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Jose Lariño-Noia, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Daniel de la Iglesia-Garcia, J Enrique Dominguez-Muñoz
EUS-FNA is often performed in the evaluation of Cystic Pancreatic Lesions (CPL) for a better preoperative characterization. The objective is to identify premalignant lesions as Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms, and/or a malignant transformation of them (adenocarcinoma). The role of cytological evaluation in this setting is discouraging and intracystic markers analysis, mainly CEA, lacks of a good specificity for the detection of mucinous neoplasms. New devices and approaches have emerged to overcome these problems as the cytology brush (Echobrush), the small mini-biopsy foceps, the cystoscopy and the needle Confocal LASER Endomicroscopy (nCLE), showing in some studies good rates of accuracy for distinguishing among mucinosus and non-mucinous neoplasms...
March 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
Fang Guo, Hai Gong, Huanhuan Zhao, Jing Chen, Yiming Zhang, Lihua Zhang, Xin Shi, Aifeng Zhang, Hui Jin, Jianqiong Zhang, Youji He
Mutations in KRAS exon 2, BRAF and PIK3CA are commonly present in colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide, but few data about RAS mutations outside KRAS exon 2 are available for Chinese CRCs. We, therefore, determined the mutation frequencies and prognostic values of KRAS exon 2, 3 and 4, NRAS exon 2 and 3, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, and BRAF exon 15 by PCR and direct sequencing in 353 CRC patients from two Chinese clinical centers. KRAS exon 2, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations were identified in 42.2%, 4.5%, 12.3% of the cases, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy Kenyon, Daria Gavriouchkina, Jernej Zorman, Vanessa Chong-Morrison, Giorgio Napolitani, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler
A complex network of inflammatory genes is closely linked to somatic cell transformation and malignant disease. Immune cells and their associated molecules are responsible for detecting and eliminating cancer cells as they establish themselves as the precursors of a tumour. By the time a patient has a detectable solid tumour, cancer cells have escaped the initial immune response mechanisms. Here, we describe the development of a double binary zebrafish model that enables regulatory programming of the myeloid cells as they respond to oncogene-activated melanocytes to be explored, focussing on the initial phase when cells become the precursors of cancer...
April 6, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Kai Tian, Xiaowei Chen, Binquan Luan, Prashant Singh, Zhiyu Yang, Kent S Gates, Mengshi Lin, Azlin Mustapha, Li-Qun Gu
Accurate and rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in pathogenic mutants is crucial for food safety regulation, disease diagnostics and many other fields. Current detection methods involve laborious sample preparations and expensive characterizations. Here, we investigated a nanopore-based single-molecule approach, facilitated by the locked nucleic acid (LNA) technique, to accurately determine SNPs for detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 serotype, and cancer-derived EGFR L858R and KRAS G12D driver mutations...
April 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Yoshiko Mori, Akihiro Nyuya, Kazuya Yasui, Toshiaki Toshima, Takashi Kawai, Fumitaka Taniguchi, Keisuke Kimura, Ryo Inada, Masahiko Nishizaki, Junko Haraga, Keiichiro Nakamura, Yuzo Umeda, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Yosuke Katata, Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi, Takeshi Nagasaka
We clarified the clinical prevalence of ovarian metastases from colorectal cancers (CRCs) in 296 female patients with CRC and evaluated clinical outcomes with relation to their mutational profiles, such as BRAF/KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. The female CRCs were categorised into three subsets: CRCs with ovarian metastases [6.4% ( n = 19), 5-year overall survival (OS) = 24.7%], CRCs with extra-ovarian metastases only [32.4% ( n = 96), 5-year OS = 34.5%] and CRCs without any recurrence or metastasis [61...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Koichi Tomoshige, Minzhe Guo, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Takuya Fukazawa, Iris M Fink-Baldauf, William D Stuart, Yoshio Naomoto, Takeshi Nagayasu, Yutaka Maeda
EGFR ligands (e.g., EGF and TGFA) have been shown to be clinically associated with poor survival in lung cancer. Since TGFA itself initiates autochthonous tumors in liver, breast, and pancreas but not in the lung in transgenic mice in vivo, it would appear that an EGFR ligand may not initiate but rather promote lung cancer. However, it has not been proven in vivo whether lung cancer is promoted by an EGFR ligand. Using transgenic mouse models conditionally expressing EGFR L858R or Kras G12D with TGFA (an EGFR ligand) in lung epithelium, we determined that TGFA promoted the growth of EGFR L858R -lung tumors in airway regions but not that of Kras G12D -lung tumors...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
