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Diane J Davies, Jon R Heylings, Heather Gayes, Timothy J McCarthy, M Catherine Mack
A new in vitro model based on the electrical resistance properties of the skin barrier has been established in this laboratory. The model utilises a tape stripping procedure in dermatomed pig skin that removes a specific proportion of the stratum corneum, mimicking impaired barrier function observed in humans with damaged skin. The skin penetration and distribution of chemicals with differing physicochemical properties, namely; Benzoic acid, 3-Aminophenol, Caffeine and Sucrose has been assessed in this model...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Chetna Shamshery, Ashish Kannaujia, Rajashree Madabushi, Dinesh Singh, Divya Srivastava, Shobhana Jafa
BACKGROUND: Central neuraxial blockade (CNB) is an established technique of providing anesthesia for surgeries of the lower limb and abdomen. Hypotension is the most common side effect of CNB. It was hypothesized that by supplementing the initial burst of vasopressin following hypovolemia, hypotension following combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) could be avoided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients undergoing lower limb and abdomen surgeries were included in the study, with 61 patients randomized into two groups - I and II...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Sonay İncesoy-Özdemir, Hanife Tuğçe Susam, Bahar Göktürk, Halil Özdemir, İlknur Küçükosmanoğlu
Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia (UNT) is characterized by the dermatomal distribution of telangiectasia, which are distributed unilaterally and frequently found in C3-C4 or the trigeminal dermatomal areas. It may be congenital or acquired and has a 2:1 female: male ratio. Several theories where developed in order to explain its etiopathogenesis. The most widely accepted is the one which establishes its probable association with an increase in estrogen levels. Its incidence is unknown, although it's probably subdiagnosed and more frequent than previously recognized...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Snehal Shah, Sasidhar Singaraju, A Einstein, Ashish Sharma
Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Wenwen Zhai, Xuedong Wang, Yulan Rong, Min Li, Hong Wang
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound guidance has reduced the amount of local anesthetics to achieve a successful block. Previous studies of the relationship between the volume or concentration of local anesthetics and the effects of the block were based on relatively high doses of local anesthetics. We tested the hypothesis that providing low dose of ropivacaine at three combinations of volumes and concentrations for ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block would produce different effects in the aspect of onset time, pain control and the incidence of side effects...
September 30, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Catherine R Jutzeler, Jan Rosner, Janosch Rinert, John L K Kramer, Armin Curt
Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) represent a neurophysiological approach to assess conduction in the spinothalamic tract. The aim of this study was to establish normative values of CHEPs acquired from cervical dermatomes (C4, C6, C8) and examine the potential confounds of age, sex, and height. 101 (49 male) healthy subjects of three different age groups (18-40, 41-60, and 61-80 years) were recruited. Normal (NB, 35-52 °C) followed by increased (IB, 42-52 °C) baseline stimulation protocols were employed to record CHEPs...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manuel Held, Anne-Sophie Engelke, Dascha Sophie Tolzmann, Afshin Rahmanian-Schwarz, Hans-Eberhard Schaller, Jens Rothenberger
INTRODUCTION: There is a high prevalence of superficial wounds such as partial-thickness burns. Treatment of these wounds frequently includes temporary application of wound dressings. The aim of this study was to compare a newly developed collagen matrix with commonly used temporary skin dressings for treatment of partial-thickness skin defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a skin dermatome, 42 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats...
September 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Pooja Gupta, Rajeev Ranjan, C S Agrawal, K Muralikrishnan, Nikhil Dave, Davinder Singh Rana
Meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) is quite rare among young immunocompetent adults though immunocompromised patients are often seen to be affected by reactivation of VZV presenting with primary clinical features of dermatomal rashes and neurological sequelae. Here, we report the clinical scenario of a young, healthy male who had presented with fever, headache, and onset of dermatomal rashes later than the fever and was eventually diagnosed to be a case of VZV meningitis. We would like to highlight the fact that even young immunocompetent patients though rarely, might contract VZV meningitis and clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and keen eyes to catch the more obvious features of VZV infection on complete physical examination and must not harbor any reservations in ordering polymerase chain reaction for VZV DNA or initiating aggressive antiviral therapy...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Bhumesh Kumar Katakam, Geeta Kiran, Udaya Kumar
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. AIMS: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Akansha Agrawal, Sanjay Agrawal, Yashwant S Payal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Different routes of administration of α2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been found to prolong the duration of spinal block. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients, aged 18-60 years, of ASA physical status I or II posted for elective fixation of fractures of lower limb under spinal anesthesia were selected. Spinal anesthesia was administered with 2.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine mixed with 10 μg fentanyl. The patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg/h for 15 min followed by infusion of 0...
