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V Sivakamasundari, Petra Kraus, Wenjie Sun, Xiaoming Hu, Siew Lan Lim, Shyam Prabhakar, Thomas Lufkin
Pax1 and Pax9 play redundant, synergistic functions in the patterning and differentiation of the sclerotomal cells that give rise to the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs (IVD) of the axial skeleton. They are conserved in mice and humans, whereby mutations/deficiency of human PAX1/PAX9 have been associated with kyphoscoliosis. By combining cell-type specific transcriptome and ChIP-sequencing data, we identified the roles of Pax1/Pax9 in cell proliferation, cartilage development and collagen fibrillogenesis, which are vital in early IVD morphogenesis...
December 23, 2016: Biology Open
Pang Wei Koh, Rahul Sinha, Amira A Barkal, Rachel M Morganti, Angela Chen, Irving L Weissman, Lay Teng Ang, Anshul Kundaje, Kyle M Loh
Mesoderm is the developmental precursor to myriad human tissues including bone, heart, and skeletal muscle. Unravelling the molecular events through which these lineages become diversified from one another is integral to developmental biology and understanding changes in cellular fate. To this end, we developed an in vitro system to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells through primitive streak intermediates into paraxial mesoderm and its derivatives (somites, sclerotome, dermomyotome) and separately, into lateral mesoderm and its derivatives (cardiac mesoderm)...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Data
David A Stafford, Darwin S Dichmann, Jessica K Chang, Richard M Harland
To define a complete catalog of the genes that are activated during mouse sclerotome formation, we sequenced RNA from embryonic mouse tissue directed to form sclerotome in culture. In addition to well-known early markers of sclerotome, such as Pax1, Pax9, and the Bapx2/Nkx3-2 homolog Nkx3-1, the long-noncoding RNA PEAT (Pax1 enhancer antisense transcript) was induced in sclerotome-directed samples. Strikingly, PEAT is located just upstream of the Pax1 gene. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated a mouse line bearing a complete deletion of the PEAT-transcribed unit...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amber N Stratman, Sofia A Pezoa, Olivia M Farrelly, Daniel Castranova, Louis E Dye, Matthew G Butler, Harwin Sidik, William S Talbot, Brant M Weinstein
Mural cells (vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes) play a critical role in the development of the vasculature, promoting vascular quiescence and long-term vessel stabilization through their interactions with endothelial cells. However, the mechanistic details of how mural cells stabilize vessels are not fully understood. We have examined the emergence and functional role of mural cells investing the dorsal aorta during early development using the zebrafish. Consistent with previous literature, our data suggest that cells ensheathing the dorsal aorta emerge from a sub-population of cells in the adjacent sclerotome...
December 2, 2016: Development
Damian Lewandowski, Magda Dubińska-Magiera, Ewelina Posyniak, Weronika Rupik, Małgorzata Daczewska
In the grass snake (Natrix natrix), the newly developed somites form vesicles that are located on both sides of the neural tube. The walls of the vesicles are composed of tightly connected epithelial cells surrounding the cavity (the somitocoel). Also, in the newly formed somites, the Pax3 protein can be observed in the somite wall cells. Subsequently, the somite splits into three compartments: the sclerotome, dermomyotome (with the dorsomedial [DM] and the ventrolateral [VL] lips) and the myotome. At this stage, the Pax3 protein is detected in both the DM and VL lips of the dermomyotome and in the mononucleated cells of the myotome, whereas the Pax7 protein is observed in the medial part of the dermomyotome and in some of the mononucleated cells of the myotome...
November 10, 2016: Protoplasma
Lizzy Ward, Susan E Evans, Claudio D Stern
Segmentation of the vertebrate body axis is established in the embryo by formation of somites, which give rise to the axial muscles (myotome) and vertebrae (sclerotome). To allow a muscle to attach to two successive vertebrae, the myotome and sclerotome must be repositioned by half a segment with respect to each other. Two main models have been put forward: 'resegmentation' proposes that each half-sclerotome joins with the half-sclerotome from the next adjacent somite to form a vertebra containing cells from two successive somites on each side of the midline...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Yong-Zhen Huang, Jing-Jing Li, Chun-Lei Zhang, Xing-Tang Fang, Xian-Yong Lan, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen
I-mfa (inhibitor of the MyoD family a) is a transcription modulator that binds to MyoD family members and inhibits their transcriptional activities. It is highly expressed in the sclerotome and plays an important role in the patterning of the somite early in development. In this study, the polymorphisms of the bovine I-mfa gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA pool sequencing methods in 541 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds...
