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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781961/-from-ear-to-trunk-mri-reveals-referral-of-pain
#1
Julia Forstenpointner, Stephan Wolff, Patrick W Stroman, Olav Jansen, Stefanie Rehm, Ralf Baron, Janne Gierthmühlen
Referred and projecting pain can be observed in acute and chronic pain states. We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in dermatome Th2/3 who reported that touching the ipsilateral earlap (dermatome C2) would enhance pain and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) in the affected Th2/3-dermatome. The aim was to investigate possible underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon using the capsaicin experimental pain sensitization model, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and functional spinal and supraspinal MRI (fMRI)...
May 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610299/second-order-spinal-cord-pathway-contributes-to-cortical-responses-after-long-recoveries-from-dorsal-column-injury-in-squirrel-monkeys
#2
Chia-Chi Liao, Jamie L Reed, Hui-Xin Qi, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
Months after the occurrence of spinal cord dorsal column lesions (DCLs) at the cervical level, neural responses in the hand representation of somatosensory area 3b hand cortex recover, along with hand use. To examine whether the second-order spinal cord pathway contributes to this functional recovery, we injected cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) into the hand representation in the cuneate nucleus (Cu) to label the spinal cord neurons, and related results to cortical reactivation in four squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri boliviensis ) at least 7 months after DCL...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605668/a-low-cost-solution-for-quantification-of-movement-during-dbs-surgery
#3
Erin L Schaeffer, Daniel Y Liu, Julie Guerin, Minkyu Ahn, Shane Lee, Wael F Asaad
BACKGROUND: During the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implantation operation with microelectrode recordings (MER) in awake patients, somatotopic testing and test stimulation are performed to improve electrode placement and provide the most beneficial symptom reduction possible, while minimizing side effects. As this procedure is commonly used to alleviate abnormal movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Essential Tremor (ET), intraoperative assessment of a patient's movements is critical to optimizing surgical benefit...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576972/recalibrating-the-body-visuotactile-ventriloquism-aftereffect
#4
Majed Samad, Ladan Shams
Visuotactile ventriloquism is a recently reported effect showing that somatotopic tactile representations (namely, representation of location along the surface of one's arm) can be biased by simultaneous presentation of a visual stimulus in a spatial localization task along the surface of the skin. Here we investigated whether the exposure to discrepancy between tactile and visual stimuli on the skin can induce lasting changes in the somatotopic representations of space. We conducted an experiment investigating this question by asking participants to perform a localization task that included unisensory and bisensory trials, before and after exposure to spatially discrepant visuotactile stimuli...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556183/fronto-parietal-brain-responses-to-visuotactile-congruence-in-an-anatomical-reference-frame
#5
Jakub Limanowski, Felix Blankenburg
Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544386/does-body-perception-shape-visuospatial-perception
#6
Valéry Legrain, Louise Manfron, Marynn Garcia, Lieve Filbrich
How we perceive our body is shaped by sensory experiences with our surrounding environment, as witnessed by poor performance in tasks during which participants judge with their hands crossed the temporal order between two somatosensory stimuli, one applied on each hand. This suggests that somatosensory stimuli are not only processed according to a somatotopic representation but also a spatiotopic representation of the body. We investigated whether the perception of stimuli occurring in external space, such as visual stimuli, can also be influenced by the body posture and somatosensory stimuli...
January 1, 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543981/somatotopic-heat-pain-thresholds-and-intraepidermal-nerve-fibers-in-health
#7
Jenny L Davies, Janean K Engelstad, Linde E Gove, Linda K Linbo, Rickey E Carter, Christopher Lynch, Nathan P Staff, Christopher J Klein, P James B Dyck, David N Herrmann, Peter J Dyck
INTRODUCTION: For sequential and somatotopic assessment of small fiber neuropathy, heat pain (HP) tests of hypoalgesia might be used instead of decreased counts of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), but then healthy subject reference values of HP thresholds are needed. METHODS: Using the Computer Assisted Sensation Evaluator IVc system, HP thresholds of hypoalgesia were estimated for 10 unilateral sites and counts of ENFs for 4 of them in healthy subjects. RESULTS: In healthy subjects, small but statistically significant differences of both HP thresholds of hypoalgesia and counts of ENFs were observed among tested sites...
