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Julia Forstenpointner, Stephan Wolff, Patrick W Stroman, Olav Jansen, Stefanie Rehm, Ralf Baron, Janne Gierthmühlen
Referred and projecting pain can be observed in acute and chronic pain states. We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in dermatome Th2/3 who reported that touching the ipsilateral earlap (dermatome C2) would enhance pain and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) in the affected Th2/3-dermatome. The aim was to investigate possible underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon using the capsaicin experimental pain sensitization model, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and functional spinal and supraspinal MRI (fMRI)...
May 16, 2018: Pain
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Manpreet S Pandher, Simarjit Kaur, Sajad H Parey, Malkiat S Saini
The genus Hydropsyche is reviewed from India. Three new species are described and illustrated belonging to genus Hydropsyche. The newly described species are Hydropsyche curvata sp. nov., H. hajinensis sp. nov., both from Jammu Kashmir, and H. golitarensis sp. nov. from Sikkim. Hydropsyche quadrata Malicky Chantaramongkol 2000 (from Sikkim), H. augeias Malicky Chantaramongkol 2000 (from Uttarakhand) and H. camillus Malicky Chantaramongkol 2000 (from Sikkim and Himachal Pradesh) are reported for the first time from India...
December 18, 2017: Zootaxa
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Danah Aljaafari, Fábio A Nascimento, Alon Abraham, Danielle M Andrade, Richard A Wennberg
Unilateral abdominal clonic seizures represent a peculiar and rare manifestation of focal onset epilepsy. We present the case of a 26-year-old man with right-sided abdominal clonic movements associated with seizures arising from the left parietal area. We show the ictal EEG correlates of these events, including source localization of early ictal spikes; findings that have not been demonstrated in previously reported cases. The electro-clinical features in this patient suggested that clinical onset occurred after anterior propagation of ictal activity from a region posterior to the neck and trunk area of the sensory homunculus of the postcentral gyrus...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Hayley M Belli, Chris S Bresee, Matthew M Graff, Mitra J Z Hartmann
The morphology of an animal's face will have large effects on the sensory information it can acquire. Here we quantify the arrangement of cranial sensory structures of the rat, with special emphasis on the mystacial vibrissae (whiskers). Nearly all mammals have vibrissae, which are generally arranged in rows and columns across the face. The vibrissae serve a wide variety of important behavioral functions, including navigation, climbing, wake following, anemotaxis, and social interactions. To date, however, there are few studies that compare the morphology of vibrissal arrays across species, or that describe the arrangement of the vibrissae relative to other facial sensory structures...
2018: PloS One
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Luis Ulloa, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Flávio Del Vecchio, Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Gerson Jhonatan Rodrigues, Jaci Airton Castania, Fernando de Queiróz Cunha, Hélio Cesar Salgado, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Alexandre Kanashiro
The neuronal control of the immune system is fundamental to the development of new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders. Recent studies reported that afferent vagal stimulation attenuates peripheral inflammation by activating specific sympathetic central and peripheral networks, but only few subcortical brain areas were investigated. In the present study, we report that afferent vagal stimulation also activates specific cortical areas, as the parietal and cingulate cortex. Since these cortical structures innervate sympathetic-related areas, we investigate whether electrical stimulation of parietal cortex can attenuate knee joint inflammation in non-anesthetized rats...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ruey-Song Huang, Martin I Sereno
The parietal lobe plays a major role in sensorimotor integration and action. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed more than 40 retinotopic areas distributed across five visual streams in the human brain, two of which enter the parietal lobe. A series of retinotopic areas occupy the length of the intraparietal sulcus and continue into the postcentral sulcus. On the medial wall, retinotopy extends across the parieto-occipital sulcus into the precuneus and reaches the cingulate sulcus. Full-body tactile stimulation revealed a multisensory homunculus lying along the postcentral sulcus just posterior to primary somatosensory cortical areas and overlapping with the anteriormost retinotopic maps...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C Giovanni Galizia
Animals can follow olfactory traces to find food, detect a sexual mate, or avoid predators. A new study reveals that pheromone-specific projection neurons in the cockroach have a spatially tuned receptive field, and allow encoding spatial information of an odorant.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Marc H Schieber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
KEY POINTS: We performed a prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated intact patients, to acquire accurate MNI coordinates of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. In the contralateral BA1, the hand representation displayed not only medial-to-lateral, little-finger-to-thumb, but also rostral-to-caudal discrete somatotopy, with the tip of each finger located more caudally than the proximal phalanx. The analysis of the MNI body coordinates showed rare inter-individual variations in the medial-to-lateral somatotopic organization in these patients with rather different intensity thresholds needed to elicit sensations in different body parts...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yue Xie, Ji-Hua Xu, Bei-Xin Wang, Chang-Hai Sun
Pupae of two Hydropsyche species collected from Zhe-jiang Province, China, were examined and their barcode sequences were generated and analyzed. The pupae of H. simulata and H. homunculus were associated with their adult males by mtCOI gene sequences, described, illustrated, and diagnosed.
