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Segmental anatomy

J M Li, W B Xu, J W Zhong, H Y Wu, W C Dai
Objective: To assess the characteristics of facial nerve canal between normal anatomy and dysplasia of children in different ages. Methods: A total of 492 health ears were divided into six groups, neonatal group (<1 m , n=42), infancy group(1 m-1 y, n=106), toddler group(1-3 y, n=102), preschool group (3-6 y, n=100), school group(6-10 y, n=60)and adolescent group (10-14 y, n=82). The length and diameter of facial nerve canal and that angles of first and second genu were measured with CT in each group. Results: ①The lengths of facial nerve canal in neonatal and infancy group were shorter than other four groups, especially in the mastoid segments of facial nerve canal...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Bernard Belhassen, Aharon Glick, Haim Shmilovich, Galit Aviram, Raphael Rosso, Yoav Michowitz
INTRODUCTION: A new imaging software (CARTO® Segmentation Module, Biosense Webster) allows pre-procedural 3-D reconstruction of all heart chambers based on cardiac CT. We describe our initial experience with the new module during ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias or ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT) were studied. In the latter group, a combined endocardial and epicardial ablation was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Karl J Niklas, Ulrich Kutschera
In 1790, the German poet Johann W. v. Goethe (1749-1832) proposed the concept of a hypothetical sessile organism known as the 'Plant Archetype,' which was subsequently reconstructed and depicted by 19th-century botanists, such as Franz Unger (1800-1870) and Julius Sachs (1832-1897), and can be considered one of the first expressions of Evo-Devo thinking. Here, we present the history of this concept in the context of Ernst Haeckel's (1834-1919) biogenetic law espoused in his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen of 1866...
October 18, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, Mohammad Elahinia, Michael Miller, David Dean
: The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of the healthy mandible under maximum molar bite force to demonstrate the problems associated with the current standard of care procedures for mandibular segmental defect reconstruction (ie, use of Ti-6Al-4V hardware and either a single- or double-barrel fibular graft). With current Ti-6Al-4V mandibular reconstruction hardware, there is a significant stiffness mismatch among the hardware, graft, and the remaining host anatomy. How the distribution of mechanical forces through the mandible is altered after a segmental bone loss and reconstruction is incompletely understood...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Benedetta Gui, Francesco Maria Danza, Anna Lia Valentini, Maria Elena Laino, Alessandro Caruso, Brigida Carducci, Elena Rodolfino, Ersilia Devicienti, Lorenzo Bonomo
Cesarean section (CS) may have several acute complications that can occur in the early postoperative period. The most common acute complications are hematomas and hemorrhage, infection, ovarian vein thrombosis, uterine dehiscence and rupture. Pelvic hematomas usually occur at specific sites and include bladder flap hematoma (between the lower uterine segment and the bladder) and subfascial or rectus sheath hematoma (rectus sheath or prevescical space). Puerperal hemorrhage can be associated with uterine dehiscence or rupture...
October 19, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Eric L Vu, Craig G Rusin, Dan J Penny, Kathy K Kibler, Ronald Blaine Easley, Brendan Smith, Dean Andropoulos, Ken Brady
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated ST-segment monitoring to detect clinical decompensation in infants with single ventricle anatomy. We proposed a signal processing algorithm for ST-segment instability and hypothesized that instability is associated with cardiopulmonary arrests. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital 21-bed cardiovascular ICU and 36-bed step-down unit. PATIENTS: Twenty single ventricle infants who received stage 1 palliation surgery between January 2013 and January 2014...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Feng Liu, An Tai, Ergun Ahunbay, Elizabeth Gore, Candice Johnstone, X Allen Li
PURPOSE: To quantify interfractional independent motions between multiple primary targets in radiation therapy (RT) of lung cancer and to study the dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning method to account for these variations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-five on-treatment diagnostic-quality computed tomography (CT) scans acquired for 9 lung cancer patients treated with image-guided RT (IGRT) using a CT-on-rails (CTVision, Siemens) were analyzed. On each on-treatment CT set, contours of the targets (gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, or involved nodes), and organs at risk were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing...