March 15, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519459/pain-syndromes-and-the-parietal-lobe
#8
Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière
Pain was considered to be integrated subcortically during most of the 20th century, and it was not until 1956 that focal injury to the parietal opercular-insular cortex was shown to produce selective loss of pain senses. The parietal operculum and adjacent posterior insula are the main recipients of spinothalamic afferents in primates. The innermost operculum appears functionally associated with the posterior insula and can be segregated histologically, somatotopically and neurochemically from the more lateral S2 areas...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518532/somatotopic-organization-and-temporal-characteristics-of-cerebrocortical-excitation-in-response-to-nasal-mucosa-stimulation-with-and-without-an-odor-in-the-rat-an-optical-imaging-study
#9
Manabu Zama, Yaeko Hara, Satoshi Fujita, Tadayoshi Kaneko, Masayuki Kobayashi
Nasal mucosa has roles in warming and humidifying inspired air and is highly sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, the upper part of the nasal mucosa expresses olfactory receptors processing olfactory information. Although the somatosensory map of the face in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices is clearly documented, the map of the nasal mucosa and the effect of odors on their activities are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the cortical regions in S1 and their temporal features in response to somatosensory stimulation of the nasal mucosa using an optical imaging technique in urethane-anesthetized rats...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508917/voluntary-inhibitory-motor-control-over-involuntary-tic-movements
#10
REVIEW
Christos Ganos, John Rothwell, Patrick Haggard
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501857/representation-of-action-semantics-in-the-motor-cortex-and-broca-s-area
#11
Zuo Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Zijian Wang
Previous studies have shown that both reading action words and observing actions engage the motor cortex and Broca's area, but it is still controversial whether a somatotopic representation exists for action verbs within the motor cortex and whether Broca's area encodes action-specific semantics for verbs. Here we examined these two issues using a set of functional MRI experiments, including word reading, action observation and a movement localiser task. Results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) showed a somatotopic organisation within the motor areas and action-specific activation in Broca's area for observed actions, suggesting the representation of action semantics for observed actions in these neural regions...
April 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499016/a-guide-for-cortical-electrical-stimulation-mapping
#12
Elson L So, Abdulrahman Alwaki
Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of the brain remains a major procedure for guiding epilepsy and tumor surgeries. This article collates available experiences and data in ESM to develop a guide for conducting the procedure. There are many factors that influence the yield of ESM. The stimulation parameters offered in this article need to be adjusted within safe limits to address the factors. Each ESM procedure should be tailored to the patient's age and baseline mental or psychological capacity. Stimulation-induced seizures and EEG afterdischarges disrupt ESM procedure and render the interpretation of the results difficult...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498583/spinal-cord-injury-below-level-neuropathic-pain-relief-with-dorsal-root-entry-zone-microcoagulation-performed-caudal-to-level-of-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#13
Scott Falci, Charlotte Indeck, Dave Barnkow
OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495078/corticocortical-projections-to-area-1-in-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-sciureus
#14
Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas
Cortical area 1 is a non-primary somatosensory area in the primate anterior parietal cortex that is critical to tactile discrimination. The corticocortical projections to area 1 in squirrel monkeys were determined by placing multiple injections of anatomical tracers into separate body part representations defined by multiunit microelectrode mapping in area 1. The pattern of labeled cells in the cortex indicated that area 1 has strong intrinsic connections within each body part representation and has inputs from somatotopically matched regions of areas 3b, 3a, 2 and 5...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480507/pain-experience-is-somatotopically-organized-and-overlaps-with-pain-anticipation-in-the-human-cerebellum
#15
F H S Michelle Welman, Albertine E Smit, Joost L M Jongen, Dick Tibboel, Jos N van der Geest, Jan C Holstege
Many fMRI studies have shown activity in the cerebellum after peripheral nociceptive stimulation. We investigated whether the areas in the cerebellum that were activated after nociceptive thumb stimulation were separate from those after nociceptive toe stimulation. In an additional experiment, we investigated the same for the anticipation of a nociceptive stimulation on the thumb or toe. For his purpose, we used fMRI after an electrical stimulation of the thumb and toe in 19 adult healthy volunteers. Following nociceptive stimulation, different areas were activated by stimulation on the thumb (lobule VI ipsilaterally and Crus II mainly contralaterally) and toe (lobules VIII-IX and IV-V bilaterally and lobule VI contralaterally), i...
