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Eric A Ramos, Delma N Castelblanco-Martínez, Jazmin Garcia, Jorge Rojas Arias, James R Foley, Katherina Audley, Koen Van Waerebeek, Marie-Françoise Van Bressem
Lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like diseases (LLD) (also: paracoccidioidomycosis) are chronic cutaneous infections that affect Delphinidae in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In the Americas, these diseases have been relatively well-described, but gaps still exist in our understanding of their distribution across the continent. Here we report on LLD affecting inshore bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the Caribbean waters of Belize and from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Mexico...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hassan Hashemi, Akbar Fotouhi, Abbasali Yekta, Reza Pakzad, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
Purpose: The aim of the study was a systematic review of refractive errors across the world according to the WHO regions. Methods: To extract articles on the prevalence of refractive errors for this meta-analysis, international databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. The results of the retrieved studies were merged using a random effect model and reported as estimated pool prevalence (EPP) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: In children, the EPP of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 11...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Masahide Yoshikawa, Yukiteru Ouji, Nobuyasu Hirai, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Minoru Yamada, Naoki Arizono, Naoaki Akamatsu, Takaharu Yoh, Daisuke Kaya, Toshiya Nakatani, Eiryo Kikuchi, Yuichi Katanami, Kimitoshi Satoh, Ryosuke Maki, Yusuke Miyazato, Yuichiro Oba, Kei Kasahara, Keiichi Mikasa
Background: Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Sudarshana Mukhopadhyay, Jason M Patskoski, A Sankarasubramanian
Reconstructed annual streamflows using tree-ring chronologies provide useful information on moisture availability during the pre-historic period, but they have limitations in estimating high flows due to the upper bound on soil water holding capacity and trees' metabolic growth limits. We propose a hybrid approach that uses tree-ring chronologies and climatic indices for improving high flows in 301 basins whose annual streamflows are modulated by ENSO and/or PDO. The hybrid decomposition approach relies on separating the moisture supply into the basin as outside-the-region moisture and within-the-region moisture with the former being estimated by SST indices and the latter being estimated by tree-ring chronologies...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nikolaos Dagres, Tze-Fan Chao, Guilherme Fenelon, Luis Aguinaga, Daniel Benhayon, Emelia J Benjamin, T Jared Bunch, Lin Yee Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Francisco Darrieux, Angelo de Paola, Laurent Fauchier, Andreas Goette, Jonathan Kalman, Lalit Kalra, Young-Hoon Kim, Deirdre A Lane, Gregory Y H Lip, Steven A Lubitz, Manlio F Márquez, Tatjana Potpara, Domingo Luis Pozzer, Jeremy N Ruskin, Irina Savelieva, Wee Siong Teo, Hung-Fat Tse, Atul Verma, Shu Zhang, Mina K Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Idah Chatindiara, Jacqueline Allen, Amy Popman, Darshan Patel, Marilize Richter, Marlena Kruger, Carol Wham
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in patients admitted to hospital may have detrimental effects on recovery and healing. Malnutrition is preceded by a state of malnutrition risk, yet malnutrition risk is often not detected during admission. The aim of the current study was to investigate the magnitude and potential predictors of malnutrition risk in older adults, at hospital admission. METHODS: A cross-sectional was study conducted in 234 older adults (age ≥ 65 or ≥ 55 for Māori or Pacific ethnicity) at admission to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand...
