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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913229/a-single-arm-phase-iii-study-exploring-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-lng-ius-8-a-low-dose-levonorgestrel-intrauterine-contraceptive-system-total-content-13-5-mg-in-an-asia-pacific-population
#1
Guangsheng Fan, Sukho Kang, Mulan Ren, Edith Weisberg, Eeva Lukkari-Lax, Katrin Roth, SoYoung Shin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine system with total content 13.5 mg (average approx. 8 μg/24 h over the first year; LNG-IUS 8; Jaydess®) in an Asia-Pacific population. STUDY DESIGN: An open-label, single-arm Phase III study conducted at 25 centers in China, Australia, and Korea assessed LNG-IUS 8 use over 3 years in nulliparous and parous women (N=1114) aged 18-40 years with regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days)...
November 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912050/francis-crick-a-singular-approach-to-scientific-discovery
#2
Peter A Lawrence
Francis' office window (at the Salk) commanded a panorama of the Pacific. "This grand natural scene was a physical correlate of Francis's intellectual world: wide-ranging, brilliantly lit, a little overawing, but also immensely inviting and above all an exciting place to be." (Mitchison, 2004).
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912012/coast-wide-recruitment-dynamics-of-olympia-oysters-reveal-limited-synchrony-and-multiple-predictors-of-failure
#3
Kerstin Wasson, Brent B Hughes, John S Berriman, Andrew L Chang, Anna K Deck, Paul A Dinnel, Charlie Endris, Michael Espinoza, Sarah Dudas, Matthew C Ferner, Edwin D Grosholz, David Kimbro, Jennifer L Ruesink, Alan C Trimble, Dick Vander Schaaf, Chela J Zabin, Danielle C Zacherl
Recruitment of new propagules into a population can be a critical determinant of adult density. We examined recruitment dynamics in the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), a species occurring almost entirely in estuaries. We investigated spatial scales of interannual synchrony across 37 sites in eight estuaries along 2,500 km of Pacific North American coastline, predicting that high vs. low recruitment years would coincide among neighboring estuaries due to shared exposure to regional oceanographic factors. Such synchrony in recruitment has been found for many marine species and some migratory estuarine species, but has never been examined across estuaries in a species that can complete its entire life cycle within the same estuary...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911777/siderophore-based-microbial-adaptations-to-iron-scarcity-across-the-eastern-pacific-ocean
#4
Rene M Boiteau, Daniel R Mende, Nicholas J Hawco, Matthew R McIlvin, Jessica N Fitzsimmons, Mak A Saito, Peter N Sedwick, Edward F DeLong, Daniel J Repeta
Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909950/hatt-a-phase-iv-single-arm-open-label-study-of-sorafenib-in-taiwanese-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Shi-Ming Lin, Sheng-Nan Lu, Ping-Tsung Chen, Long-Bin Jeng, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chi-Tan Hu, Sien-Sing Yang, Marie-Aude Le Berre, Xuan Liu, David Y Mitchell, Klaas Prins, Joachim Grevel, Carol A E Peña, Gerold Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib significantly improves survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This phase IV study assessed sorafenib efficacy/safety in Taiwanese patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A status. METHODS: All patients received 400 mg sorafenib BID. Safety, efficacy, sorafenib pharmacokinetics, and Child-Pugh progression were evaluated. A hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) prevention substudy assessed HFSR incidence and grade/severity and time to HFSR in 29 and 34 patients randomized to corticosteroid and noncorticosteroid ointments, respectively, and in 88 nonrandomized patients...
December 1, 2016: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907121/environmental-and-geographical-factors-structure-soil-microbial-diversity-in-new-caledonian-ultramafic-substrates-a-metagenomic-approach
#6
Véronique Gourmelon, Laurent Maggia, Jeff R Powell, Sarah Gigante, Sara Hortal, Claire Gueunier, Kelly Letellier, Fabian Carriconde
Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905945/mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-kiribati-based-on-analysis-of-reported-deaths
#7
Karen L Carter, Tibwataake Baiteke, Tiensi Teea, Teanibuaka Tabunga, Mantarae Itienang, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: Kiribati is an atoll country of 103,058 (2010 Census) situated in the central Pacific. Previous mortality estimates have been derived from demographic analyses of census data. This is the first mortality analysis based on reported deaths. METHODS: Recorded deaths were from the Ministry of Health and the Civil Registration Office for 2000-2009; populations were from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 censuses. Duplicate death records were removed by matching deaths within and between data sources using a combination of names, date of death, age, sex, island of residence, and cause of death...
