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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921724/-discrete-peaks-of-excitability-and-map-overlap-reveal-task-specific-organization-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-control-of-human-forearm-muscles
#1
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Michael J G Bergin, Cyril Schneider, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul W Hodges
The primary motor cortex (M1) presents a somatotopic organization of body parts, but with overlap between muscle/movement representations. This distinct but overlapping M1 organization is believed to be important for individuated control and movement coordination, respectively. Discrete peaks of greater excitability observed within M1 might underpin organization of cortical motor control. This study aimed to examine interactions between M1 representations of synergist and antagonist forearm muscles, compare regions of greater excitability during different functional tasks, and compare characteristics of M1 representation recorded using surface and fine-wire (fw ) electrodes...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904101/methodological-considerations-for-a-chronic-neural-interface-with-the-cuneate-nucleus-of-macaques
#2
Aneesha K Suresh, Jeremy Winberry, Christopher Versteeg, Raeed H Chowdhury, Tucker Tomlinson, Joshua M Rosenow, Lee E Miller, Sliman J Bensmaia
While the response properties of neurons in the somatosensory nerves and anterior parietal cortex have been extensively studied, little is known about the encoding of tactile and proprioceptive information in the cuneate nucleus (CN) or external cuneate nucleus (ECN), the first recipients of upper limb somatosensory afferent signals. The major challenge in characterizing neural coding in CN/ECN has been to record from these tiny, difficult to access brainstem structures. Most previous investigations of CN response properties have been carried out in decerebrate or anesthetized animals, thereby eliminating the well-documented top-down signals from cortex, which likely exert a strong influence on CN responses...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899717/early-patterns-of-activity-in-the-developing-cortex-focus-on-the-sensorimotor-system
#3
REVIEW
Roustem Khazipov, Mathieu Milh
Early development of somatotopic cortical maps occurs during the fetal period in humans and during the postnatal period in rodents. During this period, the sensorimotor cortex expresses transient patterns of correlated neuronal activity including delta waves, gamma- and spindle-burst oscillations. These early activity patterns are largely driven by the thalamus and triggered, in a topographic manner, by sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements. Early cortical activities are instrumental for competitive interactions between sensory inputs for the cortical territories, they prevent cortical neurons from apoptosis and their alteration may lead to disturbances in cortical network development in a number of neurodevelopmental diseases...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883640/a-somatotopic-bidirectional-hand-prosthesis-with-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-based-sensory-feedback
#4
Edoardo D'Anna, Francesco M Petrini, Fiorenzo Artoni, Igor Popovic, Igor Simanić, Stanisa Raspopovic, Silvestro Micera
According to amputees, sensory feedback is amongst the most important features lacking from commercial prostheses. Although restoration of touch by means of implantable neural interfaces has been achieved, these approaches require surgical interventions, and their long-term usability still needs to be fully investigated. Here, we developed a non-invasive alternative which maintains some of the advantages of invasive approaches, such as a somatotopic sensory restitution scheme. We used transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to induce referred sensations to the phantom hand of amputees...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862531/unisensory-and-multisensory-self-referential-stimulation-of-the-lower-limb-an-exploratory-fmri-study-on-healthy-subjects
#5
Ana Isabel Vieira, Patrícia Almeida, Nádia Canário, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Maria Vânia Nunes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
BACKGROUND: The holistic view of the person is the essence of the physiotherapy. Knowledge of approaches that develop the whole person promotes better patient outcomes. Multisensory Self-referential stimulation, more than a unisensory one, seems to produce a holistic experience of the Self ("Core-Self"). OBJECTIVES: (1) To analyze the somatotopic brain activation during unisensory and multisensorial Self-referential stimulus; and (2) to understand if the areas activated by multisensorial Self-referential stimulation are the ones responsible for the "Core-Self...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827090/organization-of-orientation-specific-whisker-deflection-responses-in-layer-2-3-of-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#6
Sung Eun Kwon, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Reha S Erzurumlu, Daniel H O'Connor
