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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168279/positive-and-negative-somatotopic-bold-responses-in-contralateral-versus-ipsilateral-penfield-homunculus
#1
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-to-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#2
D Spampinato, H J Block, P Celnik
: One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to- cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered to the cerebellum prior to a test pulse over motor cortex...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123014/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#3
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
: Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intraspecies communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle, but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095365/barreloid-borders-and-neuronal-activity-shape-panglial-gap-junction-coupled-networks-in-the-mouse-thalamus
#4
Lena Claus, Camille Philippot, Stephanie Griemsmann, Aline Timmermann, Ronald Jabs, Christian Henneberger, Helmut Kettenmann, Christian Steinhäuser
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulation by neuronal activity has not been studied. We have developed a method to visualize thalamic barreloid fields in acute slices. Combining electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and electroporation in transgenic mice with cell type-specific fluorescence labeling, we provide the first structure-function analyses of barreloidal glial gap junction networks...
November 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073044/influence-of-the-body-schema-on-mirror-touch-synesthesia
#5
Jared Medina, Carrie DePasquale
Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand...
December 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063170/assessing-mnis-7ionis-and-international-neurologists-proficiency-in-an-fap-trial
#6
Peter J Dyck, John C Kincaid, P James B Dyck, Vinay Chaudhry, Namita A Goyal, Christina Alves, Hayet Salhi, Janice F Wiesman, Celine Labeyrie, Jessica Robinson-Papp, Márcio Cardoso, Matilde Laura, Katherine Ruzhansky, Andrea Cortese, Thomas H Brannagan, Julie Khoury, Sami Khella, Márcia Waddington-Cruz, João Ferreira, Annabel K Wang, Marcus V Pinto, Samar S Ayache, Merrill D Benson, John L Berk, Teresa Coelho, Michael Polydefkis, Peter Gorevic, David H Adams, Violaine Plante-Bordeneuve, Carol Whelan, Giampaolo Merlini, Stephen Heitner, Brian M Drachman, Isabel Conceição, Christopher J Klein, Morie A Gertz, Elizabeth J Ackermann, Steven G Hughes, Michelle L Mauermann, Rito Bergemann, Karen A Lodermeier, Jenny L Davies, Rickey E Carter, William J Litchy
INTRODUCTION: Polyneuropathy signs (Neuropathy Impairment Score, NIS), neurophysiologic tests (m+7Ionis ), disability, and health scores were assessed in baseline evaluations of 100 patients entered into an oligonucleotide familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) trial. METHODS: We assessed: 1) Proficiency of grading neurologic signs and correlation with neurophysiologic tests, and 2) clinometric performance of mNIS+7Ionis and its subscores and correlation with disability and health scores...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035900/perceptually-relevant-remapping-of-human-somatotopy-in-24-hours
#7
James Kolasinski, Tamar R Makin, John P Logan, Saad Jbabdi, Stuart Clare, Charlotte J Stagg, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018182/mapping-horizontal-spread-of-activity-in-monkey-motor-cortex-using-single-pulse-microstimulation
#8
Yaoyao Hao, Alexa Riehle, Thomas G Brochier
Anatomical studies have demonstrated that distant cortical points are interconnected through long range axon collaterals of pyramidal cells. However, the functional properties of these intrinsic synaptic connections, especially their relationship with the cortical representations of body movements, have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we used multielectrode arrays chronically implanted in the motor cortex of two rhesus monkeys to analyze the effects of single-pulse intracortical microstimulation (sICMS) applied at one electrode on the neuronal activities recorded at all other electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927699/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#9
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
: Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intra-species communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926827/decoding-hand-gestures-from-primary-somatosensory-cortex-using-high-density-ecog
#10
Mariana P Branco, Zachary V Freudenburg, Erik J Aarnoutse, Martin G Bleichner, Mariska J Vansteensel, Nick F Ramsey
Electrocorticography (ECoG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as a way to restore and replace motor function or communication in severely paralyzed people. To date, most motor-based BCIs have either focused on the sensorimotor cortex as a whole or on the primary motor cortex (M1) as a source of signals for this purpose. Still, target areas for BCI are not confined to M1, and more brain regions may provide suitable BCI control signals. A logical candidate is the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which not only shares similar somatotopic organization to M1, but also has been suggested to have a role beyond sensory feedback during movement execution...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862327/an-order-in-lewy-body-disorders-retrograde-degeneration-in-hyperbranching-axons-as-a-fundamental-structural-template-accounting-for-focal-multifocal-lewy-body-disease
#11
REVIEW
Toshiki Uchihara 内原 俊記
Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837188/capsular-stroke-modeling-based-on-somatotopic-mapping-of-motor-fibers
#12
Hanlim Song, Wonbin Jung, Eulgi Lee, Ji-Young Park, Min Sun Kim, Min-Cheol Lee, Hyoung-Ihl Kim
Recently, several capsular stroke models have been reported with different targets of destruction. This study was performed to establish an accurate internal capsule (IC) target for capsular stroke modeling in rats. We injected adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV)-CaMKII-EYFP into forelimb motor cortex and AAV-CaMKII-mCherry into hindlimb motor cortex (n = 9) to anterogradely trace the pyramidal fibers and map their somatotopic distribution in the IC. On the basis of the neural tracing results, we created photothrombotic infarct lesions in rat forelimb and hindlimb motor fiber (FMF and HMF) areas of the IC (n = 29) and assessed motor behavior using a forelimb-use asymmetry test, a foot-fault test, and a single-pellet reaching test...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816777/concurrent-use-of-somatotopic-and-external-reference-frames-in-a-tactile-mislocalization-task
