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gene-diet interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474466/preclinical-pharmacology-of-azd9977-a-novel-mineralocorticoid-receptor-modulator-separating-organ-protection-from-effects-on-electrolyte-excretion
#1
Krister Bamberg, Ulrika Johansson, Karl Edman, Lena William-Olsson, Susanna Myhre, Anders Gunnarsson, Stefan Geschwindner, Anna Aagaard, Anna Björnson Granqvist, Frédéric Jaisser, Yufeng Huang, Kenneth L Granberg, Rasmus Jansson-Löfmark, Judith Hartleib-Geschwindner
Excess mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation promotes target organ dysfunction, vascular injury and fibrosis. MR antagonists like eplerenone are used for treating heart failure, but their use is limited due to the compound class-inherent hyperkalemia risk. Here we present evidence that AZD9977, a first-in-class MR modulator shows cardio-renal protection despite a mechanism-based reduced liability to cause hyperkalemia. AZD9977 in vitro potency and binding mode to MR were characterized using reporter gene, binding, cofactor recruitment assays and X-ray crystallopgraphy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471068/weight-loss-decreases-self-reported-appetite-and-alters-food-preferences-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-observational-data-from-the-diogenes-study
#2
Charlotte Andriessen, Pia Christensen, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Marleen A van Baak, Angeliki Papadaki, Marie Kunesova, Susan Jebb, John Blundell, Clare Lawton, Anne Raben
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD)...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471014/epigenomic-drugs-and-the-germline-collateral-damage-in-the-home-of-heritability
#3
REVIEW
Patrick S Western
The testis and ovary provide specialised environments that nurture germ cells and facilitate their maturation, culminating in the production of mature gametes that can found the following generation. The sperm and egg not only transmit genetic information, but also epigenetic modifications that affect the development and physiology of offspring. Importantly, the epigenetic information contained in mature sperm and oocytes can be influenced by a range of environmental factors, such as diet, chemicals and drugs...
February 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466788/metformin-induced-changes-of-the-coding-transcriptome-and-non-coding-rnas-in-the-livers-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-mice
#4
Jun Guo, Yuan Zhou, Yafen Cheng, Weiwei Fang, Gang Hu, Jie Wei, Yajun Lin, Yong Man, Lixin Guo, Mingxiao Sun, Qinghua Cui, Jian Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that changes in non-coding mRNA play a key role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin is now recommended and effective for the treatment of NAFLD. We hope the current analyses of the non-coding mRNA transcriptome will provide a better presentation of the potential roles of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that underlie NAFLD and metformin intervention. METHODS: The present study mainly analysed changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs after the application of a five-week metformin intervention...
February 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466054/the-role-of-rpgrip1l-a-component-of-the-primary-cilium-in-adipocyte-development-and-function
#5
Jayne F Martin Carli, Charles A LeDuc, Yiying Zhang, George Stratigopoulos, Rudolph L Leibel
Genetic variants within the FTO (α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase) gene have been strongly associated with a modest increase in adiposity as a result of increased food intake. These risk alleles are associated with decreased expression of both FTO and neighboring RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1 like). RPGRIP1L encodes a protein that is critical to the function of the primary cilium, which conveys extracellular information to the cell. Rpgrip1l+/- mice exhibit increased adiposity, in part, as a result of hyperphagia...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465311/p32-regulates-er-stress-and-lipid-homeostasis-by-down-regulating-gcs1-expression
#6
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development of many metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. p32 is a multicompartmental protein involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and glucose oxidation. p32 ablation is associated with resistance to age-associated and diet-induced obesity through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. Here, we show that p32 promotes lipid biosynthesis by modulating fatty acid-induced ER stress...
February 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464885/effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-liver-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity
#7
Jessica Sacks, Anny Mulya, Ciaran E Fealy, Hazel Huang, John D Mosinski, Mangesh R Pagadala, Hideharu Shimizu, Esam Batayyah, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, John P Kirwan
Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449530/the-type-2-diabetes-associated-hmg20a-gene-is-mandatory-for-islet-beta-cell-functional-maturity
#8
Jose M Mellado-Gil, Esther Fuente-Martín, Petra I Lorenzo, Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Livia López-Noriega, Alejandro Martín-Montalvo, Irene de Gracia Herrera Gómez, Maria Ceballos-Chávez, Laura Gómez-Jaramillo, Antonio Campos-Caro, Silvana Y Romero-Zerbo, Júlia Rodríguez-Comas, Joan-Marc Servitja, Gemma Rojo-Martinez, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Bernat Soria, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francisco J Bérmudez-Silva, Jose C Reyes, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Benoit R Gauthier
HMG20A (also known as iBRAF) is a chromatin factor involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. Recently small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HMG20A gene have been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) yet neither expression nor function of this T2DM candidate gene in islets is known. Herein we demonstrate that HMG20A is expressed in both human and mouse islets and that levels are decreased in islets of T2DM donors as compared to islets from non-diabetic donors. In vitro studies in mouse and human islets demonstrated that glucose transiently increased HMG20A transcript levels, a result also observed in islets of gestating mice...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449334/rgc-32-response-gene-to-complement-32-protein-deficiency-protects-endothelial-cells-from-inflammation-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#9
Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445914/interaction-between-dietary-acrylamide-intake-and-genetic-variants-for-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-risk
#10
Janneke G F Hogervorst, Piet A van den Brandt, Roger W L Godschalk, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Leo J Schouten
PURPOSE: The association between dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk in epidemiological studies is inconsistent. By analyzing gene-acrylamide interactions for ER+ breast cancer risk, we aimed to clarify the role of acrylamide intake in ER+ breast cancer etiology. METHODS: The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55-69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was sampled from the total cohort for a case-cohort analysis approach...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439997/improving-adherence-to-healthy-dietary-patterns-genetic-risk-and-long-term-weight-gain-gene-diet-interaction-analysis-in-two-prospective-cohort-studies
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435763/functions-of-vitamin-d-in-bone
#12
REVIEW
D Goltzman
Vitamin D, synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the diet, undergoes multi-step enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], followed by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), to modulate target gene expression. Loss-of function mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes regulating these processes, or in the VDR, result in human diseases, which have demonstrated the paramount role of 1,25(OH) 2 D in mineral and skeletal homeostasis. Mouse genetics has been used to create disease phenocopies which have produced considerable insight into the mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D regulation of mineral and skeletal metabolism...