September 2, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Peter B Terry, Richard J Traystman
Oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal being critical to cell survival, mammals have developed collateral vascular and ventilation systems to ensure tissue viability. Collateral ventilation, defined as ventilation of alveoli via pathways that bypass normal airways, is present in humans and many other species. The presence of collateral ventilation can be beneficial in certain disease states, while its relative absence can predispose to other diseases. These well defined anatomical pathways contribute little to ventilation in normal humans, but modulate ventilation perfusion imbalance in a variety of diseases including obstructive diseases such as asthma and emphysema...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Hirono Satokawa, Takashi Yamaki, Hirohide Iwata, Masahiro Sakata, Norihide Sugano, Toshiya Nishibe, Makoto Mo, Norikazu Yamada, Takehisa Iwai
Purpose: This study aimed at clarifying the changes in treatments for primary varicose veins in Japan. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the members of the Japanese Society of Phlebology. The contents of the survey covered the treatment and treatment strategy of varicose vein cases in 2013. The results were examined and compared with the results of previous surveys conducted by the aforesaid society in 1998, 2004 and 2009. Results: Of 36078 patients, 43958 limbs were reported from 201 institutions. Saphenous type was the most common type of varicose veins that developed in patients aged 70-79 years...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Maarten van Eerd, Arno Lataster, Micha Sommer, Jacob Patijn, Maarten van Kleef
The cervical facet joints, also called the zygapophyseal joints, are a potential source of neck pain (cervical facet joint pain). The cervical facet joints are innervated by the cervical medial branches (CMBs) of the cervical segmental nerves. Cervical facet joint pain has been shown to respond to multisegmental radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches. This procedure is performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Currently, three approaches are described and used. Those three techniques of radiofrequency treatment of the CMBs, classified on the base of the needle trajectory toward the anatomical planes, are as follows: the posterolateral technique, the posterior technique, and the lateral technique...
October 13, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Erik Smistad, Daniel Høyer Iversen, Linda Leidig, Janne Beate Lervik Bakeng, Kaj Fredrik Johansen, Frank Lindseth
Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia can be challenging, especially for inexperienced physicians. The goal of the proposed methods is to create a system that can assist a user in performing ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks. The system indicates in which direction the user should move the ultrasound probe to investigate the region of interest and to reach the target site for needle insertion. Additionally, the system provides automatic real-time segmentation of the femoral artery, the femoral nerve and the two layers fascia lata and fascia iliaca...
October 7, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K Joseph Maria Das
AIM: An empirical scheme called "anatomy-guided segment counting (AGSC)" is proposed for automatic selection of maximum number of segments (NOS) for direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). BACKGROUND: Direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) requires the user to define the maximum number of segments (NOS) in order to proceed with an optimization process. Till date there is no established approach to arrive at an optimal and case-specific maximum NOS in DMPO, and this step is largely left to the planner's experience...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Benjamin De Leener, Simon Lévy, Sara M Dupont, Vladimir S Fonov, Nikola Stikov, D Louis Collins, Virginie Callot, Julien Cohen-Adad
For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
N-X Bonne, F Dubrulle, M Risoud, C Vincent
The surgical management of skull base lesions is difficult due to the complex anatomy of the region and the intimate relations between the lesion and adjacent nerves and vessels. Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in skull base surgery to ensure an optimal functional prognosis. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction facilitates surgical planning by visualizing the anatomical relations of the lesions in all planes (arteries, veins, nerves, inner ear) and simulation of the surgical approach in the operating position...
October 5, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Urszula Bogacka, Dawid Dziedzic, Iulian Komarnitki, Bogdan Ciszek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the work was to perform a morphometric analysis of the long peroneal muscle of the leg and explore the relationship between muscle belly and tendon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten lower limbs (8 right and 2 left) were fixed in formaldehyde and dissected using standard technique. The long peroneal muscle was exposed from the proximal attachment to the top of a lateral malleolus. RESULTS: The tendon was subsequently freed and various measurements were taken...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Robert C Sibley, Stephen P Reis, Jarrod J MacFarlane, Mark A Reddick, Sanjeeva P Kalva, Patrick D Sutphin
Noninvasive physiologic vascular studies play an important role in the diagnosis and characterization in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremity. These studies evaluate the physiologic parameters of blood flow through segmental arterial pressures, Doppler waveforms, and pulse volume recordings. Collectively, they comprise a powerful toolset for defining the functionality of the arterial system, localizing the site of disease, and providing prognostic data. This technology has been widely adopted by diverse medical specialty practitioners, including radiologists, surgeons, cardiologists, and primary care providers...
September 30, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
P E Frid, S J Schreiber, O Pade, F Doepp, J Valdueza
PURPOSE: To differentiate PCA segments and cortical branches by means of transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) and to measure flow parameters at rest and during visual stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 healthy subjects with a good acoustic temporal bone window were examined. The main stem of the PCA (P1, P2 and P3) and 4 main cortical branches - the anterior temporal artery (ATA), the occipital temporal artery (OTA), the parietooccipital artery (POA) and the calcarine artery (CA) - were assessed using an axial transtemporal approach...
November 2015: Ultrasound Int Open
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