the stability of n-3 PUFA oxidation are influenced by the fatty acid composition, extraction and refined processing. In this study, the oil stability index (OSI) occurs within 2.3 to 7.6 hours with three different n-3 PUFA rich oil. To set the OSI in the Rancimat test as the oil stability limit and observed various degrees of oxidation (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%). The volatile oxidation compounds were analyzed via headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC/MS...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100503/chronic-kidney-disease-promotes-chronic-inflammation-in-visceral-white-adipose-tissue
#19
Dong Mei Xiang, Xiu Zhen Song, Zhan Mei Zhou, Yang Liu, Xiao Yan Dai, Xiang Lan Huang, Fan Fan Hou, Qiu Gen Zhou
White adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of metabolic disturbance which is a common feature in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of CKD on white adipose tissue remains poorly appreciated. Here we evaluated the inflammatory potential of visceral white adipose tissue in a rat model of CKD. The results showed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophage in the tissue were significantly increased in CKD rats than sham rats. Moreover, the primary adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction under the condition of CKD could trigger the inflammatory response in each other...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100287/characterisation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-different-insulin-resistant-phenotypes-by-means-of-stable-isotopes
#20
Ellen E Blaak
The obese insulin resistant and/or prediabetic state is characterised by systemic lipid overflow, mainly driven by an impaired lipid buffering capacity of adipose tissue, and an impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to increase fat oxidation upon increased supply. This leads to the accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites in skeletal muscle interfering with insulin sensitivity via various mechanisms. In this review, the contribution of dietary v. endogenous fatty acids to lipid overflow, their extraction or uptake by skeletal muscle as well as the fractional synthetic rate, content and composition of the muscle lipid pools is discussed in relation to the development or presence of insulin resistance and/or an impaired glucose metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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