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Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Luis Ulloa, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Flávio Del Vecchio, Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Gerson Jonathan Rodrigues, Jaci Airton Castania, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Hélio Cesar Salgado, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Alexandre Kanashiro
The neuronal control of the immune system is fundamental to the development of new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders. Recent studies reported that afferent vagal stimulation attenuates peripheral inflammation by activating specific sympathetic central and peripheral networks, but only few subcortical brain areas were investigated. In the present study, we report that afferent vagal stimulation also activates specific cortical areas, as the parietal and cingulate cortex. Since these cortical structures innervate sympathetic-related areas, we investigate whether electrical stimulation of parietal cortex can attenuate knee joint inflammation in non-anesthetized rats...
March 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ruey-Song Huang, Martin I Sereno
The parietal lobe plays a major role in sensorimotor integration and action. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed more than 40 retinotopic areas distributed across five visual streams in the human brain, two of which enter the parietal lobe. A series of retinotopic areas occupy the length of the intraparietal sulcus and continue into the postcentral sulcus. On the medial wall, retinotopy extends across the parieto-occipital sulcus into the precuneus and reaches the cingulate sulcus. Full-body tactile stimulation revealed a multisensory homunculus lying along the postcentral sulcus just posterior to primary somatosensory cortical areas and overlapping with the anteriormost retinotopic maps...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C Giovanni Galizia
Animals can follow olfactory traces to find food, detect a sexual mate, or avoid predators. A new study reveals that pheromone-specific projection neurons in the cockroach have a spatially tuned receptive field, and allow encoding spatial information of an odorant.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Marc H Schieber
In the text surrounding their drawing of the simiusculus (little monkey), Clinton Woolsey and colleagues wrote (Woolsey et al. 1952), "It must be emphasized, however, that this diagram is an inadequate representation of the localization pattern, since in a line drawing one cannot indicate the successive overlap which is so characteristic a feature of cortical representation, not only in the motor but also in the sensory areas." This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
KEY POINTS: We performed a prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated intact patients, to acquire accurate MNI coordinates of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. In the contralateral BA1, the hand representation displayed not only medial-to-lateral, little-finger-to-thumb, but also rostral-to-caudal discrete somatotopy, with the tip of each finger located more caudally than the proximal phalanx. The analysis of the MNI body coordinates showed rare inter-individual variations in the medial-to-lateral somatotopic organization in these patients with rather different intensity thresholds needed to elicit sensations in different body parts...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yue Xie, Ji-Hua Xu, Bei-Xin Wang, Chang-Hai Sun
Pupae of two Hydropsyche species collected from Zhe-jiang Province, China, were examined and their barcode sequences were generated and analyzed. The pupae of H. simulata and H. homunculus were associated with their adult males by mtCOI gene sequences, described, illustrated, and diagnosed.
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Juan F Vázquez-Costa, Miguel Mazón, Joan Carreres-Polo, David Hervás, Jordi Pérez-Tur, Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Teresa Sevilla
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of the demographical, clinical, analytical and genetic factors to brain signal intensity changes in T2-weighted MR images in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls. METHODS: Susceptibility-weighted and FLAIR sequences were obtained in a 3T MR scanner. Iron-related hypointensities in the motor cortex (IRhMC) and hyperintensities of the corticospinal tract (HCT) were qualitatively scored. Age, gender, family history and clinical variables were recorded...
October 29, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Kevin J Cyr, Omero M Avaldi, John P Wikswo
Organs-on-Chips (OoCs) are poised to reshape dramatically the study of biology by replicating in vivo the function of individual and coupled human organs. Such microphysiological systems (MPS) have already recreated complex physiological responses necessary to simulate human organ function not evident in two-dimensional in vitro biological experiments. OoC researchers hope to streamline pharmaceutical development, accelerate toxicology studies, limit animal testing, and provide new insights beyond the capability of current biological models...
November 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Koji Sawa, Abir U Igamberdiev
In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved...
