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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217655/regulation-of-lipolytic-response-and-energy-balance-by-melanocortin-2-receptor-accessory-protein-mrap-in-adipocytes
#1
Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Latoya E Campbell, Elena A De Filippis, Jun Liu
MRAP is highly expressed in adrenal gland and adipose tissue. In adrenal cells, MRAP is essential for ACTH-induced activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), leading to glucocorticoid production and secretion. Although ACTH was known to stimulate PKA-dependent lipolysis, the functional involvement of MRAP in adipocyte metabolism remains incompletely defined. Herein, we found that knockdown or overexpression of MRAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced or increased ACTH-induced lipolysis, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215590/joint-effects-of-pon1-polymorphisms-and-vegetable-intake-on-ischemic-stroke-a-family-based-case-control-study
#2
Juan Juan, Xia Jiang, Xun Tang, Yiqun Wu, Kexin Sun, Xiao Xiang, Yaohua Tian, Tao Wu, Qi Sun, Peter Kraft, Yonghua Hu
Paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) polymorphisms and dietary vegetable and fruit intake are both established determinants of ischemic stroke (IS). However, little is known about whether these factors jointly influence the risk of IS. We analyzed the main effects of PON1, as well as the interactions between PON1 and dietary vegetable or fruit intake with the risk of total IS and its subtypes in a family-based case-control study conducted among 2158 Chinese participants (1007 IS cases and 1151 IS-free controls) from 918 families...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212730/hierarchical-social-networks-shape-gut-microbial-composition-in-wild-verreaux-s-sifaka
#3
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211809/down-regulation-of-the-klf5-c-myc-interaction-due-to-klf5-phosphorylation-mediates-resveratrol-repressing-the-caveolin-1-transcription-through-the-pi3k-pkd1-akt-pathway
#4
Hui Yang, Qiuxia Chen, Fangyun Sun, Nana Zhao, Lirong Wen, Lin Li, Gai Ran
Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been reported to produce effect on genes transcription in lipid metabolism. In this study, we aim to explore the novel mechanisms of RSV on the regulation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) transcription. Via body weight, blood glucose, serum lipid, and liver pathology detection, we found that RSV decreased body weight, blood glucose and lipid accumulation in rats fed high-fat diet. Based on co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and western blotting assay, we found that RSV up-regulated klf5 phosphorylation and decreased the interaction of klf5 with c-Myc, which were accompanied by down-regulation of Cav-1 expression in livers of rats fed with high-fat diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202841/the-response-of-canine-faecal-microbiota-to-increased-dietary-protein-is-influenced-by-body-condition
#5
Jia Xu, Adronie Verbrugghe, Marta Lourenço, An Cools, Daisy J X Liu, Tom Van de Wiele, Massimo Marzorati, Venessa Eeckhaut, Filip Van Immerseel, Lynn Vanhaecke, Miguel Campos, Myriam Hesta
BACKGROUND: High protein diets shift the faecal microbiota into a more unfavourable composition in obese humans. In lean dogs, higher protein consumption is accompanied with increased production of putrefactive fermentation products, whereas obese dogs have a different gut microbiota compared to lean dogs. Still, the impact of high dietary protein on gut microbiota in obese dogs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate faecal microbial changes in lean and obese dogs in response to two different levels of dietary protein...
December 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194404/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-tocopherol-biosynthesis-in-plants-an-overview-of-key-genes-functions-and-breeding-of-vitamin-e-improved-crops
#6
REVIEW
Steffi Fritsche, Xingxing Wang, Christian Jung
Tocopherols, together with tocotrienols and plastochromanols belong to a group of lipophilic compounds also called tocochromanols or vitamin E. Considered to be one of the most powerful antioxidants, tocochromanols are solely synthesized by photosynthetic organisms including plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and, therefore, are an essential component in the human diet. Tocochromanols potent antioxidative properties are due to their ability to interact with polyunsaturated acyl groups and scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and quench reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus protecting fatty acids from lipid peroxidation...
December 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190422/structure-specific-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-plasma-cholesterol-concentration-in-male-syrian-hamsters
#7
Yimin Zhao, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Hanyue Zhu, Ning Liang, Zouyan He, Ka Ying Ma, Zhen-Yu Chen
Previous studies have shown that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are capable of decreasing plasma cholesterol. However, the relative plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of individual SCFAs and the underlying mechanisms by which SCFAs decrease plasma cholesterol remain largely unknown. The present study was to compare plasma cholesterol-lowering potency of four common SCFAs with 2-5 carbons, and to investigate their interactions with gene expressions of key regulatory factors involved in cholesterol metabolism...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188860/a-keto-mediet-approach-with-coconut-substitution-and-exercise-may-delay-the-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-middle-aged
#8
B C Perng, M Chen, J C Perng, P Jambazian
BACKGROUND: Coconut oil has been widely used to improve health because there is much information available by word of mouth, in books, and on the internet. However, researchers still continue to search for the best diets to improve the quality of life, especially for people with cognitive decline. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to develop a novel dietary approach, the Keto-Mediet, which may help prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Evidence gained through literature review from 1982 to 2015 on gene-by-diet interaction and lipid and glucose metabolism in the brains of Alzheimer's patients is converted into the new Keto-Mediet approach...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170893/comparison-of-the-gut-microbiota-composition-between-wild-and-captive-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-hortulorum-from-feces-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#9
Yu Guan, Haitao Yang, Siyu Han, Limin Feng, Tianming Wang, Jianping Ge
The gut microbiota is characterized as a complex ecosystem that has effects on health and diseases of host with the interactions of many other factors together. Sika deer is the national level for the protection of wild animals in China. The available sequencing data of gut microbiota from feces of wild sika deer, especially for Cervus nippon hortulorum in Northeast China, are limited. Here, we characterized the gastrointestinal bacterial communities of wild (7 samples) and captive (12 samples) sika deer from feces, and compared their gut microbiota by analyzing the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing technology on the Illumina Hiseq platform...