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Juan F Vázquez-Costa, Miguel Mazón, Joan Carreres-Polo, David Hervás, Jordi Pérez-Tur, Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Teresa Sevilla
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of the demographical, clinical, analytical and genetic factors to brain signal intensity changes in T2-weighted MR images in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls. METHODS: Susceptibility-weighted and FLAIR sequences were obtained in a 3T MR scanner. Iron-related hypointensities in the motor cortex (IRhMC) and hyperintensities of the corticospinal tract (HCT) were qualitatively scored. Age, gender, family history and clinical variables were recorded...
February 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Kevin J Cyr, Omero M Avaldi, John P Wikswo
Organs-on-Chips (OoCs) are poised to reshape dramatically the study of biology by replicating in vivo the function of individual and coupled human organs. Such microphysiological systems (MPS) have already recreated complex physiological responses necessary to simulate human organ function not evident in two-dimensional in vitro biological experiments. OoC researchers hope to streamline pharmaceutical development, accelerate toxicology studies, limit animal testing, and provide new insights beyond the capability of current biological models...
November 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Koji Sawa, Abir U Igamberdiev
In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved...
December 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Roberto Doria-Medina, Åsa Carlsson, Emma H Jönsson, Lars Jönsson, Andri Thorarinsson, Mattias Lidén, Gennaro Selvaggi
We report on a case of a trans-man patient, who underwent penile reconstruction with the use of a radial forearm flap, urethroplasty, vaginectomy and scrotoplasty, insertion of testicle implants, and penile erection implants, similar to previously described methods. One of the requirements for an ideal phalloplasty is the preservation of erogenous sensitivity, which is often demanded by the patients for fulfilling their sexual well-being. For the first time known to us, we use a functional magnetic resonance imaging following radial forearm flap phalloplasty with nerve anastomosis to assess the cortical activation after clitoral stimulation...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Andriy B Kul'chyns'kyi, Valeriy M Kyjenko, Walery Zukow, Igor L Popovych
We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. METHODS: In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
T B Knudsen, B Klieforth, W Slikker
Microphysiological systems (MPS) and computer simulation models that recapitulate the underlying biology and toxicology of critical developmental transitions are emerging tools for developmental effects assessment of drugs/chemicals. Opportunities and challenges exist for their application to alternative, more public health relevant and efficient chemical toxicity testing methods. This is especially pertinent to children's health research and the evaluation of complex embryological and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposure...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
Dax G Rumsey, Jaime Guzman, Alan M Rosenberg, Adam M Huber, Rosie Scuccimarri, Natalie J Shiff, Alessandra Bruns, Brian M Feldman, Dean T Eurich
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence, associated characteristics, and course of enthesitis in a juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) inception cohort. METHODS: Canadian children newly diagnosed with JIA between 2005 and 2010 were categorized using International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria at the 6-month visit and followed in the Research in Arthritis in Canadian Children Emphasizing Outcomes (ReACCh-Out) cohort for up to 5 years. The presence of entheseal tenderness on examination at 33 sites shown on a homunculus was recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after enrollment...
February 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
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