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Hepatitis B infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#1
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323748/serum-aminotransferase-flares-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-with-current-or-prior-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#2
Christine Y Chang, Natali Aziz, Mugilan Poongkunran, Asad Javaid, Huy N Trinh, Daryl T Lau, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antiviral therapy is recommended for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA>200,000 IU/mL, but there is less consensus on management of women who discontinue therapy in anticipation of pregnancy or who become pregnant while on therapy. The goal of this study was to describe flares in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) during pregnancy and postpartum in CHB women with current and/or prior treatment. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 67 pregnancies in 56 CHB women treated before and/or during pregnancy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319996/oral-direct-acting-agent-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#3
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, David R Nelson, Michael W Fried, Jodi B Segal, Mark S Sulkowski
Background: Rapid improvements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy have led to the approval of multiple oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Purpose: To summarize published literature on the efficacy and safety of oral DAAs for treatment of persons with chronic HCV infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through 1 November 2016. Study Selection: 42 English-language studies from controlled and single-group registered clinical trials of adults with HCV infection that evaluated at least 8 weeks of an FDA-approved interferon-free HCV regimen that included at least 2 DAAs...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318408/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-immune-mediated-liver-injury-and-compromise-virus-control-during-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-mice
#4
Mengmeng Qu, Xu Yuan, Dan Liu, Yuhong Ma, Jun Zhu, Jun Cui, Mengxue Yu, Changyong Li, Deyin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10(6) BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318369/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-hairdressers-in-ibadan-nigeria
#5
B A Olusola, E A Gometi, O Ogunsemowo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem with over two billion people infected globally. Occupationally exposed persons are at high risk of HBV infection. Apart from medical personnel, there is dearth of information as regards the prevalence and awareness of HBV among occupationally exposed persons in the country. This study was designed to determine the levels of HBV awareness and prevalence of HBV infection among hairdressers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hairdressers and teachers (unmatched controls) in four local government areas in Ibadan were tested for HBV infection using ELISA technique...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#6
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318053/statins-decrease-the-risk-of-decompensation-in-hbv-and-hcv-related-cirrhosis-a-population-based-study
#7
Fu-Ming Chang, Yen-Po Wang, Hui-Chu Lang, Chia-Fen Tsai, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ching-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND & AIM: Statin decreased the risk of decompensation and mortality in veteran patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Whether this beneficial effect can be extended to cirrhosis in general population or cirrhosis with other causes, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol, remains unknown. Statin also decreased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection. It is unclear whether the effect can be observed in patients already with cirrhosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318046/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-ccl5-secretion-from-macrophages-activates-hepatic-stellate-cells
#8
Reina Sasaki, Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Ranjit Ray, Ratna B Ray
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediated chronic liver disease is a serious health problem around the world, and often causes fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of liver disease progression during HCV infection is still unclear, although inflammation is believed to be an important player in disease pathogenesis. We previously reported that macrophages including Kupffer cells exposed to HCV induce proinflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines may activate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) towards fibrosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318036/autophagy-determines-efficiency-of-liver-directed-gene-therapy-with-adeno-associated-viral-vectors
#9
Marianna Hösel, Anke Huber, Susanne Bohlen, Julie Lucifora, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Francesco Puzzo, Florence Boisgerault, Ulrich T Hacker, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, Alexander Gluschko, Michael Schramm, Olaf Utermöhlen, Wilhelm Bloch, Federico Mingozzi, Oleg Krut, Hildegard Büning
Use of Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy has shown considerable success, particularly in patients with severe hemophilia B. However, the high vector doses required to reach therapeutic levels of transgene expression caused liver inflammation in some patients that selectively destroyed transduced hepatocytes. We hypothesized that such detrimental immune responses can be avoided by enhancing the efficacy of AAV vectors in hepatocytes. Because autophagy is a key liver response to environmental stresses, we characterized the impact of hepatic autophagy on AAV infection...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317397/nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-preventing-hbv-reactivation-in-immunosuppressed-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-network-meta-analysis
#10
Min-Yue Zhang, Gui-Qi Zhu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Sven Van Poucke, Ke-Qing Shi, Hong-Hui Huang, Fang-Yuan Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
Abstracts Background: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), including lamivudine, entecavir, adefovir, telbivudine and tenofovir, for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and HBV-related complications in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by network meta-analysis. METHODS: The search identified 28 articles involving 5 different prophylactic regimens covering 1478 participants...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317045/fibrolamellar-variant-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-presenting-during-pregnancy-management-dilemmas
#11
Nagalapuram Vishnu, Aditya V Kulkarni, Sreenivasan Vidhyalakshmi, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Venkatakrishnan LeelaKrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, T V Chitra, Biku Joseph John
The Fibrolamellar variant of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare form of liver cancer that presents in the 3(rd) decade of life, is rarely associated with cirrhosis or chronic Hepatitis B/C virus infection, and usually presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. FLHCC presenting during pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 4 cases reported. We present a case of FLHCC in pregnancy and discuss the dilemmas in management. A 26 year-old primigravida, 26 weeks of gestation presented with a month's history of obstructive jaundice secondary...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hbv-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#12
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Raphael W Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
HBV/HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations among drug experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (13) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in six (6) patients...