August 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Roberto Doria-Medina, Åsa Carlsson, Emma H Jönsson, Lars Jönsson, Andri Thorarinsson, Mattias Lidén, Gennaro Selvaggi
We report on a case of a trans-man patient, who underwent penile reconstruction with the use of a radial forearm flap, urethroplasty, vaginectomy and scrotoplasty, insertion of testicle implants, and penile erection implants, similar to previously described methods. One of the requirements for an ideal phalloplasty is the preservation of erogenous sensitivity, which is often demanded by the patients for fulfilling their sexual well-being. For the first time known to us, we use a functional magnetic resonance imaging following radial forearm flap phalloplasty with nerve anastomosis to assess the cortical activation after clitoral stimulation...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Andriy B Kul'chyns'kyi, Valeriy M Kyjenko, Walery Zukow, Igor L Popovych
We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. METHODS: In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
T B Knudsen, B Klieforth, W Slikker
Microphysiological systems (MPS) and computer simulation models that recapitulate the underlying biology and toxicology of critical developmental transitions are emerging tools for developmental effects assessment of drugs/chemicals. Opportunities and challenges exist for their application to alternative, more public health relevant and efficient chemical toxicity testing methods. This is especially pertinent to children's health research and the evaluation of complex embryological and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposure...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
Dax G Rumsey, Jaime Guzman, Alan M Rosenberg, Adam M Huber, Rosie Scuccimarri, Natalie J Shiff, Alessandra Bruns, Brian M Feldman, Dean T Eurich
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence, associated characteristics, and course of enthesitis in a juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) inception cohort. METHODS: Canadian children newly diagnosed with JIA between 2005 and 2010 were categorized using International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria at the 6-month visit and followed in the Research in Arthritis in Canadian Children Emphasizing Outcomes (ReACCh-Out) cohort for up to 5 years. The presence of entheseal tenderness on examination at 33 sites shown on a homunculus was recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after enrollment...
February 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Benoît Lemaire, Aurore Pageot, Gaën Plancher, Sophie Portrat
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order until the latest one, and cycling until there is no time to continue the process. However, there is no evidence that refreshing operates in that way. The present study proposes a computational modelling study, which constitutes a powerful method to investigate alternative hypotheses...
March 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Cheng Qian, Fei Tan
INTRODUCTION: In our experience, sometimes, the symptom of patients who suffered from infarction in internal capsule (IC) do not necessarily fit the classical fiber distribution. This study aims to explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 34 patients with infarction lesions in the IC were included in this study, according to the clinical symptom, divided into three groups, group A (more severe weakness of the foot than the hand), group B (more severe weakness of the hand than the foot) and group C (equal weakness of hand and foot), and group Y (with facial nerve paresis) and group N (without facial nerve paresis)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
Lisa C Carlesso, Jingbo Niu, Neil A Segal, Laura A Frey-Law, Cora E Lewis, Michael C Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Whether widespread pain (WSP) affects the risk of developing knee pain or knee osteoarthritis (OA) is unknown and could enhance understanding of pain mechanisms in OA. METHODS: Subjects from the Multicenter OA (MOST) study, a US National Institutes of Health-funded prospective cohort of older adults with or at risk of knee OA, were characterized regarding WSP, defined as pain above and below the waist on both sides of the body and axially using a standard homunculus, excluding knee pain at 60 months (baseline)...
April 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
Jan Mehnert, Laura Schulte, Dagmar Timmann, Arne May
The role of the cerebellum in pathologies of the trigeminal nervous system is still unknown although recently gathered evidence point to a modulatory rather than a passive role. Here we provide evidence for the activation of specific cerebellar areas during nociceptive trigeminal input in the left nostril in a large number of volunteers (54 subjects) and an additional independent group (18 subjects) as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Peak voxel activity ipsilateral to the stimulated side can be seen in cerebellar lobules VI, VIIIa and Crus I, and vermal lobule VIIIa, although some activations are also seen in the contralateral side...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
One of the basic properties of sensory cortices is their topographical organization. Most imaging studies explored this organization using the positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we studied the topographical organization of both positive and negative BOLD in contralateral and ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Using phase-locking mapping methods, we verified the topographical organization of contralateral S1, and further showed that different body segments elicit pronounced negative BOLD responses in both hemispheres...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Guillermo Gallardo, William Wells, Rachid Deriche, Demian Wassermann
Current theories hold that brain function is highly related to long-range physical connections through axonal bundles, namely extrinsic connectivity. However, obtaining a groupwise cortical parcellation based on extrinsic connectivity remains challenging. Current parcellation methods are computationally expensive; need tuning of several parameters or rely on ad-hoc constraints. Furthermore, none of these methods present a model for the cortical extrinsic connectivity of the cortex. To tackle these problems, we propose a parsimonious model for the extrinsic connectivity and an efficient parceling technique based on clustering of tractograms...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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