keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Homunculus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826761/the-dynamics-of-interaction-of-reflexive-subjects-operating-with-the-two-valued-versus-many-valued-logic
#1
REVIEW
Koji Sawa, Abir U Igamberdiev
In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved...
August 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740768/fmri-after-phalloplasty-with-nerve-anastomosis-in-a-trans-man-patient
#2
Roberto Doria-Medina, Åsa Carlsson, Emma H Jönsson, Lars Jönsson, Andri Thorarinsson, Mattias Lidén, Gennaro Selvaggi
We report on a case of a trans-man patient, who underwent penile reconstruction with the use of a radial forearm flap, urethroplasty, vaginectomy and scrotoplasty, insertion of testicle implants, and penile erection implants, similar to previously described methods. One of the requirements for an ideal phalloplasty is the preservation of erogenous sensitivity, which is often demanded by the patients for fulfilling their sexual well-being. For the first time known to us, we use a functional magnetic resonance imaging following radial forearm flap phalloplasty with nerve anastomosis to assess the cortical activation after clitoral stimulation...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730179/causal-neuro-immune-relationships-at-patients-with-chronic-pyelonephritis-and-cholecystitis-correlations-between-parameters-eeg-hrv-and-white-blood-cell-count
#3
Andriy B Kul'chyns'kyi, Valeriy M Kyjenko, Walery Zukow, Igor L Popovych
We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. METHODS: In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658972/programming-microphysiological-systems-for-children-s-health-protection
#4
T B Knudsen, B Klieforth, W Slikker
Microphysiological systems (MPS) and computer simulation models that recapitulate the underlying biology and toxicology of critical developmental transitions are emerging tools for developmental effects assessment of drugs/chemicals. Opportunities and challenges exist for their application to alternative, more public health relevant and efficient chemical toxicity testing methods. This is especially pertinent to children's health research and the evaluation of complex embryological and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposure...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#5
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426894/characteristics-and-course-of-enthesitis-in-a-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-inception-cohort
#6
Dax G Rumsey, Jaime Guzman, Alan M Rosenberg, Adam M Huber, Rosie Scuccimarri, Natalie J Shiff, Alessandra Bruns, Brian M Feldman, Dean T Eurich
Objective To describe the prevalence, associated characteristics, and course of enthesitis in a juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) inception cohort. Methods Canadian children newly diagnosed with JIA between 2005 and 2010 were categorized using ILAR criteria at the 6-month visit and followed in the ReACCh-Out cohort for up to 5 years. The presence of entheseal tenderness on examination at 33 sites shown on a homunculus was recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after enrolment. Enthesitis was defined as entheseal tenderness at more than one site or on more than one occasion...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364345/what-is-the-time-course-of-working-memory-attentional-refreshing
#7
Benoît Lemaire, Aurore Pageot, Gaën Plancher, Sophie Portrat
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order until the latest one, and cycling until there is no time to continue the process. However, there is no evidence that refreshing operates in that way. The present study proposes a computational modelling study, which constitutes a powerful method to investigate alternative hypotheses...
March 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293471/internal-capsule-the-homunculus-distribution-in-the-posterior-limb
#8
Cheng Qian, Fei Tan
INTRODUCTION: In our experience, sometimes, the symptom of patients who suffered from infarction in internal capsule (IC) do not necessarily fit the classical fiber distribution. This study aims to explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 34 patients with infarction lesions in the IC were included in this study, according to the clinical symptom, divided into three groups, group A (more severe weakness of the foot than the hand), group B (more severe weakness of the hand than the foot) and group C (equal weakness of hand and foot), and group Y (with facial nerve paresis) and group N (without facial nerve paresis)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250143/the-effect-of-widespread-pain-on-knee-pain-worsening-incident-knee-osteoarthritis-oa-and-incident-knee-pain-the-multicenter-oa-most-study
#9
Lisa C Carlesso, Jingbo Niu, Neil A Segal, Laura A Frey-Law, Cora E Lewis, Michael C Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: Whether widespread pain (WSP) affects the risk of developing knee pain or knee osteoarthritis (OA) is unknown and could enhance understanding of pain mechanisms in OA. METHODS: Subjects from the Multicenter OA (MOST) study, a US National Institutes of Health-funded prospective cohort of older adults with or at risk of knee OA, were characterized regarding WSP, defined as pain above and below the waist on both sides of the body and axially using a standard homunculus, excluding knee pain at 60 months (baseline)...