February 29, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#8
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905393/nitrous-oxide-as-a-function-of-oxygen-and-archaeal-gene-abundance-in-the-north-pacific
#9
Mark Trimmer, Panagiota-Myrsini Chronopoulou, Susanna T Maanoja, Robert C Upstill-Goddard, Vassilis Kitidis, Kevin J Purdy
Oceanic oxygen minimum zones are strong sources of the potent greenhouse gas N2O but its microbial source is unclear. We characterized an exponential response in N2O production to decreasing oxygen between 1 and 30 μmol O2 l(-1) within and below the oxycline using (15)NO2(-), a relationship that held along a 550 km offshore transect in the North Pacific. Differences in the overall magnitude of N2O production were accounted for by archaeal functional gene abundance. A one-dimensional (1D) model, parameterized with our experimentally derived exponential terms, accurately reproduces N2O profiles in the top 350 m of water column and, together with a strong (45)N2O signature indicated neither canonical nor nitrifier-denitrification production while statistical modelling supported production by archaea, possibly via hybrid N2O formation...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905044/modulatory-effect-of-the-exudates-released-by-the-brown-kelp-lessonia-spicata-on-the-toxicity-of-copper-in-early-developmental-stages-of-ecologically-related-organisms
#10
Alexandre Fellous, Santiago Andrade, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Ricardo Calderón, Jessica Beltran, Juan A Correa
Lessonia spicata is a key dominant species along the Pacific coast of South America, providing a habitat for many organisms. However, this role can be affected by abiotic stress, such as metals. To counteract the toxic effect, L. spicata, among other seaweeds, releases exudates that bind metals. In this study, tolerances to copper of organisms related to the kelp forest (spores of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) and L. spicata (Phaeophyceae) and Zoea I of Taliepus dentatus (Milne-Edwards, Crustacea)) were studied; then, exudates are assessed by their protective effect...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904802/abundance-and-physiology-of-dominant-soft-corals-linked-to-water-quality-in-jakarta-bay-indonesia
#11
Gunilla Baum, Indra Januar, Sebastian C A Ferse, Christian Wild, Andreas Kunzmann
Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN), turbidity (NTU), and sedimentation) were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta) in Jakarta Bay (JB) and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20-60 km north of Jakarta)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903451/fatty-acid-synthase-plays-a-positive-role-in-shrimp-immune-responses-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#12
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
November 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903316/genetic-divergence-of-human-pathogens-nanophyetus-spp-trematoda-troglotrematidae-on-the-opposite-sides-of-the-pacific-rim
#13
A N Voronova, G N Chelomina, V V Besprozvannykh, V V Tkach
Human and animal nanophyetiasis is caused by intestinal flukes belonging to the genus Nanophyetus distributed on both North American and Eurasian coasts of Northern Pacific. In spite of the wide geographical distribution and medical and veterinary importance of these flukes, the intra-generic taxonomy of Nanophyetus spp. remains unresolved. The two most widely distributed nominal species, Nanophyetus salmincola and Nanophyetus schikhobalowi, both parasitizing humans and carnivorous mammals, were described from North America and eastern Eurasia, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903309/the-rise-and-fall-of-hospitalizations-for-skin-infections-in-new-zealand-2004-2014-trends-by-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-deprivation
#14
A Lim, J Rumball-Smith, R Jones, I Kawachi
Since the 1990s, New Zealand (NZ) has seen an increasing incidence of paediatric skin infections leading to hospitalization. We sought to describe the epidemiology of these infections over time. Hospital discharge data were analysed for all children admitted to any NZ public hospital from 2004 to 2014. We found the age-standardized incidence of hospitalizations due to skin infections increased during this period from 522/100 000 in 2004 to a peak of 644/100 000 in 2011, after which it declined to 524/100 000 in 2014...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#15
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#16
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902385/motor-coordination-and-balance-measurements-reveal-differential-pathogenicity-of-currently-spreading-ev71-strains-in-human-scarb2-transgenic-mice
#17
Mei-Feng Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in Asia Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulalted in many coutries recently. This study provides a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is positively correlated with severely deficient motor function...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901503/in-situ-hybridization-and-histopathological-observations-during-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-associated-mortalities-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#18
Rudolfo Bueno, Matthew Perrott, Magda Dunowska, Cara Brosnahan, Colin Johnston
In a previous longitudinal study conducted during a mortality investigation associated with ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in New Zealand Pacific oysters in 2010-2011, temporality of OsHV-1 nucleic acid detection by real-time PCR assay and onset of Pacific oyster mortality was observed. The present study further elucidated the role of OsHV-1 using an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay on sections of Pacific oysters collected from the same longitudinal study. Hybridization of the labelled probe with the target region of the OsHV-1 genome in infected cells was detected colorimetrically using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901296/novel-forest-decline-triggered-by-multiple-interactions-among-climate-an-introduced-pathogen-and-bark-beetles
#19
Carmen M Wong, Lori D Daniels
Novel forest decline is increasing due to global environmental change, yet the causal factors and their interactions remain poorly understood. Using tree ring analyses, we show how climate and multiple biotic factors caused the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in 16 stands in the southern Canadian Rockies. In our study area, 72% of whitebark pines were dead and 18% had partially dead crowns. Tree mortality peaked in the 1970s; however, the annual basal area increment of disturbed trees began to decline significantly in the late 1940s...
November 5, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901052/pacific-ocean-decadal-forcing-of-long-term-changes-in-the-western-pacific-subtropical-high
#20
Shinji Matsumura, Takeshi Horinouchi
The western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) has a significant effect on droughts, heat waves, and tropical cyclone tracks over East Asia and the northwest Pacific. The WPSH has intensified during the past three decades, but its causes are not yet well understood. Here we show that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is responsible for the long-term changes in the WPSH through the meridional shift of the subtropical jet, based on comprehensive data analysis and model results. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading forcing of WPSH variability over interannual timescales, whereas the PDO accounts for its low-frequency variability, resulting in it being independent of ENSO with regard to WPSH variability...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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