The rodent whisker-barrel system is characterized by its patterned somatotopic mapping between the sensory periphery and multiple regions of the brain. While somatotopy in the whisker system is established, we know far less about how preferences for stimulus orientation or other features are organized. Mouse somatosensation is an increasingly popular model for circuit-based dissection of perceptual decision making and learning, yet our understanding of how stimulus feature representations are organized in the cortex is incomplete...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801252/measuring-the-effects-of-attention-to-individual-fingertips-in-somatosensory-cortex-using-ultra-high-field-7t-fmri
#7
Alexander M Puckett, Saskia Bollmann, Markus Barth, Ross Cunnington
Attention to sensory information has been shown to modulate the neuronal processing of that information. For example, visuospatial attention acts by modulating responses at retinotopically appropriate regions of visual cortex (Puckett and DeYoe, 2015; Tootell et al. 1998). Much less, however, is known about the neuronal processing associated with attending to other modalities of sensory information. One reason for this is that visual cortex is relatively large, and therefore easier to access non-invasively in humans using tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774955/organization-and-somatotopy-of-corticothalamic-projections-from-l5b-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#8
Anton Sumser, Rebecca A Mease, Bert Sakmann, Alexander Groh
Neurons in cortical layer 5B (L5B) connect the cortex to numerous subcortical areas. Possibly the best-studied L5B cortico-subcortical connection is that between L5B neurons in the rodent barrel cortex (BC) and the posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus (POm). However, the spatial organization of L5B giant boutons in the POm and other subcortical targets is not known, and therefore it is unclear if this descending pathway retains somatotopy, i.e., body map organization, a hallmark of the ascending somatosensory pathway...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747874/the-functioning-of-a-cortex-without-layers
#9
REVIEW
Julien Guy, Jochen F Staiger
A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741593/electro-cutaneous-stimulation-on-the-palm-elicits-referred-sensations-on-intact-but-not-on-amputated-digits
#10
Marco D'Alonzo, Leonard Frederik Engels, Marco Controzzi, Christian Cipriani
Objective Grasping and manipulation control critically depends on tactile feedback. Without this feedback, the ability for fine control of a prosthesis is limited in upper limb amputees. Early studies have shown that non-invasive electro-cutaneous stimulation (ES) can induce referred sensations that are spread to a wider and/or more distant area, with respect to the electrodes. Building on this, we sought to exploit this effect to provide somatotopically matched sensory feedback to people with partial hand (digital) amputations...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723713/somatotopic-fascicular-lesions-of-the-brachial-plexus-demonstrated-by-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-neurography
#11
Tim Hilgenfeld, Johann Jende, Daniel Schwarz, Philipp Bäumer, Jennifer Kollmer, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution brachial plexus (BP) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is capable of (1) distinguishing patients with compressive neuropathy or noncompressive plexopathy from age- and sex-matched controls, (2) discriminating between patients with compressive neuropathy and noncompressive plexopathy, and (3) detecting spatial lesion patterns suggesting somatotopic organization of the BP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (50...
July 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669907/centre-surround-organization-of-fast-sensorimotor-integration-in-human-motor-hand-area
#12
Raffaele Dubbioso, Estelle Raffin, Anke Karabanov, Axel Thielscher, Hartwig Roman Siebner
Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representation of SAI in human hand-knob. We hypothesized SAI is somatotopically expressed in M1HAND depending on both the site of peripheral electrical nerve stimulation and the cortical spot targeted by TMS within M1HAND. The left index or little finger was stimulated 23 ms before focal single-pulse TMS of the right M1HAND...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666880/connectopic-mapping-with-resting-state-fmri
#13
REVIEW
Koen V Haak, Andre F Marquand, Christian F Beckmann
Brain regions are often topographically connected: nearby locations within one brain area connect with nearby locations in another area. Mapping these connection topographies, or 'connectopies' in short, is crucial for understanding how information is processed in the brain. Here, we propose principled, fully data-driven methods for mapping connectopies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired at rest by combining spectral embedding of voxel-wise connectivity 'fingerprints' with a novel approach to spatial statistical inference...
