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Sharlene N Flesher, Jennifer L Collinger, Stephen T Foldes, Jeffrey M Weiss, John E Downey, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Sliman J Bensmaia, Andrew B Schwartz, Michael L Boninger, Robert A Gaunt
Intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex offers the potential for creating a sensory neuroprosthesis to restore tactile sensation. Whereas animal studies have suggested that both cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts can be evoked using this approach, the perceptual quality of the stimuli cannot be measured in these experiments. We show that microstimulation within the hand area of the somatosensory cortex of a person with long-term spinal cord injury evokes tactile sensations perceived as originating from locations on the hand and that cortical stimulation sites are organized according to expected somatotopic principles...
October 13, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Roger Newport, Dominic Y Wong, Ellen M Howard, Eden Silver
The Anne Boleyn Illusion exploits the somatotopic representation of touch to create the illusion of an extra digit and demonstrates the instantaneous remapping of relative touch location into body-based coordinates through visuo-tactile integration. Performed successfully on thousands, it is also a simple demonstration of the flexibility of body representations for use at public events, in schools or in the home and can be implemented anywhere by anyone with a mirror and some degree of bimanual coordination...
September 2016: I-Perception
Philipp Bäumer, Henrich Kele, Annie Xia, Markus Weiler, Daniel Schwarz, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0...
September 28, 2016: Neurology
Jin Cheng, Sadhna Sahani, Torben Johann Hausrat, Jenq-Wei Yang, Haichao Ji, Nikolai Schmarowski, Heiko Endle, Xinfeng Liu, Yunbo Li, Rahel Böttche, Konstantin Radyushkin, Hans M Maric, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Thorsten Trimbuch, Olaf Ninnemann, Jisen Huai, Wei Fan, Barbara Visentin, Roger Sabbadini, Kristian Strømgaard, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann, Matthias Kneussel, Robert Nitsch, Johannes Vogt
Precise connection of thalamic barreloids with their corresponding cortical barrels is critical for processing of vibrissal sensory information. Here, we show that PRG-2, a phospholipid-interacting molecule, is important for thalamocortical axon guidance. Developing thalamocortical fibers both in PRG-2 full knockout (KO) and in thalamus-specific KO mice prematurely entered the cortical plate, eventually innervating non-corresponding barrels. This misrouting relied on lost axonal sensitivity toward lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which failed to repel PRG-2-deficient thalamocortical fibers...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Julien Guy, Alexandra Sachkova, Martin Möck, Mirko Witte, Robin J Wagener, Jochen F Staiger
Layer IV (LIV) of the rodent somatosensory cortex contains the somatotopic barrel field. Barrels receive much of the sensory input to the cortex through innervation by thalamocortical axons from the ventral posteromedial nucleus. In the reeler mouse, the absence of cortical layers results in the formation of mispositioned barrel-equivalent clusters of LIV fated neurons. Although functional imaging suggests that sensory input activates the cortex, little is known about the cellular and synaptic properties of identified excitatory neurons of the reeler cortex...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Per M Knutsen, Celine Mateo, David Kleinfeld
The ability to form an accurate map of sensory input to the brain is an essential aspect of interpreting functional brain signals. Here, we consider the somatotopic map of vibrissa-based touch in the primary somatosensory (vS1) cortex of mice. The vibrissae are represented by a Manhattan-like grid of columnar structures that are separated by inter-digitating septa. The development, dynamics and plasticity of this organization is widely used as a model system. Yet, the exact anatomical position of this organization within the vS1 cortex varies between individual mice...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Olivia Hanley, Rediet Zewdu, Lisa J Cohen, Heekyung Jung, Julie Lacombe, Polyxeni Philippidou, David H Lee, Licia Selleri, Jeremy S Dasen
The clustering of neurons sharing similar functional properties and connectivity is a common organizational feature of vertebrate nervous systems. Within motor networks, spinal motor neurons (MNs) segregate into longitudinally arrayed subtypes, establishing a central somatotopic map of peripheral target innervation. MN organization and connectivity relies on Hox transcription factors expressed along the rostrocaudal axis; however, the developmental mechanisms governing the orderly arrangement of MNs are largely unknown...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Austin O Rosner, Steven M Barlow
We performed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study of the evoked hemodynamic responses seen in hand and face sensorimotor cortical representations during (1) active motor tasks and (2) pulsed pneumotactile stimulation. Contralateral fNIRS measurements were performed on 22 healthy adult participants using a block paradigm that consisted of repetitive right hand and right oral angle somatosensory stimulation using a pulsed pneumotactile array stimulator, and repetitive right-hand grip compression and bilabial compressions on strain gages...
August 22, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Gertrúd Tamás, Andrea Kelemen, Péter Radics, István Valálik, Dustin Heldman, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei, Eszter Hidasi, László Halász, Dávid Kis, Péter Barsi, Péter Golopencza, Loránd Erőss
INTRODUCTION: A different innervation pattern of proximal and distal muscles from the contra- and ipsilateral motor circuits raises the question as to whether bilateral, contra- and ipsilateral subthalamic stimulation may have different effects on the distal and proximal movements of the upper limb. To answer this question, we performed kinematic analyzes in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight Parkinsonian patients treated by bilateral subthalamic stimulation were examined with an age-matched control group of 28 healthy subjects...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Hui-Xin Qi, Feng Wang, Chia-Chi Liao, Robert M Friedman, Chaohui Tang, Jon H Kaas, Malcolm J Avison
After lesions of the somatosensory dorsal column (DC) pathway, the cortical hand representation can become unresponsive to tactile stimuli, but considerable responsiveness returns over weeks of post-lesion recovery. The reactivation suggests that preserved subthreshold sensory inputs become potentiated and axon sprouting occurs over time to mediate recovery. Here, we studied the recovery process in 3 squirrel monkeys, using high-resolution fMRI CBV-fMRI mapping of contralateral somatosensory cortex responsiveness to stimulation of distal finger pads with low and high level electrocutaneous stimulation (ES) before and 2, 4, and 6weeks after a high cervical level contralateral DC lesion...
