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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#1
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary Irwin, Autumn Bullard, David Thompson, Nicole Bentley, William Stacey, Parag Patil, Cynthia Chestek
OBJECTIVE:  Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435044/expertise-dependent-motor-somatotopy-of-music-perception
#2
Yuta Furukawa, Kazumasa Uehara, Shinichi Furuya
Precise mapping between sound and motion underlies successful communication and information transmission in speech and musical performance. Formation of the map typically undergoes plastic changes in the neuronal network between auditory and motor regions through training. However, to what extent the map is somatotopically-tuned so that auditory information can specifically modulate the corticospinal system responsible for the relevant motor action has not been elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by assessing the excitability of corticospinal system including the primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand intrinsic muscles by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation while trained pianists and musically-untrained individuals (non-musicians) were listening to either piano tones or noise...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400816/the-cortical-activation-pattern-during-bilateral-arm-raising-movements
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Jung Pyo Seo, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Hyun Jin, Sang Seok Yeo
Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399652/facial-presentations-of-primary-headache-disorders
#4
Yair Sharav, Zaza Katsarava, Andrew Charles
Background Many patients with mid-face or lower face craniofacial pain are diagnosed, based on accompanying signs and symptoms and features other than location, as either atypical migraines or atypical TACs. Distinguishing features of headache disorders as a cause of facial pain include the temporal pattern of pain, associated symptoms including light and sound sensitivity and nausea, cranial autonomic symptoms, and the lack of local triggering among others. Results An intraoral neurovascular pain has been observed, and was termed neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP)...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396882/afferent-fiber-remodeling-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-mice-as-a-neural-basis-of-somatotopic-reorganization-in-the-brain-and-ectopic-mechanical-hypersensitivity-after-peripheral-sensory-nerve-injury
#5
Yuichi Takeuchi, Hironobu Osaki, Yuki Yagasaki, Yoko Katayama, Mariko Miyata
Plastic changes in the CNS in response to peripheral sensory nerve injury are a series of complex processes, ranging from local circuit remodeling to somatotopic reorganization. However, the link between circuit remodeling and somatotopic reorganization remains unclear. We have previously reported that transection of the primary whisker sensory nerve causes the abnormal rewiring of lemniscal fibers (sensory afferents) on a neuron in the mouse whisker sensory thalamus (V2 VPM). In the present study, using transgenic mice whose lemniscal fibers originate from the whisker sensory principle trigeminal nucleus (PrV2) are specifically labeled, we identified that the transection induced retraction of PrV2-originating lemniscal fibers and invasion of those not originating from PrV2 in the V2 VPM...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373926/early-head-tremor-in-essential-tremor-a-case-series-and-commentary
#6
Elan D Louis, Funmi M Badejo, Ashley D Cristal, James Meyers, Nora Hernandez, Karen P Chen, Kelly V Naranjo, Jemin Park, Lorraine N Clark
BACKGROUND: Classically, the onset of head tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients follows that of hand tremor, such that there is a somatotopic spread of involved areas. Here we present a series of seven self-reportedly "unaffected" relatives of ET cases. These seven were clinically asymptomatic and had normal levels of arm tremor on examination, yet each evidenced a transient head wobble on examination. We estimate the prevalence of this phenotype within the two studies from which cases were ascertained...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368168/conceptual-biases-explain-distortion-differences-between-hand-and-objects-in-localization-tasks
#7
Aurelie Saulton, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recent studies have shown the presence of distortions in proprioceptive hand localization tasks. Those results were interpreted as reflecting specific perceptual distortions bound to a body model. It was especially suggested that hand distortions could be related to distortions of somatotopic cortical maps. In this study, we show that hand distortions measured in localization tasks might be partly driven by a general false belief about hand landmark locations (conceptual biases). We especially demonstrate that hand and object distortions are present in similar magnitude when correcting for the conceptual bias of the knuckles (Experiment 1) or when asking participants to directly locate spatially well-represented landmarks (i...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350297/a-mutant-with-bilateral-whisker-to-barrel-inputs-unveils-somatosensory-mapping-rules-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#8
Nicolas Renier, Chloé Dominici, Reha S Erzurumlu, Claudius F Kratochwil, Filippo M Rijli, Patricia Gaspar, Alain Chédotal
In mammals, tactile information is mapped topographically onto the contralateral side of the brain in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In this study, we describe Robo3 mouse mutants in which a sizeable fraction of the trigemino-thalamic inputs project ipsilaterally rather than contralaterally. The resulting mixture of crossed and uncrossed sensory inputs creates bilateral whisker maps in the thalamus and cortex. Surprisingly, these maps are segregated resulting in duplication of whisker representations and doubling of the number of barrels without changes in the size of S1...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240722/brain-correlates-to-facial-motor-imagery-and-its-somatotopy-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#10
Ramy S Soliman, Sanghoon Lee, Seulgi Eun, Abdalla Z Mohamed, Jeungchan Lee, Eunyoung Lee, Meena M Makary, Seung Min Kathy Lee, Hwa-Jin Lee, Woo Suk Choi, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) has attracted increased interest for motor rehabilitation as many studies have shown that MI shares the same neural networks as motor execution (ME). Nevertheless, MI in terms of facial movement has not been studied extensively; thus, in the present study, we investigated shared neural networks between facial motor imagery (FMI) and facial motor execution (FME). In addition, FMI somatotopy within-face was investigated between the forehead and the mouth. Functional MRI was used to examine 34 healthy individuals with ME and MI paradigms for the forehead and the mouth...
