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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023236/end-to-end-workflow-for-finite-element-analysis-of-tumor-treating-fields-in-glioblastomas
#1
Joshua J Timmons, Edwin Lok, Pyay San, Kevin Bui, Eric T Wong
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) therapy is an approved modality of treatment for glioblastoma. Patient anatomy-based finite element analysis (FEA) has the potential to reveal not only how these fields affect tumor control but also how to improve efficacy. While the automated tools for segmentation speed up the generation of FEA models, multi-step manual corrections are required, including removal of disconnected voxels, incorporation of unsegmented structures and the addition of 36 electrodes plus gel layers matching the TTFields transducers...
October 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016507/cadaveric-nerve-and-artery-proximity-to-sacrospinous-ligament-fixation-sutures-placed-by-a-suture-capturing-device
#2
Aaron Z Katrikh, Rajuno Ettarh, Margie A Kahn
OBJECTIVE: To simulate sacrospinous ligament fixation on cadaveric specimens, describe the surrounding retroperitoneal anatomy, and estimate the risk to nerves and arteries for the purposes of optimizing safe suture placement. METHODS: Sacrospinous ligament fixation was performed on eight fresh-tissue female cadavers using a Capio ligature capture device. Distances from placed sutures to the following structures were measured: ischial spine; fourth sacral root; pudendal nerve; the nerve to coccygeus muscle; the nerve to levator ani muscle; inferior gluteal artery; and internal pudendal artery...
October 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994665/combining-deep-learning-with-anatomy-analysis-for-segmentation-of-portal-vein-for-liver-sbrt-planning
#3
Bulat Ibragimov, Diego Toesca, Daniel Chang, Albert Koong, Lei Xing
Automated segmentation of portal vein (PV) for liver radiotherapy planning is a challenging task due to potentially low vasculature contrast, complex PV anatomy and image artifacts originated from fiducial markers and vasculature stents. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for automated PV segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images. We apply convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn consistent appearance patterns of PV using a training set of CT images with reference annotations and then enhance PV in previously unseen CT images...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989843/a-novel-lumbar-motion-segment-classification-to-predict-changes-in-segmental-sagittal-alignment-after-lateral-interbody-fixation
#4
Frank L Acosta, Vivek A Mehta, Anush Arakelyan, Doniel Drazin, Clarissa Cortland, Patrick C Hsieh, John C Liu, Martin H Pham
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: Lateral interbody fixation is being increasingly used for the correction of segmental sagittal parameters. One factor that affects postoperative correction is the resistance afforded by posterior hypertrophic facet joints in the degenerative lumbar spine. In this article, we describe a novel preoperative motion segment classification system to predict postoperative correction of segmental sagittal alignment after lateral lumbar interbody fusion...
October 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987286/determination-of-sex-differences-of-human-cadaveric-mandibular-condyles-using-statistical-shape-and-trait-modeling
#5
Jessica S Coogan, Do-Gyoon Kim, Todd L Bredbenner, Daniel P Nicolella
The objective of this study was to elucidate sex differences in the anatomy of human temporomandibular joint mandibular condyles using a statistical shape and trait model (SSTM). Mandibles were obtained from 16 human cadavers (79±13years). The condyles were scanned using micro-computed tomography with 27μm resolution. An image processing algorithm was used to segment the bone, determines the border of the entire mandibular condyle and trabecular bone compartments, and creates triangulated meshes of the compartments...
October 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981912/x-ray-computed-microtomography-characterizes-the-wound-effect-that-causes-sap-flow-underestimation-by-thermal-dissipation-sensors
#6
S Marañón-Jiménez, J Van den Bulcke, A Piayda, J Van Acker, M Cuntz, C Rebmann, K Steppe
Insertion of thermal dissipation (TD) sap flow sensors in living tree stems causes damage of the wood tissue, as is the case with other invasive methods. The subsequent wound formation is one of the main causes of underestimation of tree water-use measured by TD sensors. However, the specific alterations in wood anatomy in response to inserted sensors have not yet been characterized, and the linked dysfunctions in xylem conductance and sensor accuracy are still unknown. In this study, we investigate the anatomical mechanisms prompting sap flow underestimation and the dynamic process of wound formation...