October 2016: Animal Biotechnology
Anna Kuta, Yaopan Mao, Tina Martin, Catia Ferreira de Sousa, Danielle Whiting, Sana Zakaria, Ivan Crespo-Enriquez, Philippa Evans, Bartosz Balczerski, Baljinder Mankoo, Kenneth D Irvine, Philippa H Francis-West
The protocadherins Fat4 and Dchs1 act as a receptor-ligand pair to regulate many developmental processes in mice and humans, including development of the vertebrae. Based on conservation of function between Drosophila and mammals, Fat4-Dchs1 signalling has been proposed to regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) and activity of the Hippo effectors Yap and Taz, which regulate cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. There is strong evidence for Fat regulation of PCP in mammals but the link with the Hippo pathway is unclear...
July 1, 2016: Development
Anja Maschner, Stefanie Krück, Margarethe Draga, Felicitas Pröls, Martin Scaal
Development of somites leading to somite compartments, sclerotome, dermomyotome and myotome, has been intensely investigated. Most knowledge on somite development, including the commonly used somite maturation stages, is based on data from somites at thoracic and lumbar levels. Potential regional differences in somite maturation dynamics have been indicated by a number of studies, but have not yet been comprehensively examined. Here, we present an overview on the developmental dynamics of somites at occipital and cervical levels in the chicken embryo...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Natarajan Muthukumar
OBJECTIVE: Proatlas segementation anomalies are due to defective re-segmentation of the proatlas sclerotome. These anomalies of the craniovertebral junction are rare and have multiple presentations. The aim of this study is to report this author's personal experience in managing five of these patients with different radiological findings necessitating different surgical strategies and to provide a brief review of the relevant literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients, all in the second decade of life were treated between 2010 and 2013...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Takamasa Kaneko, Khalid Freeha, Xiaoming Wu, Makoto Mogi, Susumu Uji, Hayato Yokoi, Tohru Suzuki
Despite the common structure of vertebrates, the development of the vertebral column differs widely between teleosts and tetrapods in several respects, including the ossification of the centrum and the function of the notochord. In contrast to tetrapods, vertebral development in teleosts is not fully understood, particularly for large fish with highly ossified bones. We therefore examined the histology and gene expression profile of vertebral development in fugu, Takifugu rubripes, a model organism for genomic research...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Vanessa Martins Pereira Silva Moreira, Saulo Delfino Barboza, Juliana Borges Oliveira, Janser Moura Pereira, Valdeci Carlos Dionisio
BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperalgesia in individuals with less severe levels of knee osteoarthritis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of individuals with mild or moderate knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and compare with no osteoarthritis. METHODS: Ten healthy controls and 30 individuals with mild or moderate KOA divided into two groups (unilateral and bilateral involvement) were included. Dermatomes (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, S1, and S2), myotomes (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, adductor longus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, iliacus, quadratus lumborum, and popliteus muscles), and sclerotomes (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5 supraspinous ligaments), over the L5-S1 and S1-S2 sacral areas, pes anserinus bursae, and at the patellar tendon) PPT were assessed and compared between individuals with and without KOA...
