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Alexis V Mickelson, Sampath K Gollapudi, Murali Chandra
The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation, A28V, in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the N-terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the effect of the N-terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Wataru Miyamoto, Shinji Imade, Ken Innami, Hirotaka Kawano, Masato Takao
BACKGROUND: Although early accelerated rehabilitation is recommended for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, most traditional rehabilitation techniques require some type of brace. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 44 feet of 44 patients (25 male and 19 female) with a mean age of 31.8 years who had an acute Achilles tendon rupture related to athletic activity. Patients had been treated by a double side-locking loop suture (SLLS) technique using double antislip knots between stumps and had undergone early accelerated rehabilitation, including active and passive range of motion exercises on the day following the operation and full weight-bearing at 4 weeks...
October 10, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Devon E Anderson, Brandon D Markway, Derek Bond, Helen E McCarthy, Brian Johnstone
BACKGROUND: Lowering oxygen from atmospheric level (hyperoxia) to the physiological level (physioxia) of articular cartilage promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis. However, the literature is equivocal regarding the benefits of physioxic culture on preventing hypertrophy of MSC-derived chondrocytes. Articular cartilage progenitors (ACPs) undergo chondrogenic differentiation with reduced hypertrophy marker expression in hyperoxia but have not been studied in physioxia. This study sought to delineate the effects of physioxic culture on both cell types undergoing chondrogenesis...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lin Huang, Lluis Capdevila
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. SUBJECTS: The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (Mage = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). INTERVENTION: All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Jonathan Rabner, Alessandra Caruso, David Zurakowski, Lori Lazdowsky, Alyssa LeBel
PURPOSE: To examine symptoms indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in pediatric patients with migraine and tension-type headache. METHODS: A retrospective chart review assessed six symptoms (i.e. constipation, insomnia, dizziness, blurry vision, abnormal blood pressure, and cold and clammy palms and soles) indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in 231 patients, ages 5-18 years, diagnosed with migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), or Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Sonja U Kubik, Paul R Martin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed Headache Triggers Sensitivity and Avoidance Questionnaire (HTSAQ) designed to measure variables relating to the Trigger Avoidance Model of Headaches. BACKGROUND: The Trigger Avoidance Model of Headaches proposes that one pathway to developing a primary headache disorder is through the avoidance of headache triggers, resulting in an increase in trigger potency through sensitization...
October 18, 2016: Headache
Sandeep Gopal, Hinke A B Multhaupt, Roger Pocock, John R Couchman
Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan-4, has been shown to regulate focal adhesions, junctions that form at the ends of microfilament bundles in response to matrix components such as fibronectin. Recently it has been shown that signaling emanating from this proteoglycan receptor includes regulation of Rho family GTPases and cytosolic calcium...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Viktor Feldman, Meir Nyska, Niv Marom, Omer Slavin, Yaron S Brin, Uri Farkash, Ezequiel Palmanovich
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to measure transverse forces between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals after reducing the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) in normal and hallux valgus (HV) feet, during non weight-bearing and weight-bearing phases of gait. METHODS: Four cadaver feet, three normal and one with hallux valgus, were used. A new suture button device (CyclaPlex™) composed of screw-type buttons connected with a wire was implanted at the mid-shaft of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals of all the feet...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Inna E Tchivileva, Richard Ohrbach, Roger B Fillingim, Joel D Greenspan, William Maixner, Gary D Slade
While cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between headache and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), whether headache can predict the onset of TMD is unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate contribution of headache to the risk of developing TMD and describe patterns of change in headache types over time. An initially TMD-free cohort of 2,410 persons with low frequency of headache completed quarterly questionnaires assessing TMD and headache symptoms over a median 3.0-year follow-up period...