August 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Kamil A Grajski
Mechanisms underlying the emergence and plasticity of representational discontinuities in the mammalian primary somatosensory cortical representation of the hand are investigated in a computational model. The model consists of an input lattice organized as a three-digit hand forward-connected to a lattice of cortical columns each of which contains a paired excitatory and inhibitory cell. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and lateral connection weights is implemented as a simple covariance rule and competitive normalization...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Eleonora Bartoli, Laura Maffongelli, Claudio Campus, Alessandro D'Ausilio
During speech listening motor regions are somatotopically activated, resembling the activity that subtends actual speech production, suggesting that motor commands can be retrieved from sensory inputs. Crucially, the efficient motor control of the articulators relies on the accurate anticipation of the somatosensory reafference. Nevertheless, evidence about somatosensory activities elicited by auditory speech processing is sparse. The present work looked for specific interactions between auditory speech presentation and somatosensory cortical information processing...
2016: Scientific Reports
N M Ipekchyan, S A Badalyan
The peculiarities of localization and distribution of cortico-thalamic efferents of different somatotopical representations of primary motor (MI) and sensory (SI) cortex were studied in cat brain. MI efferent fibers (4y, 6ab areas) preferentially projected to ventral posterolateral and medial (VPL, VPM), ventrolateral (VL), and reticular (R) nuclei, localized in rostral part of the thalamus (T), as opposed to SI (areas 1, 2, 3a, 3b), which projected preferentially to caudal part of T, VPL, VPM and R nuclei...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
Mi-Hyun Choi, Sung-Phil Kim, Hyung-Sik Kim, Seon-Young Gim, Woo-Ram Kim, Kyung-Ryul Mun, Dae-Woon Lim, Bongsoo Lee, Soon-Cheol Chung
The somatotopic representation of the tactile stimulation on the finger in the brain is an essential part of understanding the human somatosensory system as well as rehabilitation and other clinical therapies. Many studies have used vibrotactile stimulations and reported finger somatotopic representations in the Brodmann area 3 (BA 3). On the contrary, few studies investigated finger somatotopic representation using pressure stimulations. Therefore, the present study aimed to find a comprehensive somatotopic representation (somatotopic map and inter- and intra-digit distance) within BA 2 of humans that could describe tactile stimulations on different joints across the fingers by applying pressure stimulation to three joints-the first (p1), second (p2), and third (p3) joints-of four fingers (index, middle, ring, and little finger)...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Moayedi, G Di Stefano, M T Stubbs, B Djeugam, M Liang, G D Iannetti
Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs)...
May 2016: ENeuro
Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Akihito Yoshida, Takaaki Shinohara, Tomonori Nakano, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Sae Goto, Masaaki Hirayama, Minoru Hoshiyama, Hitoshi Hirata
OBJECTIVE: The recovery function of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) was recorded to investigate excitatory and inhibitory balance in the somatosensory cortex of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: SEFs were recorded in patients and controls. Recordings were taken following median nerve stimulation with single and double pulses with interstimulus intervals of 10-200ms. The root mean square for the N20m component following the second stimulation was analyzed...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Matthew E Hirschtritt, Sabrina M Darrow, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Robert A King, David L Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, Dongmei Yu, Lauren M McGrath, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: To identify heritable symptom-based subtypes of Tourette syndrome (TS). METHODS: Forty-nine motor and phonic tics were examined in 3,494 individuals (1,191 TS probands and 2,303 first-degree relatives). Item-level exploratory factor and latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify tic-based subtypes. Heritabilities of the subtypes were estimated, and associations with clinical characteristics were examined. RESULTS: A 6-factor exploratory factor analysis model provided the best fit, which paralleled the somatotopic representation of the basal ganglia, distinguished simple from complex tics, and separated out socially disinhibited and compulsive tics...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
Manuel Gomez-Ramirez, Kristjana Hysaj, Ernst Niebur
Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jürgen Hänggi, Dorian Bellwald, Peter Brugger
Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent desire for the amputation of physically healthy limbs. Associations with morphological alterations such as reduced cortical thickness and surface area. Nothing is known, however, about the potential involvement of subcortical structures. The thalamus and basal ganglia process, relay, and integrate sensorimotor information and are involved in the preparation and execution of movements. Moreover, both of these structures house somatotopic representations of all body parts...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Guohong Chai, Dingguo Zhang
Cutaneous electrical stimulation can provide tactile feedback for upper-limb amputees through somatotopic feedback (SF) or non-somatotopic feedback (NF). The SF delivers electrotactile stimulus to projection finger maps (PFMs) on the stumps of amputees, which outperforms NF that transfers stimulus to other human intact skin areas in general. However, the SF areas on stumps are very limited and often occupied by electromyography (EMG) sensors in application of myoelectric prosthesis. This work aims at improving NF performance on human upper arms through user training with electrotactile stimulation...
June 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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