#13
Luigi Tamè, Anja Wühle, Caroline D Petri, Francesco Pavani, Christoph Braun
Localizing tactile stimuli on our body requires sensory information to be represented in multiple frames of reference along the sensory pathways. These reference frames include the representation of sensory information in skin coordinates, in which the spatial relationship of skin regions is maintained. The organization of the primary somatosensory cortex matches such somatotopic reference frame. In contrast, higher-order representations are based on external coordinates, in which body posture and gaze direction are taken into account in order to localise touch in other meaningful ways according to task demands...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777015/high-resolution-fmri-investigations-of-the-fingertip-somatotopy-and-variability-in-ba3b-and-ba1-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#14
Jörg Peter Pfannmöller, Marvin Greiner, Mukund Balasubramanian, Martin Lotze
The fingertip somatotopy in BA1 and BA3b of monkeys exhibits characteristic differences with a more discrete separation of the body parts in BA3b and a continuous orientation column-like structure in BA1. We present evidence for similar differences in the human somatotopy using BOLD fMRI for the investigations. Though the variability between the individual maps was large, we found a group-wide somatotopic representation in BA3b and BA1. The variability due to anatomical differences was small in our sample. This was demonstrated by comparing exact shortest distances in the individual brains and after nonlinear normalization to the group space template, for the removal of the individual anatomical variability...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738096/intracortical-microstimulation-of-human-somatosensory-cortex
#15
Sharlene N Flesher, Jennifer L Collinger, Stephen T Foldes, Jeffrey M Weiss, John E Downey, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Sliman J Bensmaia, Andrew B Schwartz, Michael L Boninger, Robert A Gaunt
Intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex offers the potential for creating a sensory neuroprosthesis to restore tactile sensation. Whereas animal studies have suggested that both cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts can be evoked using this approach, the perceptual quality of the stimuli cannot be measured in these experiments. We show that microstimulation within the hand area of the somatosensory cortex of a person with long-term spinal cord injury evokes tactile sensations perceived as originating from locations on the hand and that cortical stimulation sites are organized according to expected somatotopic principles...
October 19, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708755/the-anne-boleyn-illusion-is-a-six-fingered-salute-to-sensory-remapping
#16
Roger Newport, Dominic Y Wong, Ellen M Howard, Eden Silver
The Anne Boleyn Illusion exploits the somatotopic representation of touch to create the illusion of an extra digit and demonstrates the instantaneous remapping of relative touch location into body-based coordinates through visuo-tactile integration. Performed successfully on thousands, it is also a simple demonstration of the flexibility of body representations for use at public events, in schools or in the home and can be implemented anywhere by anyone with a mirror and some degree of bimanual coordination...
September 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683851/posterior-interosseous-neuropathy-supinator-syndrome-vs-fascicular-radial-neuropathy
#17
Philipp Bäumer, Henrich Kele, Annie Xia, Markus Weiler, Daniel Schwarz, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0...
November 1, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641493/precise-somatotopic-thalamocortical-axon-guidance-depends-on-lpa-mediated-prg-2-radixin-signaling
#18
Jin Cheng, Sadhna Sahani, Torben Johann Hausrat, Jenq-Wei Yang, Haichao Ji, Nikolai Schmarowski, Heiko Endle, Xinfeng Liu, Yunbo Li, Rahel Böttche, Konstantin Radyushkin, Hans M Maric, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Thorsten Trimbuch, Olaf Ninnemann, Jisen Huai, Wei Fan, Barbara Visentin, Roger Sabbadini, Kristian Strømgaard, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann, Matthias Kneussel, Robert Nitsch, Johannes Vogt
Precise connection of thalamic barreloids with their corresponding cortical barrels is critical for processing of vibrissal sensory information. Here, we show that PRG-2, a phospholipid-interacting molecule, is important for thalamocortical axon guidance. Developing thalamocortical fibers both in PRG-2 full knockout (KO) and in thalamus-specific KO mice prematurely entered the cortical plate, eventually innervating non-corresponding barrels. This misrouting relied on lost axonal sensitivity toward lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which failed to repel PRG-2-deficient thalamocortical fibers...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620977/intracortical-network-effects-preserve-thalamocortical-input-efficacy-in-a-cortex-without-layers
#19
Julien Guy, Alexandra Sachkova, Martin Möck, Mirko Witte, Robin J Wagener, Jochen F Staiger
Layer IV (LIV) of the rodent somatosensory cortex contains the somatotopic barrel field. Barrels receive much of the sensory input to the cortex through innervation by thalamocortical axons from the ventral posteromedial nucleus. In the reeler mouse, the absence of cortical layers results in the formation of mispositioned barrel-equivalent clusters of LIV fated neurons. Although functional imaging suggests that sensory input activates the cortex, little is known about the cellular and synaptic properties of identified excitatory neurons of the reeler cortex...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574305/precision-mapping-of-the-vibrissa-representation-within-murine-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#20
Per M Knutsen, Celine Mateo, David Kleinfeld
The ability to form an accurate map of sensory input to the brain is an essential aspect of interpreting functional brain signals. Here, we consider the somatotopic map of vibrissa-based touch in the primary somatosensory (vS1) cortex of mice. The vibrissae are represented by a Manhattan-like grid of columnar structures that are separated by inter-digitating septa. The development, dynamics and plasticity of this organization is widely used as a model system. Yet, the exact anatomical position of this organization within the vS1 cortex varies between individual mice...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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