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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#1
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426894/characteristics-and-course-of-enthesitis-in-a-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-inception-cohort
#2
Dax G Rumsey, Jaime Guzman, Alan M Rosenberg, Adam M Huber, Rosie Scuccimarri, Natalie J Shiff, Alessandra Bruns, Brian M Feldman, Dean T Eurich
Objective To describe the prevalence, associated characteristics, and course of enthesitis in a juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) inception cohort. Methods Canadian children newly diagnosed with JIA between 2005 and 2010 were categorized using ILAR criteria at the 6-month visit and followed in the ReACCh-Out cohort for up to 5 years. The presence of entheseal tenderness on examination at 33 sites shown on a homunculus was recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after enrolment. Enthesitis was defined as entheseal tenderness at more than one site or on more than one occasion...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364345/what-is-the-time-course-of-working-memory-attentional-refreshing
#3
Benoît Lemaire, Aurore Pageot, Gaën Plancher, Sophie Portrat
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order until the latest one, and cycling until there is no time to continue the process. However, there is no evidence that refreshing operates in that way. The present study proposes a computational modelling study, which constitutes a powerful method to investigate alternative hypotheses...
March 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293471/internal-capsule-the-homunculus-distribution-in-the-posterior-limb
#4
Cheng Qian, Fei Tan
INTRODUCTION: In our experience, sometimes, the symptom of patients who suffered from infarction in internal capsule (IC) do not necessarily fit the classical fiber distribution. This study aims to explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 34 patients with infarction lesions in the IC were included in this study, according to the clinical symptom, divided into three groups, group A (more severe weakness of the foot than the hand), group B (more severe weakness of the hand than the foot) and group C (equal weakness of hand and foot), and group Y (with facial nerve paresis) and group N (without facial nerve paresis)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250143/the-effect-of-widespread-pain-on-knee-pain-worsening-incident-knee-osteoarthritis-oa-and-incident-knee-pain-the-multicenter-oa-most-study
#5
Lisa C Carlesso, Jingbo Niu, Neil A Segal, Laura A Frey-Law, Cora E Lewis, Michael C Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Whether widespread pain (WSP) affects the risk of developing knee pain or knee osteoarthritis (OA) is unknown and could enhance understanding of pain mechanisms in OA. METHODS: Subjects from the Multicenter OA (MOST) study, a US National Institutes of Health-funded prospective cohort of older adults with or at risk of knee OA, were characterized regarding WSP, defined as pain above and below the waist on both sides of the body and axially using a standard homunculus, excluding knee pain at 60 months (baseline)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192274/activity-and-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-trigeminal-nociception
#6
Jan Mehnert, Laura Schulte, Dagmar Timmann, Arne May
The role of the cerebellum in pathologies of the trigeminal nervous system is still unknown although recently gathered evidence point to a modulatory rather than a passive role. Here we provide evidence for the activation of specific cerebellar areas during nociceptive trigeminal input in the left nostril in a large number of volunteers (54 subjects) and an additional independent group (18 subjects) as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Peak voxel activity ipsilateral to the stimulated side can be seen in cerebellar lobules VI, VIIIa and Crus I, and vermal lobule VIIIa, although some activations are also seen in the contralateral side...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168279/positive-and-negative-somatotopic-bold-responses-in-contralateral-versus-ipsilateral-penfield-homunculus
#7
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
One of the basic properties of sensory cortices is their topographical organization. Most imaging studies explored this organization using the positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we studied the topographical organization of both positive and negative BOLD in contralateral and ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Using phase-locking mapping methods, we verified the topographical organization of contralateral S1, and further showed that different body segments elicit pronounced negative BOLD responses in both hemispheres...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161314/groupwise-structural-parcellation-of-the-whole-cortex-a-logistic-random-effects-model-based-approach
#8
Guillermo Gallardo, William Wells, Rachid Deriche, Demian Wassermann
Current theories hold that brain function is highly related to long-range physical connections through axonal bundles, namely extrinsic connectivity. However, obtaining a groupwise cortical parcellation based on extrinsic connectivity remains challenging. Current parcellation methods are computationally expensive; need tuning of several parameters or rely on ad-hoc constraints. Furthermore, none of these methods present a model for the cortical extrinsic connectivity of the cortex. To tackle these problems, we propose a parsimonious model for the extrinsic connectivity and an efficient parceling technique based on clustering of tractograms...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119344/dermatomal-organization-of-si-leg-representation-in-humans-revising-the-somatosensory-homunculus
#9
Caroline Dietrich, Kathrin R Blume, Marcel Franz, Ralph Huonker, Maria Carl, Sandra Preißler, Gunther O Hofmann, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Weiss
Penfield and Rasmussen's homunculus is the valid map of the neural body representation of nearly each textbook of biology, physiology, and neuroscience. The somatosensory homunculus places the foot representation on the mesial surface of the postcentral gyrus followed by the representations of the lower leg and the thigh in superio-lateral direction. However, this strong homuncular organization contradicts the "dermatomal" organization of spinal nerves. We used somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields and source analysis to study the leg's neural representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI)...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915070/vicarious-ratings-of-social-touch-reflect-the-anatomical-distribution-velocity-tuning-of-c-tactile-afferents-a-hedonic-homunculus
#10
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, Andy Woods, Francis McGlone
A subclass of C-fibres, C-tactile afferents (CTs), have been discovered which respond preferentially to low force/velocity stroking touch, that is typically perceived as pleasant. Molecular genetic visualization of these low-threshold mechanosensitive C-fibres (CLTMs) in mice revealed a denser distribution in dorsal than ventral thoracic sites, scattered distal limb innervation and a complete absence from glabrous paw skin (Liu et al., 2007). Here we used third-party ratings to examine whether affective responses to social touch reflect the anatomical distribution and velocity tuning of CTs...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811749/use-of-dna-barcoding-to-distinguish-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-neivai-in-colombia
#11
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Paula L Marcet, Natalia Ruíz-Molina, Lorenzo Cáceres, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8...