April 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192274/activity-and-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-trigeminal-nociception
#10
Jan Mehnert, Laura Schulte, Dagmar Timmann, Arne May
The role of the cerebellum in pathologies of the trigeminal nervous system is still unknown although recently gathered evidence point to a modulatory rather than a passive role. Here we provide evidence for the activation of specific cerebellar areas during nociceptive trigeminal input in the left nostril in a large number of volunteers (54 subjects) and an additional independent group (18 subjects) as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Peak voxel activity ipsilateral to the stimulated side can be seen in cerebellar lobules VI, VIIIa and Crus I, and vermal lobule VIIIa, although some activations are also seen in the contralateral side...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168279/positive-and-negative-somatotopic-bold-responses-in-contralateral-versus-ipsilateral-penfield-homunculus
#11
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
One of the basic properties of sensory cortices is their topographical organization. Most imaging studies explored this organization using the positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we studied the topographical organization of both positive and negative BOLD in contralateral and ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Using phase-locking mapping methods, we verified the topographical organization of contralateral S1, and further showed that different body segments elicit pronounced negative BOLD responses in both hemispheres...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161314/groupwise-structural-parcellation-of-the-whole-cortex-a-logistic-random-effects-model-based-approach
#12
Guillermo Gallardo, William Wells, Rachid Deriche, Demian Wassermann
Current theories hold that brain function is highly related to long-range physical connections through axonal bundles, namely extrinsic connectivity. However, obtaining a groupwise cortical parcellation based on extrinsic connectivity remains challenging. Current parcellation methods are computationally expensive; need tuning of several parameters or rely on ad-hoc constraints. Furthermore, none of these methods present a model for the cortical extrinsic connectivity of the cortex. To tackle these problems, we propose a parsimonious model for the extrinsic connectivity and an efficient parceling technique based on clustering of tractograms...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119344/dermatomal-organization-of-si-leg-representation-in-humans-revising-the-somatosensory-homunculus
#13
Caroline Dietrich, Kathrin R Blume, Marcel Franz, Ralph Huonker, Maria Carl, Sandra Preißler, Gunther O Hofmann, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Weiss
Penfield and Rasmussen's homunculus is the valid map of the neural body representation of nearly each textbook of biology, physiology, and neuroscience. The somatosensory homunculus places the foot representation on the mesial surface of the postcentral gyrus followed by the representations of the lower leg and the thigh in superio-lateral direction. However, this strong homuncular organization contradicts the "dermatomal" organization of spinal nerves. We used somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields and source analysis to study the leg's neural representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI)...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915070/vicarious-ratings-of-social-touch-reflect-the-anatomical-distribution-velocity-tuning-of-c-tactile-afferents-a-hedonic-homunculus
#14
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, Andy Woods, Francis McGlone
A subclass of C-fibres, C-tactile afferents (CTs), have been discovered which respond preferentially to low force/velocity stroking touch, that is typically perceived as pleasant. Molecular genetic visualization of these low-threshold mechanosensitive C-fibres (CLTMs) in mice revealed a denser distribution in dorsal than ventral thoracic sites, scattered distal limb innervation and a complete absence from glabrous paw skin (Liu et al., 2007). Here we used third-party ratings to examine whether affective responses to social touch reflect the anatomical distribution and velocity tuning of CTs...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811749/use-of-dna-barcoding-to-distinguish-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-neivai-in-colombia
#15
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Paula L Marcet, Natalia Ruíz-Molina, Lorenzo Cáceres, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8...
October 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765146/stem-members-of-platyrrhini-are-distinct-from-catarrhines-in-at-least-one-derived-cranial-feature
#16
Ethan L Fulwood, Doug M Boyer, Richard F Kay
The pterion, on the lateral aspect of the cranium, is where the zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, squamosal, and parietal bones approach and contact. The configuration of these bones distinguishes New and Old World anthropoids: most extant platyrrhines exhibit contact between the parietal and zygomatic bones, while all known catarrhines exhibit frontal-alisphenoid contact. However, it is thought that early stem-platyrrhines retained the apparently primitive catarrhine condition. Here we re-evaluate the condition of key fossil taxa using μCT (micro-computed tomography) imaging...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639500/impaired-communication-between-the-motor-and-somatosensory-homunculus-is-associated-with-poor-manual-dexterity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
February 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636245/knee-pain-and-structural-damage-as-risk-factors-for-incident-widespread-pain-data-from-the-multicenter-osteoarthritis-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lisa C Carlesso, Neil A Segal, Jeffrey R Curtis, Barton L Wise, Laura Frey Law, Michael Nevitt, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal relationship of knee pain, radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), symptomatic knee OA, and knee pain severity to incident widespread pain. METHODS: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a longitudinal cohort of persons with or at risk of knee OA. Participants were characterized as having consistent frequent knee pain, radiographic OA (Kellgren/Lawrence scale grade ≥2), symptomatic OA, and knee pain severity at the 60-month visit (baseline)...
June 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546883/systemic-inflammation-and-painful-joint-burden-in-osteoarthritis-a-matter-of-sex
#19
A V Perruccio, V Chandran, J D Power, M Kapoor, N N Mahomed, R Gandhi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and the extent of multijoint pain among individuals with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA) and determined whether the association differs by sex. DESIGN: Serum CRP and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 189 individuals (101 female, 88 male) scheduled for total hip/knee arthroplasty for OA. Patients indicated on a homunculus all painful joints; a summed count was derived...
January 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497839/mollusc-models-i-the-snail-ilyanassa
#20
REVIEW
Morgan Q Goulding, J David Lambert
Ilyanassa obsoleta has been a model system for experimental embryology for over a century. Here we highlight new insight into early cell lineage specification in Ilyanassa. As in all molluscs and other spiralians, stereotyped cleavage patterns establish a homunculus of regional founder cells. Ongoing studies are beginning to dissect mechanisms of asymmetric cell division that specify these cells' fates. This is only part of the story: overlaid on intrinsic cell identities is a graded 'organizer' signal, and emerging evidence suggests wider roles for short-range intercellular signaling...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
keyword
keyword
63115
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"