June 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#14
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617759/functional-topography-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-during-motor-execution-and-motor-imagery-as-revealed-by-functional-mri
#15
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Ramy S Soliman, Abdalla Z Mohamed, Jeungchan Lee, Kyungmo Park
Controversy exists regarding the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor imagery (MI) and also regarding the differential somatotopic representation of motor execution (ME) and mental simulation of movement, that is, MI within M1. Although some research reported clear M1 involvement during MI without overt motor output, others did not. However, possible somatotopic representation between execution and imagery has not been clearly investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to aid in the resolution of this controversy by investigating the possible involvement of M1 during MI, and the differential, within M1, somatotopic representation between execution and imagery by quantitatively assessing different location markers such as activation peak and center of mass as well as intensity differences between the two tasks in case of with and without the overlap between the two representations...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588358/marchiafava-bignami-s-disease-as-etiologic-diagnosis-of-athetosis
#16
Alberto Vargas Canas, Mario Rivas, Rodrigo Guerrero Torrealba, María Francisca Fajre Caamano
The Marchiafava-Bignami disease, characterized by demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum, has typically been associated with chronic alcohol intake, and clinically has various symptoms and signs. However, several cases have been reported without alcohol association, and these - according to several publications - have some common points, such as preference for female, related to malnutrition, and radiological involvement of the splenium of the corpus callosum. We report a case of a patient with the characteristics described above and whose clinical manifestation was Athetosis...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584282/integration-of-vibrotactile-frequency-information-beyond-the-mechanoreceptor-channel-and-somatotopy
#17
Scinob Kuroki, Junji Watanabe, Shin'ya Nishida
A wide variety of tactile sensations arise from the activation of several types of mechanoreceptor-afferent channels scattered all over the body, and their projections create a somatotopic map in the somatosensory cortex. Recent findings challenge the traditional view that tactile signals from different mechanoreceptor-channels/locations are independently processed in the brain, though the contribution of signal integration to perception remains obscure. Here we show that vibrotactile frequency perception is functionally enriched by signal integration across different mechanoreceptor channels and separate skin locations...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538681/human-thalamic-somatosensory-nucleus-ventral-caudal-vc-as-a-locus-for-stimulation-by-inputs-from-tactile-noxious-and-thermal-sensors-on-an-active-prosthesis
#18
REVIEW
Jui Hong Chien, Anna Korzeniewska, Luana Colloca, Claudia Campbell, Patrick Dougherty, Frederick Lenz
The forebrain somatic sensory locus for input from sensors on the surface of an active prosthesis is an important component of the Brain Machine Interface. We now review the neuronal responses to controlled cutaneous stimuli and the sensations produced by Threshold Stimulation at Microampere current levels (TMIS) in such a locus, the human thalamic Ventral Caudal nucleus (Vc). The responses of these neurons to tactile stimuli mirror those for the corresponding class of tactile mechanoreceptor fiber in the peripheral nerve, and TMIS can evoke sensations like those produced by the stimuli that optimally activate each class...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530154/determining-electrode-placement-for-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-comparison-of-eeg-versus-tms-guided-methods
#19
Tonya L Rich, Jeremiah S Menk, Kyle D Rudser, Mo Chen, Gregg D Meekins, Edgar Peña, Timothy Feyma, Kay Bawroski, Christina Bush, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly researched as an adjuvant to motor rehabilitation for children with hemiparesis. The optimal method for the primary motor cortex (M1) somatotopic localization for tDCS electrode placement has not been established. The objective, therefore, was to determine the location of the M1 derived using the 10/20 electroencephalography (EEG) system and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in children with hemiparesis (CWH) and a comparison group of typically developing children (TDC)...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527715/influence-of-netrin-1-on-reinnervation-of-laryngeal-muscles-following-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injury
#20
Ignacio Hernandez-Morato, Shira Koss, Sansar Sharma, Michael J Pitman
Following recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, recovery results in poor functional restitution of the paralyzed vocal fold. Netrin-1 has been found to be upregulated in the rat posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) during nerve regeneration. We evaluated the effect of ectopic Netrin-1 in the PCA during RLN reinnervation. The right RLN was transected and Netrin-1 was injected into the PCA (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20μg/ml). At 7 days post injury fluorescent retrograde tracer was injected into the PCA and Thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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