November 23, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169396/apolipoprotein-e-gene-polymorphism-modifies-fasting-total-cholesterol-concentrations-in-response-to-replacement-of-dietary-saturated-with-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-in-adults-at-moderate-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#10
Israa M Shatwan, Michelle Weech, Kim G Jackson, Julie A Lovegrove, Karani S Vimaleswaran
BACKGROUND: Consumption of ≤10% total energy from fat as saturated fatty acids (SFA) is recommended for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the UK; however there is no clear guidance on the optimum replacement nutrient. Lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to modify the lipid responses to dietary fat interventions. Hence, we performed a retrospective analysis in 120 participants from the Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) study to investigate whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) SNPs modify the fasting lipid response to replacement of SFA with monounsaturated (MUFA) or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids...
November 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169169/effects-and-interactions-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-a-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-and-gender-on-adult-hypercholesterolemia-occurrence-in-offspring-rats
#11
Yongjian Qi, Hanwen Luo, Shuwei Hu, Yimeng Wu, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) could induce intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and susceptibility to adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring. This study aimed to analyse the effects and interactions of PEE, a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD) and gender on the occurrence of adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring rats. METHODS: Wistar female rats were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166409/post-weaning-high-fat-diet-results-in-growth-cartilage-lesions-in-young-male-rats
#12
Samuel S Haysom, Mark H Vickers, Lennex H Yu, Clare M Reynolds, Elwyn C Firth, Sue R McGlashan
To determine if a high-fat diet (HF) from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX) or cage only activity (SED) after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165098/effects-of-olive-oil-on-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-in-humans-implication-in-obesity-and-frailty
#13
Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Angela Polito, Ilaria Peluso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 are important mediators of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. The latter plays a central role in several obesity-related pathologies, such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Besides, these cytokines have been also implicated in geriatric and cancer-induced anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia and frailty. Potential interventions for both obesity and frailty include dietary advice and nutraceuticals...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162708/lactobacillus-acidophilus-metabolizes-dietary-plant-glucosides-and-externalizes-their-bioactive-phytochemicals
#14
Mia C Theilmann, Yong Jun Goh, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Todd R Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou, Maher Abou Hachem
Therapeutically active glycosylated phytochemicals are ubiquitous in the human diet. The human gut microbiota (HGM) modulates the bioactivities of these compounds, which consequently affect host physiology and microbiota composition. Despite a significant impact on human health, the key players and the underpinning mechanisms of this interplay remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus on mono- and diglucosyl dietary plant glycosides (PGs) possessing small aromatic aglycones...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155731/the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-a-versatile-in-vivo-model-to-study-host-microbe-interactions
#15
Luca Issi, Meredith Rioux, Reeta Rao
We demonstrate a method using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study microbial interaction. Microbes are introduced via the diet making the intestine the primary location for disease. The nematode intestine structurally and functionally mimics mammalian intestines and is transparent making it amenable to microscopic study of colonization. Here we show that pathogens can cause disease and death. We are able to identify microbial mutants that show altered virulence. Its conserved innate response to biotic stresses makes C...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152318/gut-microbiota-composition-may-relate-to-weight-loss-rate-in-obese-pet-dogs
#16
Ida N Kieler, Shamrulazhar Shamzir Kamal, Anne D Vitger, Dennis S Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Charlotte R Bjornvad
Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149845/early-nutritional-programming-affects-liver-transcriptome-in-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#17
L M Vera, C Metochis, J F Taylor, M Clarkson, K H Skjærven, H Migaud, D R Tocher
BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149221/dietary-protein-sources-differentially-affect-microbiota-mtor-activity-and-transcription-of-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-the-small-intestine
#18
Soumya K Kar, Alfons J M Jansman, Nirupama Benis, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Dirkjan Schokker, Leo Kruijt, Ellen H Stolte, Johanna J Taverne-Thiele, Mari A Smits, Jerry M Wells
Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146412/skeletal-muscle-overexpression-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-mice-coupled-with-voluntary-exercise-augments-exercise-endurance
#19
Sheila R Costford, Bram Brouwers, Meghan E Hopf, Lauren M Sparks, Mauro Dispagna, Ana P Gomes, Heather H Cornnell, Chris Petucci, Peter Phelan, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Glenn A Walter, Timothy F Osborne, David A Sinclair, Randall L Mynatt, Julio E Ayala, Stephen J Gardell, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141035/influence-of-boron-supplementation-on-performance-immunity-and-antioxidant-status-of-lambs-fed-diets-with-or-without-adequate-level-of-calcium
#20
T Vijay Bhasker, N K S Gowda, D T Pal, S Karthik Bhat, P Krishnamoorthy, S Mondal, A K Pattanaik, A K Verma
Little is known about biological significance of effects of dietary Boron (B) and Calcium (Ca) interaction on health and production of farm animals. This is a preliminary investigation to evaluate the effects of B supplementation in lambs fed diets with (normal) or without adequate (low) levels of Ca. Twenty-four crossbred ram lambs were randomly distributed into four groups with six animals each in a 2x2 factorial design namely, normal-Ca diet (NCa) and low-Ca diet (LCa) fed without or with 40 ppm B (NCaB-40 and LCaB-40)...
2017: PloS One
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