March 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316217/-comparison-of-the-effect-of-lymph-node-dissection-performed-by-ivor-lewis-or-left-sided-thoracic-esophagogastrectomy-for-siewert-type-%C3%A2-adenocarcinoma-of-the-esophagogastric-junction
#13
X F Duan, L Gong, M Q Ma, J Yue, P Tang, X B Shang, H J Jiang, Z T Yu
Objective: To compare the extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative complications between Ivor-Lewis procedure and left sided thoracotomy in patients with Siewert type Ⅱ adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Methods: The clinical data of 101 patients with Siewert type Ⅱ EG who received surgical treatment between January 2014 and September 2015 in the Department of Esophageal Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. These patients were divided into Ivor-Lewis group (IL, n=38) and left- sided thoracotomy group (LT, n=63) according to the operation mode...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315754/hepatitis-b-and-htlv-1-co-infection-in-the-northern-territory-australia
#14
Ian Marr, Jane Davies, Rob W Baird
OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship of Hepatitis B and HTLV-1 serological markers in the Northern Territory, Australia. METHODS: A retrospective serological study of patients, presenting to public healthcare facilities, in the Northern Territory between 2008 and 2015, was performed to determine presence and relationships of serological markers of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Human T-cell Leukemic virus 1 (HTLV-1). RESULTS: There were 740 individual cases of serological positive HTLV-1 identified over 8 years in the Northern Territory...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#15
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304106/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-versus-double-plasma-molecular-absorption-system-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-treated-by-entercavir-a-prospective-study
#16
Yue-Meng Wan, Yu-Hua Li, Zhi-Yuan Xu, Jing Yang, Li-Hong Yang, Ying Xu, Jin-Hui Yang
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and double plasma molecular absorption system (DPMAS) were two extracorporeal liver support systems. Few studies compared their efficacy profile. OBJECTIVE: This study was to compare the efficacy of TPE and DPMAS on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV-ACLF). METHODS: 60 HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled and prospectively studied. All patients received entecavir therapy, and were assigned to TPE group (n = 33) and DPMAS group (n = 27)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303984/silent-killers-transfusion-transmissible-infections-tti-among-asymptomatic-population-of-pakistan
#17
Muhammad Saeed, Shahida Hussain, Farhan Rasheed, Maqsood Ahmad, Mizna Arif, Muhammad Tariq Hamid Rahmani
OBJECTIVE: To analyse transfusion transmissible infections in asymptomatic population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from December 2014 to November 2015, and comprised healthy asymptomatic blood donors.Every sample was screened for the presence of antibodies/antigens of hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, treponemapallidum, hepatitis B virus and malaria parasite through rapid immunochromatographic technique...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303593/sb-9200-a-novel-agonist-of-innate-immunity-shows-potent-antiviral-activity-against-resistant-hcv-variants
#18
Meleri Jones, Morven E Cunningham, Peter Wing, Sampath DeSilva, Rupa Challa, Anjaneyulu Sheri, Seetharamaiyer Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan P Iyer, Brent E Korba, Nezam Afdhal, Graham R Foster
SB 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the RIG-I and NOD2 pathways. SB 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In phase I clinical trials in chronically infected HCV patients, SB 9200 has been shown to reduce HCV RNA by up to 1.9 log10 . Here, we demonstrate the antiviral activity of SB 9200 against a HCV replicon system and patient derived virus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302512/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-a-hepatitis-b-and-varicella-virus-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ireland
#19
Corinna Sadlier, Anna O'Rourke, Alison Carr, Colm Bergin
Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301425/dolutegravir-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-gay-and-bisexual-men
#20
John Mcallister, Janet M Towns, Anna Mcnulty, Anna B Pierce, Rosalind Foster, Robyn Richardson, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVES: Completion rates for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are often low. We investigated the adherence and safety of dolutegravir (DTG 50 mg daily) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) as 3-drug PEP in gay and bisexual men (GBM). DESIGN: Open-label, single-arm study at 3 sexual health clinics and 2 emergency departments in Australia. METHODS: One hundred HIV-uninfected GBM requiring PEP received DTG plus TDF-FTC for 28 days...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
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