March 24, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Aisha Abduelmula, Ruijin Huang, Qin Pu, Hirokazu Tamamura, Gabriela Morosan-Puopolo, Beate Brand-Saberi
Stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), the only ligand of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, is involved in skeletal muscle development. However, its role in the proliferation, differentiation and migration of somite cells is not well understood. Here, we investigated its function during somite development in chicken embryos by using gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Overexpression of SDF-1 was performed by electroporating SDF-1 constructs into the ventrolateral part of the somite, or by injecting SDF-1-expressing cells into the somites of stages HH14-16 chicken embryos...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ricardo Rodrigues-Pinto, Andrew Berry, Karen Piper-Hanley, Neil Hanley, Stephen M Richardson, Judith A Hoyland
In humans, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is composed of large vacuolated notochordal cells in the fetus but, soon after birth, becomes populated by smaller, chondrocyte-like cells. Although animal studies indicate that notochord-derived cells persist in the adult NP, the ontogeny of the adult human NP cell population is still unclear. As such, identification of unique notochordal markers is required. This study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal expression of putative human notochordal markers to aid in the elucidation of the ontogeny of adult human NP cells...
August 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Armbien Sabillo, Julio Ramirez, Carmen R Domingo
Xenopus laevis offers unprecedented access to the intricacies of muscle development. The large, robust embryos make it ideal for manipulations at both the tissue and molecular level. In particular, this model system can be used to fate map early muscle progenitors, visualize cell behaviors associated with somitogenesis, and examine the role of signaling pathways that underlie induction, specification, and differentiation of muscle. Several characteristics that are unique to X. laevis include myogenic waves with distinct gene expression profiles and the late formation of dermomyotome and sclerotome...
March 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lorenzo Alibardi
New cartilaginous tissues in lizards is formed during the regeneration of the tail or after vertebral damage. In order to understand the origin of new cartilaginous cells in the embryo and after injury of adult vertebrae we have studied the distribution of proliferating cartilaginous cells in the vertebral column of embryos and adults of the lizard Anolis lineatopus using autoradiography for H3-thymidine and light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for 5BrdU. Proliferating sclerotomal cells initially surround the notochord in a segmental pattern and give rise to the chondrocytes of the vertebral centrum that replace the original chordal cells...
April 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Takeshi Endo
Both skeletal muscle and bone are of mesodermal origin and derived from somites during embryonic development. Somites differentiate into the dorsal dermomyotome and the ventral sclerotome, which give rise to skeletal muscle and bone, respectively. Extracellular signaling molecules, such as Wnt and Shh, secreted from the surrounding environment, determine the developmental fate of skeletal muscle. Dermomyotome cells are specified as trunk muscle progenitor cells by transcription factor networks involving Pax3...
November 2015: Bone
Pravin Salunke, Sushanta K Sahoo, Anshu Mahajan
Though rare, a variety of bipartite atlas has been described. However, little has been mentioned about the hypoplastic C1 lateral masses in these cases. An unusual case of bipartite atlas, with hypoplastic lateral masses, os odontoideum and block vertebrae has been described with the surgical challenges encountered. The emphasis here is to study the C1 lateral masses and attempting C1-2 fusion before resorting to occipito-cervical fusion. A 42-year-old lady presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis. Radiology revealed blocked C2-5 vertebrae with os odontoideum with atlanto-axial dislocation with bifid anterior arch of atlas, hypoplastic C1 lateral masses (ill formed postero-inferior part) and posterior arch...
2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Aiqun Wei, Bojiang Shen, Lisa A Williams, Divya Bhargav, Twishi Gulati, Zhimin Fang, Sarennya Pathmanandavel, Ashish D Diwan
During embryogenesis vertebral segmentation is initiated by sclerotomal cell migration and condensation around the notochord, forming anlagen of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The factors that govern the segmentation are not clear. Previous research demonstrated that mutations in growth differentiation factor 6 resulted in congenital vertebral fusion, suggesting this factor plays a role in development of vertebral column. In this study, we detected expression and localization of growth differentiation factor 6 in human fetal spinal column, especially in the period of early ossification of vertebrae and the developing intervertebral discs...
February 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Jennifer H Mansfield, Edward Haller, Nicholas D Holland, Ava E Brent
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate somites are subdivided into lineage compartments, each with distinct cell fates and evolutionary histories. Insights into somite evolution can come from studying amphioxus, the best extant approximation of the chordate ancestor. Amphioxus somites have myotome and non-myotome compartments, but development and fates of the latter are incompletely described. Further, while epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for most vertebrate somitic lineages, amphioxus somites generally have been thought to remain entirely epithelial...
2015: EvoDevo
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