Kei Sato, Ryutaro Mori, Yukihiko Hiroshima, Mari S Oba, Ryusei Matsuyama, Michael Bouvet, Robert M Hoffman, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal recurrence of pancreatic cancer is a frequent and lethal outcome after R0 resection. A method to predict peritoneal recurrence could be helpful in its prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal washings were prospectively obtained from 29 patients in whom R0 resection was performed. Cytological examination (CY) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the peritoneal washing for the detection of cancer-related genes, CEACAM5, KRT7, KRAS, and MUC1, were performed...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
M Lisa Zhang, Ronald N Arpin, William R Brugge, David G Forcione, Omer Basar, Martha B Pitman
BACKGROUND: Making a specific diagnosis of pancreatic cysts preoperatively is difficult. The new disposable Moray micro forceps biopsy (MFB) device allows tissue sampling from the pancreatic cyst wall/septum and aims to improve diagnosis. This study compares the diagnostic performance of the MFB with the current conventional analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF). METHODS: A total of 48 patients sampled with MFB were identified. Cysts were classified as mucinous on PCF based on extracellular mucin/mucinous epithelium, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels ≥192 ng/mL, or KRAS/GNAS mutation...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Masataka Yokode, Masayuki Akita, Kohei Fujikura, Mi-Ju Kim, Yukiko Morinaga, Seiichi Yoshikawa, Takuro Terada, Hiroshi Matsukiyo, Takuma Tajiri, Shiho Abe-Suzuki, Tomoo Itoh, Seung-Mo Hong, Yoh Zen
AIMS: This study aimed to identify the pathological features of high-grade PanIN that presents with imaging-detectable abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten cases of isolated, main-duct, high-grade PanIN as the primary clinical presentation were identified. All patients presented with stenosis of the main pancreatic duct, with 2 being associated with extensive upstream duct dilatation (>5 mm in diameter). Pancreatic juice cytology suggested adenocarcinoma in all 7 cases examined...
April 16, 2018: Histopathology
H Wang, J Agulnik, G Kasymjanova, A Wang, V Cohen, D Small, C Pepe, L Sakr, P Fiset, M Auger, S Camilleri-Broet, M Alam El Din, G Chong, L van Kempen, A Spatz
Background: PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing is usually performed on tissue blocks from core needle biopsy or surgical resections. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using cytology cell blocks for PD-L1 IHC assay. Methods: A total of 1419 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 371 cytology cell blocks, 809 small biopsies, and 239 surgical specimens, were included in the study. The cytology cell blocks were prepared with formalin only, methanol/alcohol only or both...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Tomoko Haruma, Takeshi Nagasaka, Keiichiro Nakamura, Junko Haraga, Akihiro Nyuya, Takeshi Nishida, Ajay Goel, Hisashi Masuyama, Yuji Hiramatsu
BACKGROUND: The molecular characterization of endometrial cancer (EC) can facilitate identification of various tumor subtypes. Although EC patients with POLE mutations reproducibly demonstrate better prognosis, the outcome of patients with microsatellite instability (MSI) remains controversial. This study attempted to interrogate whether genetic stratification of EC can identify distinct subsets with prognostic significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 138 EC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent was enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Toshiyuki Sumi, Sachie Hirai, Miki Yamaguchi, Yusuke Tanaka, Makoto Tada, Gen Yamada, Tadashi Hasegawa, Yohei Miyagi, Toshiro Niki, Atsushi Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Yuji Sakuma
Survivin plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis, and is highly expressed in the majority of malignant tumors. However, little is known about the roles of survivin in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas. In the present study, we examined 28 KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma tissues and two KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, H358 and H441, in order to elucidate the potential of survivin as a therapeutic target. We found that 19 (68%) of the 28 KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas were differentiated tumors expressing thyroid transcription factor‑1 (TTF‑1) and E-cadherin...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Xiao Yan Chang, Yan Wu, Yuan Li, Jing Wang, Jie Chen