September 29, 2016: Pain
Xuejuan Liu, Falin Tian, Tongtao Yue, Xianren Zhang, Chongli Zhong
The shape deformation of membrane nanotubes is studied by a combination of theoretical analysis and molecular simulation. First we perform free energy analysis to demonstrate the effects of various factors on two ideal states for the pearling transition, and then we carry out dissipative particle dynamics simulations, through which various types of membrane tube deformation are found, including membrane pearling, buckling, and bulging. Different models for inducing tube deformation, including the osmotic pressure, area difference and spontaneous curvature models, are considered to investigate tubular instabilities...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Jaya Kumar Alageshan, Yashodhan Hatwalne, Murugappan Muthukumar
When an entangled interpenetrating collection of long flexible polymer chains dispersed in a suitable solvent is cooled to low enough temperatures, thin lamellar crystals form. Remarkably, these lamellae are sectored, with several growth sectors that have differing melting temperatures and growth kinetics, eluding so far an understanding of their origins. We present a theoretical model to explain this six-decade-old challenge by addressing the elasticity of fold surfaces of finite-sized lamella in the presence of disclination-type topological defects arising from anisotropic line tension...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Tomohiro Fukunaga, Nobuo Takeshita
To investigate mechanical-dependent bone remodeling, we had previously applied various types of mechanical loading onto the teeth of rats and mice. In vitro cultured bone cells were then used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the specific phenomenon revealed by in vivo experiments. This review describes the techniques used to upregulate CCN2 expression in bone cells produced by different types of mechanical stress, such as fluid shear stress and substrate strain in vitro, and compression or tension force in vivo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Abhijit Sarkar, Marta Marszalkowska, Martin Schäfer, Tobias Pees, Hannah Klingenberg, Franziska Macht, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek
The endophyte Azoarcus sp. BH72, fixing nitrogen microaerobically, encounters low O2 -tensions in flooded roots. Therefore, its transcriptome upon shift to microaerobiosis was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays. 8.7% of the protein-coding genes were significantly modulated. Aerobic conditions induced expression of genes involved in oxidative stress protection, while under microaerobiosis 233 genes were up-regulated, encoding hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators, and proteins involved in energy metabolism, among them a cbb3 -type terminal oxidase contributing to but not essential for N2 -fixation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
K S Mikkonen, D Merger, P Kilpeläinen, L Murtomäki, U S Schmidt, M Wilhelm
Materials manufacturing industries seek efficient, economic, and sustainable compounds for stabilizing dispersed systems such as emulsions. In this study, novel, abundant biobased hydrocolloids spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM) and birch glucuronoxylans (GX) were obtained from a forestry biorefining process and characterized as versatile stabilizers of rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. For the first time, GGM and GX isolated by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of spruce and birch saw meal, respectively, were studied in emulsions...
September 27, 2016: Soft Matter
Emma Gibbons, Amanda Faith Casey, Keith Z Brewster
BACKGROUND: Rates of morbid obesity are higher for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Individuals with ID may find nutritional guidelines difficult to follow and many face personal and environmental barriers for physical activity. Bariatric surgery may reduce obesity related health comorbidities while promoting sustained weight loss in diverse populations. Yet no study has reviewed the feasibility of conducting bariatric surgery on individuals with ID. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a scoping review of literature on bariatric procedures performed on individuals with ID...
September 16, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Mark Lenz, Karl Stoffel, Heike Kielstein, Keith Mayo, Gunther O Hofmann, Boyko Gueorguiev
INTRODUCTION: Proximal plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures can be improved by plate anchorage in the greater trochanter (lateral tension band principle) or bicortical locking screw placement beside the prosthesis stem in an embracement configuration. Both concepts were compared in a biomechanical test using a femoral hook plate (hook) or a locking attachment plate (LAP). METHODS: After bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in the greater trochanter, six pairs of fresh frozen human femora were assigned to two groups and instrumented with cemented hip endoprostheses...
September 30, 2016: Injury
Mayumi Takeya, Yuushi Okumura, Takeshi Nikawa
Skin can respond to various types of internal and/or external mechanostimuli, such as excessive tension caused by body growth or decompression due to weight loss, which significantly affect skin morphology. Mechanosensors, including p130Cas, are reported to play a role in deformation and subsequent recovery of various tissues including skeletal muscles and blood vessels. However, the role of mechanotransduction via p130Cas in the regulation of skin size remains unclear. In this report, p130Cas activation was manipulated using a fibroblast-embedded collagen gel model or mouse skin contraction model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Edgar Flores-Soto, Jorge Reyes-García, Abril Carbajal-García, Elías Campuzano-González, Mercedes Perusquía, Bettina Sommer, Luis M Montaño
: Testosterone (TES), other androgens and female sex steroids induce non-genomic rapid relaxing effects in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In guinea pig ASM, basal tension was relaxed by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and TES; 17β-estradiol (E2) had a small effect. Blockers of L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC, D-600) and store operated Ca(2+) channel (SOC, 2-APB) also relaxed the basal tone. In tracheal myocytes, DHEA and TES diminished intracellular basal Ca(2+) concentrations (b[Ca(2+)]i) as D-600+2-APB but to a higher extend...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
T D Turner, D M C Corzo, D Toroz, A Curtis, M M Dos Santos, R B Hammond, X Lai, K J Roberts
The influence of solvent type on the solution thermodynamics, nucleation-kinetics and crystal growth of alpha para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) crystallising from supersaturated ethanol, acetonitrile and water solutions, is examined using poly-thermal analysis of the metastable zone width. Application of a recently proposed model for analysis of crystallisation kinetics (J. Cryst. Growth, 2010, 312, 698-704) indicates a solvent and concentration dependence of the nucleation mechanism and key nucleation parameters for the alpha form of PABA...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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