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3D Anatomy

Jagdish C Mohan, Madhu Shukla, Vishwas Mohan, Arvind Sethi
BACKGROUND: Congenital anomaly wherein the mitral valve leaflets are directly attached to the papillary muscle(s) (PM) with or without short under-developed chords is rarely reported in adults. Patients with two PMs with an intervening fibrous bridge have also been included under this head in previous studies. METHODS: Echocardiography enables accurate evaluation of the morphology and function of valve leaflets, chordae tendineae, and PM. This report describes a series of six patients aged 56-84 years who had abnormal mitral valve with a large solitary and anomalously inserted PM seen over a period of 3 years...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Abhijeet B Shelke, Rajeev Menon, Anuj Kapadiya, Sachin Yalagudri, Daljeet Saggu, Sandeep Nair, C Narasimhan
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is a therapeutic alternative to surgical myectomy in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). However, the anatomical variability of the septal branch, risk of complete heart block, and late onset ventricular arrhythmias are limitations to its therapeutic usage. There is recent interest in the use of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) as a therapeutic option in HOCM. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of RFCA in the treatment of symptomatic HOCM...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Juan Martino, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corrivetti, Schahraed Bouazza, Damien Bresson, Hugues Duffau, Sebastien Froelich
BACKGROUND: Advances in the oncological and functional results of insular surgery have been reported recently. Such successes have been made possible by the advent of the transopercular approach under awake monitoring and by the improved anatomical and functional knowledge of the white matter pathways surrounding the insula. Nonetheless, given the rarity of insular tumors, it is difficult to get familiar with the complex 3D anatomy of the different neuronal and vascular structures encountered during a transopercular insular resection...
October 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Barbara Fenesi, Chelsea Mackinnon, Lucia Cheng, Joseph A Kim, Bruce C Wainman
The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens...
October 20, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Eric L Vu, Craig G Rusin, Dan J Penny, Kathy K Kibler, Ronald Blaine Easley, Brendan Smith, Dean Andropoulos, Ken Brady
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated ST-segment monitoring to detect clinical decompensation in infants with single ventricle anatomy. We proposed a signal processing algorithm for ST-segment instability and hypothesized that instability is associated with cardiopulmonary arrests. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital 21-bed cardiovascular ICU and 36-bed step-down unit. PATIENTS: Twenty single ventricle infants who received stage 1 palliation surgery between January 2013 and January 2014...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Abib Agbetoba, Amber Luong, Jin Keat Siow, Brent Senior, Claudio Callejas, Kornel Szczygielski, Martin J Citardi
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery represents a cornerstone in the professional development of otorhinolaryngology trainees. Mastery of these surgical skills requires an understanding of paranasal sinus and skull-base anatomy. The frontal sinus is associated with a wide range of variation and complex anatomical configuration, and thus represents an important challenge for all trainees performing endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS: Forty-five otorhinolaryngology trainees and 20 medical school students from 5 academic institutions were enrolled and randomized into 1 of 2 groups...
October 18, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Siran Wang, Chiara E Ghezzi, Rachel Gomes, Rachel E Pollard, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Katherine R Kavanagh, Valerie Cote, Yvonne Tsui, Simon Kudernatsch, Donald R Peterson, Tulio A Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Simulation to acquire and test technical skills is an essential component of medical education and residency training in both surgical and nonsurgical specialties. High-quality simulation education relies on the availability, accessibility, and reliability of models. The objective of this work was to describe a practical pediatric laryngeal model for use in otolaryngology residency training. Ideally, this model would be low-cost, have tactile properties resembling human tissue, and be reliably reproducible...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Elena Esra Foditsch, Reinhold Zimmermann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a controlled approach for sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to improve both nerve targeting and tined lead placement, for which a new computed tomography (CT)-guided implantation technique was analyzed in minipigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included five female, adult Göttingen minipigs. In deep sedoanalgesia, the minipigs were placed in an extended prone position. Commercially available SNM materials were used (needle, introduction sheath, and quadripolar tined lead electrode)...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Oui Sik Yoo, Yong Seuk Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Jae Hong Park, Jae Won Kim, Doo Hoon Sun
BACKGROUND: After open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), the proximal fragment resembles the anatomy of the proximal tibia that is aligned in the anterior-posterior direction and the distal fragment resembles the anatomy of the mid shaft that is aligned in the proximal-distal direction. In addition, the medial portion of the proximal fragment becomes aligned medially and the medial portion of the distal fragment, laterally, depending on the magnitude of the posterior opening gap. Therefore, there would be a mismatch between the post-correction bony surface and the previous pre-contoured plate geometry...