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) are among the most important precancerous lesions in the pancreas. V‑Ki‑ras 2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is one of the most important genes involved in pancreatic neoplasms, and exhibits a high mutation rate in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The present study aimed to further elucidate the associations among IPMN subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic), pathological classifications [low‑grade, intermediate‑grade, and high‑grade IPMN, and associated minimally invasive carcinoma (invasive depth ≤0...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Stanislaw Gluszek, Dorota Koziel, Artur Kowalik, Sebastian Zięba, Slawka Urbaniak-Wasik, Andrzej Wincewicz, Stanislaw Sulkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Bryan D Choi, Ganesh M Shankar, Ahilan Sivaganesan, Laura A Van Beaver, Kevin Oh, John H Shin
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: We performed a retrospective study of patients treated at our institution over the last 7 years to ascertain whether gene expression signatures in patients with advanced metastatic disease are associated with survival, when the disease has progressed to the spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal metastases are a major cause of morbidity in patients with cancer. Molecular profiling strategies to characterize lung cancer have identified several genetic biomarkers that may lead to more effective prognostication...
April 12, 2018: Spine
Sara J Hoffman, Mark Li-Cheng Wu
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has been shown to have both genetic and environmental factors that can promote carcinoma development. Previous studies have found ethnic differences in the distribution of molecular phenotypes of CRC. Very little specific data exist regarding Hispanic CRC, and these data primarily focus on epidemiology or location of carcinoma. Our retrospective study analyzed 562 Caucasian, Asian, and Hispanic CRC patients at the UCI Medical Center from 2004 to 2012. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences with respect to mean age, gender or site of carcinoma among the three ethnic groups...
March 26, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez, Manrique Pascual Geler, Inmaculada Robles Fernandez, Jose Manuel Cozar, Jose Antonio Lorente, Maria Jesus Alvarez Cubero
BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations have been related to the highest incidence of metastatic disease and different treatment responses. The molecular cause of prostate cancer (PC) is still unclear; however, its progression involves alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as well as somatic mutations such as the ones in PIK3CA gene. A high percentage of PC is considered sporadic, which means that the damage to the genes occurs by chance after birth (mainly somatic mutations will drive the cancer event)...
April 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Behnam Nabet, Nathanael S Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Biochemistry
Carlotta Barbon, Georgios Antonios Margonis, Nikolaos Andreatos, Neda Rezaee, Kazunari Sasaki, Stefan Buettner, Christos Damaskos, Timothy M Pawlik, Jin He, Christopher L Wolfgang, Matthew J Weiss
Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) present an important clinical challenge in both surgical and medical oncology. Despite improvements in management, survival among patients undergoing resection of CRLM is still very variable and there is a paucity of clinical trial data and reliable biomarkers that could guide prognostic forecasts, treatment selection, and follow-up. Fortunately, recent advances in molecular biology and tumor sequencing have identified a number of critical genetic loci and proliferation markers that may hold the key to understanding the biologic behavior of CRLM; specifically, mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, PIK3CA, APC, expression of Ki-67, and the presence of microsatellite instability appear to have a decisive impact on prognosis and response to treatment in patients with CRLM...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Jianhua Liu, Weiqiang Zeng, Chengzhi Huang, Junjiang Wang, Dongyang Yang, Dong Ma
To investigate whether mutation profiling and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were associated with clinicopathological features and the prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mutations in RAS (including KRAS , NRAS , and HRAS ) and BRAF were determined by Sanger sequencing. Tumor mismatch repair proteins and MSI status were examined using immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The clinical value of these abnormalities was statistically analyzed, and prognostic value of different treatment regimens was also evaluated...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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