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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935553/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-bovine-cross-breed-mastitic-milk-in-and-around-asella-town-oromia-regional-state-southern-ethiopia
#1
Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934773/leptospirosis-in-three-workers-on-a-dairy-farm-with-unvaccinated-cattle
#2
Jackie Benschop, Julie Collins-Emerson, Allie Maskill, Patrick O'Connor, Margaret Tunbridge, Yuni Yupiana, Jenny Weston
AIM: We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. RESULTS: Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933365/milk-s-role-as-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
It is the intention of this review to characterize milk's role as an epigenetic regulator in health and disease. Based on translational research, we identify milk as a major epigenetic modulator of gene expression of the milk recipient. Milk is presented as an epigenetic "doping system" of mammalian development. Milk exosome-derived micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) that target DNA methyltransferases are implicated to play the key role in the upregulation of developmental genes such as FTO, INS, and IGF1. In contrast to miRNA-deficient infant formula, breastfeeding via physiological miRNA transfer provides the appropriate signals for adequate epigenetic programming of the newborn infant...
March 15, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932389/challenges-facing-the-veterinary-profession-in-ireland-2-on-farm-use-of-veterinary-antimicrobials
#4
Manuel Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Simon J More, David B Morton, Alison J Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931169/effect-of-educational-package-on-lifestyle-of-primiparous-mothers-during-postpartum-period-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Farzaneh Khodabandeh, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Mahin KamaliFard, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
A healthy lifestyle is important for mothers during the postpartum period. This study was conducted to determine the effects of a lifestyle educational package in primiparous women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 220 mothers assigned to two groups using block randomization. In the intervention group, the mothers received face-to-face, phone and SMS counseling and a booklet in addition to routine postpartum training; in the control group, the mothers received only routine training. The Health Behaviors Questionnaire, a Food Frequency Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used for data collection...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929899/nutrition-as-a-component-of-dementia-risk-reduction-strategies
#6
Carol E Greenwood, Matthew D Parrott
According to the Alzheimer Society of Canada, within the next generation, Canada will experience a more than doubling of individuals living with dementia and a potentially economically crippling 10-fold increase in costs to Canadians. Up to 50% of cases with dementia can be attributed to seven modifiable, predominantly vascular and/or lifestyle-associated, risk factors. Multi-modal dementia risk reduction strategies, targeting diet, exercise, mental stimulation, and vascular risk monitoring, are likely to be the most successful...
January 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929049/antifungal-effects-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-local-dairy-products
#7
Sahar Karami, Mohammad Roayaei, Elnaz Zahedi, Mahmoud Bahmani, Leila Mahmoodnia, Hosna Hamzavi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
OBJECTIVE: The Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria which are regularly rod-shaped, nonspore, Gram-positive, heterogeneous, and are found in a wide range of inhabitants such as dairy products, plants, and gastrointestinal tract. A variety of antimicrobial compounds and molecules such as bacteriocin are produced by these useful bacteria to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes in the food products. This paper aims to examine the isolation of Lactobacillus from local dairies as well as to determine their inhibition effect against a number of pathogens, such as two fungi: Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus fulvous...