September 6, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977423/three-dimensional-printed-models-for-surgical-planning-of-complex-congenital-heart-defects-an-international-multicentre-study
#7
Israel Valverde, Gorka Gomez-Ciriza, Tarique Hussain, Cristina Suarez-Mejias, Maria N Velasco-Forte, Nicholas Byrne, Antonio Ordoñez, Antonio Gonzalez-Calle, David Anderson, Mark G Hazekamp, Arno A W Roest, Jose Rivas-Gonzalez, Sergio Uribe, Issam El-Rassi, John Simpson, Owen Miller, Enrique Ruiz, Ignacio Zabala, Ana Mendez, Begoña Manso, Pastora Gallego, Freddy Prada, Massimiliano Cantinotti, Lamia Ait-Ali, Carlos Merino, Andrew Parry, Nancy Poirier, Gerald Greil, Reza Razavi, Tomas Gomez-Cia, Amir-Reza Hosseinpour
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of 3D printed models (3D models) on surgical planning in complex congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: A prospective case-crossover study involving 10 international centres and 40 patients with complex CHD (median age 3 years, range 1 month-34 years) was conducted. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were used to acquire and segment the 3D cardiovascular anatomy. Models were fabricated by fused deposition modelling of polyurethane filament, and dimensions were compared with medical images...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975436/unraveling-pancreatic-segmentation
#8
REVIEW
Yohann Renard, Louis de Mestier, Manuela Perez, Claude Avisse, Philippe Lévy, Reza Kianmanesh
BACKGROUND: Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations...
October 3, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973522/variations-of-occipital-artery-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-bypass-anatomic-consideration
#9
Ken Matsushima, Satoshi Matsuo, Noritaka Komune, Michihiro Kohno, J Richard Lister
BACKGROUND: Advances in diagnosis of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms have revealed the high frequency of distal and/or dissecting PICA aneurysms. Surgical treatment of such aneurysms often requires revascularization of the PICA including but not limited to its caudal loop. OBJECTIVE: To examine the microsurgical anatomy involved in occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis at various anatomic segments of the PICA. METHODS: Twenty-eight PICAs in 15 cadaveric heads were examined with the operating microscope to take morphometric measurements and explore the specific anatomy of bypass procedures...
July 7, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969383/a-ventral-glomerular-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease-revealed-by-whole-olfactory-bulb-reconstruction
#10
Bolek Zapiec, Birger V Dieriks, Sheryl Tan, Richard L M Faull, Peter Mombaerts, Maurice A Curtis
Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease and is an early symptom, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Hindering progress in our mechanistic understanding of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is the paucity of literature about the human olfactory bulb, both from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. Qualitatively it is well established that the neat arrangement of the glomerular array seen in the mouse olfactory bulb is missing in humans. But rigorous quantitative approaches to describe and compare the thousands of glomeruli in the human olfactory bulb are not available...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969242/unusual-branching-pattern-of-the-portal-vein-its-importance
#11
Sreedhara B Cheluvashetty, Vamsidhar Rachapalli
Portal vein anatomy and its branching pattern are of utmost importance for surgical planning of complex liver resections, living donor liver transplant and radiological procedures. The division of the vein at the porta hepatis, into the right and left branches is the most common branching pattern. Various branching variations have been described. We report a previously undescribed branching pattern of the right portal vein, where the segment VII vein arises directly from the left portal vein.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962911/from-the-international-space-station-to-the-clinic-how-prolonged-unloading-may-disrupt-lumbar-spine-stability
#12
Jeannie F Bailey, Stephanie L Miller, Kristine Khieu, Conor W O'Neill, Robert M Healey, Dezba G Coughlin, Jojo V Sayson, Douglas G Chang, Alan R Hargens, Jeffrey C Lotz
Background context Prolonged microgravity exposure is associated with localized low back pain and an elevated risk of post-flight disc herniation. Though the mechanisms by which microgravity impairs the spine are unclear, they should be foundational for developing in-flight countermeasures for maintaining astronaut spine health. Because human spine anatomy has adapted to upright posture on Earth, observations of how spaceflight affects the spine should also provide new and potentially important information on spine biomechanics that benefit the general population...
September 26, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961105/anatomically-constrained-neural-networks-acnn-application-to-cardiac-image-enhancement-and-segmentation
#13
Ozan Oktay, Enzo Ferrante, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Mattias Heinrich, Wenjia Bai, Jose Caballero, Stuart Cook, Antonio de Marvao, Timothy Dawes, Declan O'Regan, Bernhard Kainz, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
Incorporation of prior knowledge about organ shape and location is key to improve performance of image analysis approaches. In particular, priors can be useful in cases where images are corrupted and contain artefacts due to limitations in image acquisition. The highly constrained nature of anatomical objects can be well captured with learning based techniques. However, in most recent and promising techniques such as CNN based segmentation it is not obvious how to incorporate such prior knowledge. State-of-the-art methods operate as pixel-wise classifiers where the training objectives do not incorporate the structure and inter-dependencies of the output...