July 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Sindhu S Ganti, Ajay K Banga
The advances in laser technology have led to its rapidly expanding applications in dermatology. This study aims at the novel use of a non-ablative fractional laser to enhance transdermal permeation of diclofenac sodium and sumatriptan succinate. The effects of the laser on skin were characterized visually with dye binding, scanning electron microscopy, pore permeability index, and histology. In vitro transdermal permeation of drugs through laser treated and untreated human dermatomed skin was analyzed over 24 h and quantified by HPLC...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Victoria Young, Gerardine Quaghebeur
Transverse myelitis is defined as inflammation of the spinal cord, named because of its typical clinical presentation with bandlike symptoms of altered sensation or pain in a horizontal fashion-at a specific dermatome level. Radiographic patterns might vary but the idiopathic form is more frequent to present as involvement of 3-4 vertebral segments and both sides of the cord. It is now recognized that there are numerous other causes as well as the idiopathic type, with often atypical features and geographic variation...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Álvaro Gutiérrez-Viedma, Nuria González-García, Miguel Yus, Manuela Jorquera, Jesús Porta-Etessam, Héctor García-Moreno, David García-Azorín, María-Luz Cuadrado
INTRODUCTION: Epicrania fugax (EF) is a primary headache whose main feature is the dynamic character of the pain. EF pain typically moves across different dermatomes in a linear or zigzag trajectory. Recently, a facial variant of EF has been described, with the pain starting in the lower face and radiating upwards. AIM: We report eight patients with an EF-type of pain of facial location and either upward or downward radiation. METHODS: For each patient, we recorded relevant demographic and clinical data...
September 6, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Şükrü Oral, Abdulfettah Tümtürk, Ahmet Küçük, Ahmet Menkü
AIM The surgical approaches for spinal tumors, to a great extent, have been developed in accordance with the developments in technology. Today, many surgical techniques are implemented as anterior, anterolateral, posterior, posterolateral and combined approach. Due to its low morbidity, posterior approach is more preferred one. Laminectomy is a widely used technique especially in neoplastic lesions. However, following laminectomy, there are complications like instability, kyphotic deformity and scar formation...
October 22, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Ibrahim M Moustafa, Aliaa A Diab, Shimaa Taha, Deed E Harrison
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immediate and 1-year effects of a multimodal program, with cervical lordosis and anterior head translation (AHT) rehabilitation, on the severity of pain, disability, peripheral and central nervous system function in patients with discogenic cervical radiculopathy (DCR). DESIGN: A randomized controlled study with a 1-year and 10-week follow-up. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 40 (27 males) patients with chronic DCR, a defined hypolordotic cervical spine and AHT posture were randomly assigned to the control (43...
August 26, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Arunprasad Sivaraman, Ajay K Banga
Novel in situ forming hydrogel microneedles were evaluated for transdermal drug delivery using a biocompatible non-ionic triblock amphiphilic thermosensitive copolymer. The transition property of poloxamer from solution at room temperature to gel at skin temperature (32 °C) was utilized in preparation of in situ forming hydrogel microneedles. Methotrexate has been used to treat solid tumors, but because of its narrow safety margin, it requires sustained delivery within the therapeutic window. Formulations with and without poloxamer at different methotrexate concentrations were prepared and evaluated for drug permeation across skin using vertical Franz diffusion cell for 72 h...
August 25, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Kate E Hughes, Colin Seguin, Brent Felton, Mary J Hughes, David Castle
BACKGROUND: First described by Morgagni in 1761, aortic dissection (AD) is an acute life-threatening and time-sensitive disease process with an increasing mortality approaching 1% for every 1-hour delay in diagnosis within the first 48 hours. Despite continued surgical advancement, overall in-hospital mortality remains significant (27.4%). CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old woman presented to an outlying emergency department with a complaint of isolated lumbar pain associated with right lower extremity paresthesia and paralysis that progressed to the left...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
S Kulhari, N Bharti, I Bala, S Arora, G Singh
BACKGROUND: Pectoral nerve (PecS) block is a recently introduced technique for providing surgical anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia during breast surgery. The present study was planned to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided PecS II block with thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) for postoperative analgesia after modified radical mastectomy. METHODS: Forty adult female patients undergoing radical mastectomy were randomly allocated into two groups...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Manjunath Netravathi, Jitender Saini, Anita Mahadevan, Bollampalli Hari-Krishna, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
BACKGROUND: Recently, pruritus has been recognised as an important association with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with NMOSD and pruritus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 57 consecutive patients with NMOSD, 15 (26.3% women) reported pruritus. All had aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies. The mean age was 34.5 ± 9.1 years, age at onset was 31.3 ± 11...
August 18, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Kate McGinnis, Eileen Murray, Brooke Cherven, Courtney McCracken, Curtis Travers
BACKGROUND: Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates...
August 16, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
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