October 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765146/stem-members-of-platyrrhini-are-distinct-from-catarrhines-in-at-least-one-derived-cranial-feature
#12
Ethan L Fulwood, Doug M Boyer, Richard F Kay
The pterion, on the lateral aspect of the cranium, is where the zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, squamosal, and parietal bones approach and contact. The configuration of these bones distinguishes New and Old World anthropoids: most extant platyrrhines exhibit contact between the parietal and zygomatic bones, while all known catarrhines exhibit frontal-alisphenoid contact. However, it is thought that early stem-platyrrhines retained the apparently primitive catarrhine condition. Here we re-evaluate the condition of key fossil taxa using μCT (micro-computed tomography) imaging...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639500/impaired-communication-between-the-motor-and-somatosensory-homunculus-is-associated-with-poor-manual-dexterity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
February 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636245/knee-pain-and-structural-damage-as-risk-factors-for-incident-widespread-pain-data-from-the-multicenter-osteoarthritis-study
#14
Lisa C Carlesso, Neil A Segal, Jeffrey R Curtis, Barton L Wise, Laura Frey Law, Michael Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal relationship of knee pain, radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), symptomatic knee OA, and knee pain severity to incident widespread pain. METHODS: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a longitudinal cohort of persons with or at risk of knee OA. Participants were characterized as having consistent frequent knee pain, radiographic OA (Kellgren/Lawrence scale grade ≥2), symptomatic OA, and knee pain severity at the 60-month visit (baseline)...
September 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546883/systemic-inflammation-and-painful-joint-burden-in-osteoarthritis-a-matter-of-sex
#15
A V Perruccio, V Chandran, J D Power, M Kapoor, N N Mahomed, R Gandhi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and the extent of multijoint pain among individuals with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA) and determined whether the association differs by sex. DESIGN: Serum CRP and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 189 individuals (101 female, 88 male) scheduled for total hip/knee arthroplasty for OA. Patients indicated on a homunculus all painful joints; a summed count was derived...
January 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497839/mollusc-models-i-the-snail-ilyanassa
#16
REVIEW
Morgan Q Goulding, J David Lambert
Ilyanassa obsoleta has been a model system for experimental embryology for over a century. Here we highlight new insight into early cell lineage specification in Ilyanassa. As in all molluscs and other spiralians, stereotyped cleavage patterns establish a homunculus of regional founder cells. Ongoing studies are beginning to dissect mechanisms of asymmetric cell division that specify these cells' fates. This is only part of the story: overlaid on intrinsic cell identities is a graded 'organizer' signal, and emerging evidence suggests wider roles for short-range intercellular signaling...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472549/remodeling-of-cortical-activity-for-motor-control-following-upper-limb-loss
#17
Laura Williams, Nikta Pirouz, J C Mizelle, William Cusack, Rob Kistenberg, Lewis A Wheaton
OBJECTIVE: Upper extremity loss presents immediate and lasting challenges for motor control. While sensory and motor representations of the amputated limb undergo plasticity to adjacent areas of the sensorimotor homunculus, it remains unclear whether laterality of motor-related activity is affected by neural reorganization following amputation. METHODS: Using electroencephalography, we evaluated neural activation patterns of formerly right hand dominant persons with upper limb loss (amputees) performing a motor task with their residual right limb, then their sound left limb...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457552/neotropics-provide-insights-into-the-emergence-of-new-world-monkeys-new-dental-evidence-from-the-late-oligocene-of-peruvian-amazonia
#18
Laurent Marivaux, Sylvain Adnet, Ali J Altamirano-Sierra, Myriam Boivin, François Pujos, Anusha Ramdarshan, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Julia V Tejada-Lara, Pierre-Olivier Antoine
Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene...
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282300/faciolingual-hemiparesis-with-mild-limb-weakness-of-cortical-origin
#19
Aintzine Ruisanchez-Nieva, Jone Bocos-Portillo, Rakel Vazquez-Picon, David Anguizola Tamayo, Lara Pardina-Vilella, Marian Gomez-Beldarrain, Juan Carlos Garcia-Monco
The clinical combination of unilateral facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness is known as the capsular genu syndrome and responds most often to an ischemic infarct in the internal capsule. We here describe a patient with this peculiar combination, in whom the responsible lesion was located in the contralateral prefrontal cortex, involving the corresponding areas of the Penfield's homunculus. Contralateral cortical frontal lesions should be considered in patients with facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207250/the-segmental-diffusivity-profile-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-associated-white-matter-degeneration
#20
C Schuster, M Elamin, O Hardiman, P Bede
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance diffusivity indices have been repeatedly proposed as biomarkers of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but no consensus exists as to which diffusivity parameter is the most sensitive to identify early degenerative changes. Despite numerous studies, surprisingly little is known of the segmental vulnerability of the corticospinal tracts and corpus callosum. Our objective was to characterize the core three-dimensional white matter signature of ALS, to describe phenotype-specific patterns of white matter degeneration and to evaluate the diffusivity profile of individual patients and controls in specific white matter segments...
August 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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