April 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#8
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919398/controlling-bovine-paratuberculosis-at-a-regional-scale-towards-a-decision-modelling-tool
#9
Gaël Beaunée, Elisabeta Vergu, Alain Joly, Pauline Ezanno
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a worldwide enzootic disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), mainly introduced into farms by purchasing infected animals, has a large economic impact for dairy producers. Since diagnostic tests used in routine are poorly sensitive, observing Map spread in the field is hardly possible, whereas there is a need for evaluating control strategies. Our objective was to provide a modelling framework to compare the efficacy of regional control strategies combining internal biosecurity measures and testing of traded animals, against Map spread in a metapopulation of dairy cattle herds...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#10
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918142/mortality-and-health-treatment-rates-of-dairy-calves-in-automated-milk-feeding-systems-in-the-upper-midwest-of-the-united-states
#11
M W Jorgensen, A Adams-Progar, A M de Passillé, J Rushen, J A Salfer, M I Endres
Automated calf feeding systems are increasing in use across the United States, yet information regarding health and mortality outcomes of animals in these systems is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between farm management practices, housing, and environmental factors with mortality and health treatment rates of preweaned dairy calves housed in groups with automated feeding systems. Farm records were collected for health treatments and mortality on 26 farms in the Upper Midwest of the United States...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914660/mediterranean-diet-impact-on-cardiovascular-diseases-a-narrative-review
#13
Anna V Mattioli, Pasquale Palmiero, Olivia Manfrini, Paolo E Puddu, Savina Nodari, Alessandra Dei Cas, Giuseppe Mercuro, Domenico Scrutinio, Pietro Palermo, Susanna Sciomer, Simona Di Francesco, Giuseppina Novo, Salvatore Novo, Roberto F E Pedretti, Annapaola Zito, Gianfranco Parati, Roberto Pedrinelli, Alberto Farinetti, Maria Maiello, Federica Moscucci, Raffaele L Tenaglia, Vincenzo Sucato, Marco Triggiani, Lucia Cugusi, Pietro Scicchitano, Pier S Saba, Marco M Ciccone
: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more than 17 million deaths per year worldwide. It has been estimated that the influence of lifestyle on CVD mortality amounts to 13.7% for smoking, 13.2% for poor diet, and 12% for inactive lifestyle. These results deeply impact both the healthy status of individuals and their skills in working. The impact of CVD on productivity loss accounts for the 24% in total costs for CVD management.Mediterranean diet (MedD) can positively impact on natural history of CVD. It is characterized by a relatively high consumption of inexpensive and genuine food such as cereals, vegetables, legumes, nuts, fish, fresh fruits, and olive oil as the principal source of fat, low meat consumption and low-to-moderate consumption of milk, dairy products, and wine...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913936/detection-of-bovine-coronavirus-in-healthy-and-diarrheic-dairy-calves
#14
D E Gomez, L G Arroyo, Z Poljak, L Viel, J S Weese
BACKGROUND: BCoV is identified in both healthy and diarrheic calves, complicating its assessment as a primary pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the detection rates of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in feces of healthy and diarrheic calves and to describe the usefulness of a pancoronavirus reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (PanCoV-RT-PCR) assay to identify BCoV in samples of diarrheic calves. ANIMALS: Two hundred and eighty-six calves <21 days...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911836/implementation-of-an-algorithm-for-selection-of-antimicrobial-therapy-for-diarrhoeic-calves-impact-on-antimicrobial-treatment-rates-health-and-faecal-microbiota
#15
Diego E Gomez, Luis G Arroyo, Zvonimir Poljak, Laurent Viel, J Scott Weese
This study evaluated the impact of an algorithm targeting antimicrobial therapy of diarrhoeic calves on the incidence of diarrhoea, antimicrobial treatment rates, overall mortality, mortality of diarrhoeic calves and changes in the faecal microbiota. The algorithm was designed to target antimicrobial therapy in systemically ill calves from on two dairy farms. Retrospective (farm 1: 529 calves; farm 2: 639 calves) and prospective (farm 1: 639 calves; farm 2: 842 calves) cohorts were examined for 12 months before and after implementation of the algorithm...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910416/lateralized-behaviour-as-indicator-of-affective-state-in-dairy-cows
#16
Sarah Kappel, Michael T Mendl, David C Barrett, Joanna C Murrell, Helen R Whay
In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904848/aflatoxin-m1-contamination-levels-in-cheeses-sold-in-isfahan-province-iran
#17
Ali Sharifzadeh, Payam Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Mohsen Foroughi, Elham Mardanpour-Shahrekordi, Shahin Ramazi
OBJECTIVES: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)-contaminated dairy products pose serious human health risks, causing liver and renal failure if consumed. They are also related to decreased milk and egg production in infected animals. This study investigated the AFM1 contamination levels in cheeses sold in Isfahan province, Iran, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: A total of 100 white cheese samples were randomly collected from supermarkets in Isfahan province and after extraction using dichloromethane were prepared for the ELISA...
August 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903872/prevalence-of-subclinical-mastitis-and-associated-risk-factors-at-cow-and-herd-level-in-dairy-farms-in-north-west-ethiopia
#18
S A Mekonnen, G Koop, S T Melkie, C D Getahun, H Hogeveen, T J G M Lam
Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903865/economic-evaluation-of-the-eradication-program-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-in-the-swiss-dairy-sector
#19
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902145/replacing-american-breakfast-foods-with-ready-to-eat-rte-cereals-increases-consumption-of-key-food-groups-and-nutrients-among-us-children-and-adults-results-of-an-nhanes-modeling-study
#20
Colin D Rehm, Adam Drewnowski
Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk...
September 13, 2017: Nutrients
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