March 22, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240422/cerebellar-lobules-and-dentate-nuclei-mirror-cortical-force-related-bold-responses-beyond-all-linear-expectations
#11
Adnan A S Alahmadi, Matteo Pardini, Rebecca S Samson, Karl J Friston, Ahmed T Toosy, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces...
May 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240389/increased-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-between-pons-and-somatosensory-cortex-during-attacks-of-migraine-with-aura
#12
Anders Hougaard, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik B W Larsson, Egill Rostrup, Messoud Ashina
The neurological disturbances of migraine aura are caused by transient cortical dysfunction due to waves of spreading depolarization that disrupt neuronal signaling. The effects of these cortical events on intrinsic brain connectivity during attacks of migraine aura have not previously been investigated. Studies of spontaneous migraine attacks are notoriously challenging due to their unpredictable nature and patient discomfort. We investigated 16 migraine patients with visual aura during attacks and in the attack-free state using resting state fMRI...
May 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168279/positive-and-negative-somatotopic-bold-responses-in-contralateral-versus-ipsilateral-penfield-homunculus
#13
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
One of the basic properties of sensory cortices is their topographical organization. Most imaging studies explored this organization using the positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we studied the topographical organization of both positive and negative BOLD in contralateral and ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Using phase-locking mapping methods, we verified the topographical organization of contralateral S1, and further showed that different body segments elicit pronounced negative BOLD responses in both hemispheres...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-with-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#14
Danny A Spampinato, Hannah J Block, Pablo A Celnik
One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to-cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the cerebellum before a test pulse over motor cortex...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123014/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#15
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intraspecies communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle, but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095365/barreloid-borders-and-neuronal-activity-shape-panglial-gap-junction-coupled-networks-in-the-mouse-thalamus
#16
Lena Claus, Camille Philippot, Stephanie Griemsmann, Aline Timmermann, Ronald Jabs, Christian Henneberger, Helmut Kettenmann, Christian Steinhäuser
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulation by neuronal activity has not been studied. We have developed a method to visualize thalamic barreloid fields in acute slices. Combining electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and electroporation in transgenic mice with cell type-specific fluorescence labeling, we provide the first structure-function analyses of barreloidal glial gap junction networks...
November 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073044/influence-of-the-body-schema-on-mirror-touch-synesthesia
#17
Jared Medina, Carrie DePasquale
Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand...
March 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063170/assessing-mnis-7ionis-and-international-neurologists-proficiency-in-a-familial-amyloidotic-polyneuropathy-trial
#18
Peter J Dyck, John C Kincaid, P James B Dyck, Vinay Chaudhry, Namita A Goyal, Christina Alves, Hayet Salhi, Janice F Wiesman, Celine Labeyrie, Jessica Robinson-Papp, Márcio Cardoso, Matilde Laura, Katherine Ruzhansky, Andrea Cortese, Thomas H Brannagan, Julie Khoury, Sami Khella, Márcia Waddington-Cruz, João Ferreira, Annabel K Wang, Marcus V Pinto, Samar S Ayache, Merrill D Benson, John L Berk, Teresa Coelho, Michael Polydefkis, Peter Gorevic, David H Adams, Violaine Plante-Bordeneuve, Carol Whelan, Giampaolo Merlini, Stephen Heitner, Brian M Drachman, Isabel Conceição, Christopher J Klein, Morie A Gertz, Elizabeth J Ackermann, Steven G Hughes, Michelle L Mauermann, Rito Bergemann, Karen A Lodermeier, Jenny L Davies, Rickey E Carter, William J Litchy
INTRODUCTION: Polyneuropathy signs (Neuropathy Impairment Score, NIS), neurophysiologic tests (m+7Ionis ), disability, and health scores were assessed in baseline evaluations of 100 patients entered into an oligonucleotide familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) trial. METHODS: We assessed: (1) Proficiency of grading neurologic signs and correlation with neurophysiologic tests, and (2) clinometric performance of modified NIS+7 neurophysiologic tests (mNIS+7Ionis ) and its subscores and correlation with disability and health scores...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035900/perceptually-relevant-remapping-of-human-somatotopy-in-24-hours
#19
James Kolasinski, Tamar R Makin, John P Logan, Saad Jbabdi, Stuart Clare, Charlotte J Stagg, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018182/mapping-horizontal-spread-of-activity-in-monkey-motor-cortex-using-single-pulse-microstimulation
#20
Yaoyao Hao, Alexa Riehle, Thomas G Brochier
Anatomical studies have demonstrated that distant cortical points are interconnected through long range axon collaterals of pyramidal cells. However, the functional properties of these intrinsic synaptic connections, especially their relationship with the cortical representations of body movements, have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we used multielectrode arrays chronically implanted in the motor cortex of two rhesus monkeys to analyze the effects of single-pulse intracortical microstimulation (sICMS) applied at one electrode on the neuronal activities recorded at all other electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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