February 26, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386099/dcc-is-required-for-the-development-of-nociceptive-topognosis-in-mice-and-humans
#16
Ronan V da Silva, Helge C Johannssen, Matthias T Wyss, R Brian Roome, Farin B Bourojeni, Nicolas Stifani, Ashley P L Marsh, Monique M Ryan, Paul J Lockhart, Richard J Leventer, Linda J Richards, Bernard Rosenblatt, Myriam Srour, Bruno Weber, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Artur Kania
Avoidance of environmental dangers depends on nociceptive topognosis, or the ability to localize painful stimuli. This is proposed to rely on somatotopic maps arising from topographically organized point-to-point connections between the body surface and the CNS. To determine the role of topographic organization of spinal ascending projections in nociceptive topognosis, we generated a conditional knockout mouse lacking expression of the netrin1 receptor DCC in the spinal cord. These mice have an increased number of ipsilateral spinothalamic connections and exhibit aberrant activation of the somatosensory cortex in response to unilateral stimulation...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376095/massive-cortical-reorganization-is-reversible-following-bilateral-transplants-of-the-hands-evidence-from-the-first-successful-bilateral-pediatric-hand-transplant-patient
#17
William Gaetz, Sudha K Kessler, Tim P L Roberts, Jeffrey I Berman, Todd J Levy, Michelle Hsia, Deborah Humpl, Erin S Schwartz, Sandra Amaral, Ben Chang, Lawrence Scott Levin
In this repeated measures case study, we show that sensory deafferentation after limb amputation leads to changes in cortical somatotopic maps which are reversible after restoration of sensory input. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we observed in a child with bilateral hand transplants large-scale shifts in somatosensory lip cortical representation from anatomic hand area to anatomic face region. After recovery of tactile sensation in the digits, responses to finger stimulation were localized to orthotopic sensory cortex, but with atypical electrophysiologic features (amplitude and frequencies)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353446/disentangling-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-of-the-fingers-limitations-and-clinical-potential
#18
Konstantina Kalogianni, Andreas Daffertshofer, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten, Jan C de Munck
In searching for clinical biomarkers of the somatosensory function, we studied reproducibility of somatosensory potentials (SEP) evoked by finger stimulation in healthy subjects. SEPs induced by electrical stimulation and especially after median nerve stimulation is a method widely used in the literature. It is unclear, however, if the EEG recordings after finger stimulation are reproducible within the same subject. We tested in five healthy subjects the consistency and reproducibility of responses through bootstrapping as well as test-retest recordings...
May 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335352/discrete-modules-and-mesoscale-functional-circuits-for-thermal-nociception-within-primate-s1-cortex
#19
Pai-Feng Yang, Ruiqi Wu, Tung-Lin Wu, Zhaoyue Shi, Li Min Chen
This study addresses one long-standing question of whether functional separations are preserved for somatosensory modalities of touch, heat, and cold nociception within primate primary somatosensory (S1) cortex. This information is critical for understanding how the nature of pain is represented in the primate brain. Using a combination of submillimeter-resolution fMRI and microelectrode local field potential (LFP) and spike recordings, we identified spatially segregated cortical zones for processing touch and nociceptive heat and cold stimuli in somatotopically appropriate areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2 of S1 in male monkeys...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#20
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats before and after selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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