September 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958877/3d-patient-specific-models-for-left-atrium-characterization-to-support-ablation-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients
#14
Maddalena Valinoti, Claudio Fabbri, Dario Turco, Roberto Mantovan, Antonio Pasini, Cristiana Corsi
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important and promising therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Optimization of patient selection and the availability of an accurate anatomical guide could improve RFA success rate. In this study we propose a unified, fully automated approach to build a 3D patient-specific left atrium (LA) model including pulmonary veins (PVs) in order to provide an accurate anatomical guide during RFA and without PVs in order to characterize LA volumetry and support patient selection for AF ablation...
September 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958025/spinal-ischaemia-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-with-left-subclavian-artery-sacrifice-is-there-a-critical-stent-graft-length
#15
Fabian A Kari, Babak Saravi, Sonja Krause, Luisa Puttfarcken, Karin Wittmann, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
OBJECTIVES: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is used for treatment of thoracic aortic pathologies, but the covered stent graft can induce spinal ischaemia depending on the length used. The left subclavian artery contributes to spinal cord collateralization and is frequently occluded by the stent graft. Our objective was to investigate the impact of covered stent graft length on the risk of spinal ischaemia in the setting of left subclavian artery sacrifice. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs (German country race, mean body weight 36 ± 4 kg) underwent simulated descending aortic TEVAR via left lateral thoracotomy, with left subclavian artery and thoracic segmental artery occlusion in normothermia...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957526/a-hypothesis-for-the-composition-of-the-tardigrade-brain-and-its-implications-for-panarthropod-brain-evolution
#16
Frank W Smith, Paul J Bartels, Bob Goldstein
Incredibly disparate brain types are found in Metazoa, which raises the question of how this disparity evolved. Ecdysozoa includes representatives that exhibit ring-like brains-the Cycloneuralia-and representatives that exhibit ganglionic brains-the Panarthropoda (Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada). The evolutionary steps leading to these distinct brain types are unclear. Phylogenomic analyses suggest that the enigmatic Tardigrada is a closely related outgroup of a Euarthropoda + Onychophora clade; as such, the brains of tardigrades may provide insight into the evolution of ecdysozoan brains...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955184/neoatherosclerosis-and-late-thrombosis-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-translational-cardiology-and-comparative-medicine-from-bench-to-bedside%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#17
REVIEW
Josip Anđelo Borovac, Domenico D'Amario, Giampaolo Niccoli
Neoatherosclerosis is a form of accelerated atherosclerosis that occurs within stented segments of the coronary vessel late or very late after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This proliferation of neointima with a formation of new atheromatous plaque within stent struts lacking re-endothelialization can provoke thrombotic occlusion and lead to catastrophic acute coronary events. Knowing that coronary artery disease is the leading single cause of mortality worldwide and that there is a constant trend of increase in PCI procedures, it is reasonable to conclude that late thrombotic events and neoatherosclerosis post-PCI remain an important therapeutic challenge...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948646/a-practical-guide-to-cardiovascular-3d-printing-in-clinical-practice-overview-and-examples
#18
Islam Abudayyeh, Brent Gordon, Mohammad M Ansari, Kenneth Jutzy, Liset Stoletniy, Anthony Hilliard
The advent of more advanced 3D image processing, reconstruction, and a variety of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies using different materials has made rapid and fairly affordable anatomically accurate models much more achievable. These models show great promise in facilitating procedural and surgical planning for complex congenital and structural heart disease. Refinements in 3D printing technology lend itself to advanced applications in the fields of bio-printing, hemodynamic modeling, and implantable devices...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948536/anatomical-variations-of-the-recurrent-artery-of-heubner-number-origin-and-course
#19
Wakoto Matsuda, Takahiro Sonomura, Satoru Honma, Sachi Ohno, Tetsuya Goto, Shuichi Hirai, Masahiro Itoh, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroki Fujieda, Jun Udagawa, Shuichi Ueda
The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively...
September 25, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944705/influence-of-carotid-tortuosity-on-internal-carotid-artery-access-time-in-the-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#20
Z O Kaymaz, O Nikoubashman, M A Brockmann, M Wiesmann, C Brockmann
Purpose Carotid artery anatomy is thought to influence internal carotid artery access time (ICA-AT) in patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. This study investigates the association between ICA-AT and carotid anatomy. Material and methods Computed tomography angiography (CTA) data of 76 consecutive patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke requiring mechanical thrombectomy for middle cerebral artery or carotid T occlusion were evaluated. The supraaortic extracranial vasculature was analyzed regarding take-off angles and curvature of the affected side...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
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