October 10, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Benjamin Fabian, Katharina Schneeberg, Rolf Georg Beutel
Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures...
October 6, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
N-X Bonne, F Dubrulle, M Risoud, C Vincent
The surgical management of skull base lesions is difficult due to the complex anatomy of the region and the intimate relations between the lesion and adjacent nerves and vessels. Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in skull base surgery to ensure an optimal functional prognosis. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction facilitates surgical planning by visualizing the anatomical relations of the lesions in all planes (arteries, veins, nerves, inner ear) and simulation of the surgical approach in the operating position...
October 5, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Larry Cai, Benjamin M Yeh, Antonio C Westphalen, John Roberts, Zhen J Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the addition of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3D T1-weighted MR cholangiography (T1w-MRC) to 3D T2-weighted MRC (T2w-MRC) improves the confidence and diagnostic accuracy of biliary anatomy in living liver donors. METHODS: Two abdominal radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed pre-operative MR studies in 58 consecutive living liver donors. The second-order bile duct visualization on T1w- and T2w-MRC images was rated on a 4-point scale...
October 7, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Eric MacDonald, Ryan Wicker
Layer-by-layer deposition of materials to manufacture parts-better known as three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing-has been flourishing as a fabrication process in the past several years and now can create complex geometries for use as models, assembly fixtures, and production molds. Increasing interest has focused on the use of this technology for direct manufacturing of production parts; however, it remains generally limited to single-material fabrication, which can limit the end-use functionality of the fabricated structures...
September 30, 2016: Science
Aldo Bonso, Mauro Fantinel, Giovanna Scalchi, Sabrina Ferrara, Stefano Indiani, Federico Calore, Claudia Licciardello
AIMS: The effectiveness of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation relies on detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs). It is common to combine computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) with imaging by electroanatomical (EA) mapping systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of LA anatomical reconstruction by 'One Model' and 'VeriSense' tools (Ensite Velocity 3.0, St Jude Medical), compared with CT/MR imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-two patients with AF underwent pre-procedural imaging (97% CT-scan, 3% MR imaging) and transcatheter ablation of PVs...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Daniel Schurzig, G Jakob Lexow, Omid Majdani, Thomas Lenarz, Thomas S Rau
PURPOSE: A cochlea modeling approach is presented allowing for a user defined degree of geometry simplification which automatically adjusts to the patient specific anatomy. Model generation can be performed in a straightforward manner due to error estimation prior to the actual generation, thus minimizing modeling time. Therefore, the presented technique is well suited for a wide range of applications including finite element analyses where geometrical simplifications are often inevitable...
December 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Chichi Xie, Weiwei Wei, Andrea Schenk, Lars Ole Schwen, Sara Zafarnia, Michael Schwier, Felix Gremse, Isabel Jank, Olaf Dirsch, Uta Dahmen
A modified silicone injection procedure was used for visualization of the hepatic vascular tree. This procedure consisted of in-vivo injection of the silicone compound, via a 26 G catheter, into the portal or hepatic vein. After silicone injection, organs were explanted and prepared for ex-vivo micro-CT (µCT) scanning. The silicone injection procedure is technically challenging. Achieving a successful outcome requires extensive microsurgical experience from the surgeon. One of the challenges of this procedure involves determining the adequate perfusion rate for the silicone compound...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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