March 21, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Colin Binns, Wah Yun Low
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Nikolaos Dagres, Tze-Fan Chao, Guilherme Fenelon, Luis Aguinaga, Daniel Benhayon, Emelia J Benjamin, T Jared Bunch, Lin Yee Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Francisco Darrieux, Angelo de Paola, Laurent Fauchier, Andreas Goette, Jonathan Kalman, Lalit Kalra, Young-Hoon Kim, Deirdre A Lane, Gregory Y H Lip, Steven A Lubitz, Manlio F Márquez, Tatjana Potpara, Domingo Luis Pozzer, Jeremy N Ruskin, Irina Savelieva, Wee Siong Teo, Hung-Fat Tse, Atul Verma, Shu Zhang, Mina K Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jeonghyun Kim, Hyung-Mi Cho, Guebuem Kim
Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) is important for marine organisms and the global carbon cycle contributing to the optical properties of surface seawater and organic carbon budgets. Rivers are known to be the main source of FDOM in coastal oceans and marginal seas. In this study, however, we show that the contribution of FDOM produced from organic sediments of the northwestern Pacific continental shelf is similar to that from the Changjiang River. FDOM showed relatively higher concentrations at stations off the Changjiang River mouth and in the central Yellow Sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
John H-O Pettersson, Vegard Eldholm, Stephen J Seligman, Åke Lundkvist, Andrew K Falconar, Michael W Gaunt, Didier Musso, Antoine Nougairède, Remi Charrel, Ernest A Gould, Xavier de Lamballerie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: MBio
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Yang Liu, Mingqing Zhang, Xiuqi Fang
By merging reconstructed phenological series from published articles and observations of China Phenology Observation Network (CPON), the first blooming date of Amygdalus davidiana (FBA) in Beijing between 1741 and 2000 is reconstructed. The Butterworth method is used to remove the multi-year variations for generating the phenological series of annual variations in the first blooming date of A. davidiana. The extreme delay years in the phenological series are identified using the percentage threshold method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
A H Fullerton, C E Torgersen, J J Lawler, E A Steel, J L Ebersole, S Y Lee
Climate-change driven increases in water temperature pose challenges for aquatic organisms. Predictions of impacts typically do not account for fine-grained spatiotemporal thermal patterns in rivers. Patches of cooler water could serve as refuges for anadromous species like salmon that migrate during summer. We used high-resolution remotely sensed water temperature data to characterize summer thermal heterogeneity patterns for 11,308 km of 2nd - to 7th -order rivers throughout the Pacific Northwest and northern California (USA)...
January 1, 2018: Aquatic Sciences
Beverly E Law, Tara W Hudiburg, Logan T Berner, Jeffrey J Kent, Polly C Buotte, Mark E Harmon
Strategies to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions through forestry activities have been proposed, but ecosystem process-based integration of climate change, enhanced CO2 , disturbance from fire, and management actions at regional scales are extremely limited. Here, we examine the relative merits of afforestation, reforestation, management changes, and harvest residue bioenergy use in the Pacific Northwest. This region represents some of the highest carbon density forests in the world, which can store carbon in trees for 800 y or more...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Ivan Valiela, Jesús Pascual, Anne Giblin, Coralie Barth-Jensen, Paulina Martinetto, Marshall Otter, Thomas Stone, Jane Tucker, Megan Bartholomew, Inés G Viana
Foliar stable isotopic signatures of nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur in mangrove vegetation from the Pacific coast of Panama were insensitive to inputs from watersheds with different area of forest land cover, and to seasonal, inter-annual, and global-scale-driven contrasts in rainfall and upwelling. N, C, and S content of mangrove vegetation were not affected by inputs from watersheds with different degrees of deforestation, but showed some influence of down-estuary transformations. While there was substantial variation that remained un-explained, isotopic signatures and nutrient contents were largely determined by species-specific features, and showed substantial small-scale variation reflecting local differences, within-estuary plant-sediment links...
March 10, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Julie A Lynch, Brygida Berse, Merry Rabb, Paul Mosquin, Rob Chew, Suzanne L West, Nicole Coomer, Daniel Becker, John Kautter
BACKGROUND: Tumor testing for mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is indicated for all newly diagnosed, metastatic lung cancer patients, who may be candidates for first-line treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Few studies have analyzed population-level testing. METHODS: We identified clinical, demographic, and regional predictors of EGFR & KRAS testing among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of lung cancer in 2011-2013 claims...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
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