February 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428905/research-progress-of-the-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-in-primates
#13
Ping Feng, Rui-Jian Luo
Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425660/cranberry-anthocyanin-as-an-herbal-medicine-lowers-plasma-cholesterol-by-increasing-excretion-of-fecal-sterols
#14
Lijun Wang, Hanyue Zhu, Yimin Zhao, Rui Jiao, Lin Lei, Jingnan Chen, Xiaobo Wang, Zhengnan Zhang, Yu Huang, Tiejie Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Interest in using herbal medicines to treat the hypercholesterolemia is increasing. Cranberry extract could decrease plasma cholesterol, however, the active ingredients and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was to test the hypothesis that cranberry anthocyanins (CrA) were at least one of the active ingredients responsible for the cholesterol-lowering activity of cranberry fruits via a mechanism of increasing fecal sterol excretion...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424957/hnf1a-variant-energy-reduced-diets-and-insulin-resistance-improvement-during-weight-loss-the-pounds-lost-and-direct-trials
#15
Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Kerry Ivey, Ronen Durst, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Meir J Stampfer, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Iris Shai, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) gene. A common variant rs7957197 at HNF1A locus for type 2 diabetes was identified. Dietary macronutrients regulate the HNF1A gene expression. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether weight loss diets varying in macronutrients modulate the genetic effect of HNF1A rs7957197 on weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance...
February 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414690/rna-seq-analysis-of-the-transcriptome-of-the-liver-of-cynomolgus-monkeys-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Xinyu Li, Zijing Lin, Xiaorong Zhan, Jie Gao, Lijie Sun, Yan Cao, Hui Qiu
Genetic and environmental factors such as high-fat diet are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cynomolgus monkey shares similar genetic makeup, tissue structures, physiology and metabolic function to human. This study aimed to establish T2DM model in cynomolgus monkey and compare expression profiles of hepatic genes and their associated pathways in normal cynomolgus monkeys and those with T2DM. We employed RNA-seq technique and identified 1451 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0...
February 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408497/a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-turmeric-curcumin-represses-the-expression-of-cholesterol-biosynthetic-genes-and-synergizes-with-simvastatin
#17
Linda Saxe Einbond, Fabiana Manservisi, Hsan-Au Wu, Michael Balick, Victoria Antonetti, Andrea Vornoli, Ilaria Menghetti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Stephen Redenti, Alan Roter
The spice turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has a long history of use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The active component curcumin induces a variety of diverse biological effects and forms a series of degradation and metabolic products in vivo. Our hypothesis is that the field of toxicogenomics provides tools that can be used to characterize the mode of action and toxicity of turmeric components and to predict turmeric-drug interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4 days with turmeric root containing about 3% curcumin (comparable to what people consume in the fresh or dried root) or a fraction of turmeric enriched for curcumin (∼74%) and liver tissue collected for gene expression analysis...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402949/interaction-of-genotype-and-diet-on-small-intestine-microbiota-of-japanese-quail-fed-a-cholesterol-enriched-diet
#18
Shasha Liu, Hein Min Tun, Frederick C Leung, Darin C Bennett, Hongfu Zhang, Kimberly M Cheng
Our previous study has shown that genetic selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet-induced atherosclerosis has affected the Japanese quail's cecal environment to accommodate distinctly different cecal microbiota. In this study, we fed the Atherosclerosis-resistant (RES) and -susceptable (SUS) quail a regular and a cholesterol enriched diet to examine the interaction of host genotype and diet on the diversity, composition, and metabolic functions of the duodenal and ileal microbiota with relations to atherosclerosis development...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401298/the-effects-of-nutrient-restriction-on-mrna-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-interferon-tau-and-pregnancy-specific-protein-b-during-the-establishment-of-pregnancy-in-beef-heifers
#19
K J McLean, M S Crouse, M R Crosswhite, N Negrin Pereira, C R Dahlen, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, A K Ward, B W Neville, J S Caton
We hypothesize that syncytin-Rum1, bovine endogenous retrovirus-K1 (BERV-K1), pregnancy specific protein-B (PSP-B), and interferon-τ (IFN-τ) will be influenced by maternal nutrient restriction and be differentially expressed during key stages (d 16, 34, and 50) of the establishment of gestation when fed to meet industry standards. Commercial crossbred heifers (n = 49) were maintained on a total mixed ration and supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles. All heifers were subject to 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization protocol...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399976/combined-analysis-of-stress-and-ecm-related-genes-in-their-effect-on-weight-regain
#20
Nadia J T Roumans, Ping Wang, Roel G Vink, Marleen A van Baak, Edwin C M Mariman
OBJECTIVE: During weight loss, the volume of adipocytes decreases, leading to stress because of the misfit between the cell contents and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). This stress can be resolved by remodeling the ECM or the restorage of triglycerides within the adipocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of a connection between stress-related and ECM-related genes that is associated with weight regain. METHODS: Thirty-one participants with overweight or obesity followed a 5-week very-low-calorie diet (500 kcal/d) with a subsequent 4-week weight-stable diet (WS), and then an uncontrolled 9-month follow-up...
February 5, 2018: Obesity
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