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Hepatitis B infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444493/modulators-of-innate-immunity-as-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
REVIEW
Aleksei Suslov, Stefan Wieland, Stephan Menne
The first line defense mechanisms against viral infection are mediated by the innate immune system. Viral components are detected by infected cells and/or innate immune cells that express different sensory receptors. They in turn mediate induction of direct antiviral mechanisms and further modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. For evading the innate system, most viruses have evolved efficient mechanisms to block sensing and/or antiviral functions of the innate response. Interestingly, hepatitis B virus (HBV) seems to act like a stealth virus that escapes cell intrinsic antiviral mechanisms through avoiding recognition by the innate system rather than blocking its effector functions...
February 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444087/safety-and-efficacy-of-anti-pd-l1-therapy-in-the-woodchuck-model-of-hbv-infection
#2
Scott Balsitis, Volodymyr Gali, Pamela J Mason, Susan Chaniewski, Steven M Levine, Michael J Wichroski, Michael Feulner, Yunling Song, Karen Granaldi, James K Loy, Chris M Thompson, Jacob A Lesniak, Catherine Brockus, Narendra Kishnani, Stephan Menne, Mark I Cockett, Renuka Iyer, Stephen W Mason, Daniel J Tenney
Immune clearance of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by broad and robust antiviral T cell responses, while virus-specific T cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are rare and exhibit immune exhaustion that includes programmed-death-1 (PD-1) expression on virus-specific T cells. Thus, an immunotherapy able to expand and activate virus-specific T cells may have therapeutic benefit for CHB patients. Like HBV-infected patients, woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) can have increased hepatic expression of PD-1-ligand-1 (PD-L1), increased PD-1 on CD8+ T cells, and a limited number of virus-specific T cells with substantial individual variation in these parameters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443737/effect-of-tenofovir-on-renal-function-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Woo Jin Jung, Jae Young Jang, Won Young Park, Soung Won Jeong, Hee Jeong Lee, Sang Joon Park, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang-Woo Cha, Young Seok Kim, Young Deok Cho, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Suyeon Park, Baigal Baymbajav
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used to treat patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated the effect of TDF on renal insufficiency in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).A consecutive cohort analysis was applied to CHB patients taking prescribed TDF from January 2012 to May 2016 at Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital. Alterations over time in corrected calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation method...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442226/molecular-evolution-and-phylodynamics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-circulating-in-iran
#4
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyed Amir Malekpour, Mehdi Norouzi, Fatemeh Ramezani, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Vahdat Poortahmasebi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Azam Ghaziasadi, Hadi Karimzadeh, Reza Malekzadeh, Masood Ziaee, Farshid Abedi, Behrooz Ataei, Majid Yaran, Babak Sayad, Hamid Reza Jahantigh, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Gholamreza Sarizadeh, Ismail Sanei-Moghaddam, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Hossein Keyvani, Ebrahim Kalantari, Zahra Fakhari, Babak Geravand, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441983/microrna-137-promotes-hepatitis-b-virus-gene-expression-and-replication-via-targeting-the-protein-inhibitor-of-activated-stat-2
#5
Yongjie Pan, Jinhua Dai, Yufeng Liao, Qiuyun Yu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most important infectious diseases in China. In this study, we investigated the functional role of miR-137 in HBV infection to further elucidate the mechanism underlying the associated pathology. Viral replication was determined after transfection of HEK293 cells with the replication-competent vector pHBV1.3 and miR137 mimics or inhibitors. Expression of HBV genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression of miR-137 and protein inhibitor of activated STAT 2 (PIAS2) was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
September 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441587/transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-from-an-individual-donation-nucleic-acid-id-nat-non-reactive-donor
#6
N O'Flaherty, I Ushiro-Lumb, L Pomeroy, S Ijaz, F Boland, C De Gascun, J Fitzgerald, J O'Riordan
Lookback was initiated upon notification of an acute HBV infection in a repeat Irish donor, 108 days post-donation. The donation screened non-reactive by individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) using the Procleix Ultrio Elite multiplex assay and again when the archived sample was retested, but the discriminatory assay for HBV was reactive. The immunocompromised recipient of the implicated red cell component was tested 110 days post-transfusion, revealing a HBV DNA viral load of 470 IU/ml. Genotype C2 sequences identical across two regions of the HBV genome were found in samples from the donor and recipient...
February 14, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439751/impact-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-on-acute-hepatitis-b-epidemiology-in-european-union-european-economic-area-countries-2006-to-2014
#7
Alessandro Miglietta, Chantal Quinten, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Erika Duffell
Hepatitis B prevention in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries relies on vaccination programmes. We describe the epidemiology of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) at country and EU/EEA level during 2006-2014. Using a multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression model we assessed differences in the acute HBV infection notification rates between groups of countries that started universal HBV vaccination before/in vs after 1995; implemented or not a catch-up strategy; reached a vaccine coverage ≥ 95% vs < 95% and had a hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence ≥ 1% vs < 1%...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439653/unexplained-chronic-liver-disease-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Nega Berhe, Trine Lauritzen, Borghild Roald, Robert David Goldin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is assumed to be the major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of other aetiological causes of CLD is less well documented and hence opportunities to modulate other potential risk factors are being lost. The aims of this study were to explore the aetiological spectrum of CLD in eastern Ethiopia and to identify plausible underlying risk factors for its development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between April 2015 and April 2016 in two public hospitals in Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438889/recent-progress-in-potential-anti-hepatitis-b-virus-agents-structural-and-pharmacological-perspectives
#9
Dejuan Sun, Lingjuan Zhu, Dahong Yao, Lixia Chen, Leilei Fu, Liang Ouyang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide and increase the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that about 686 thousand people died annually of liver damage resulted from HBV infections. At present, two classes of antiviral drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hepatitis B, immunomodulators (interferon [IFN]-a and pegylated-interferon [PEG-IFN]-a) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (lamivudine, telbivudine, adefovir, tenofovir [TDF], and entecavir [ETV])...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438710/analysis-of-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-monozygotic-twins-concordant-and-discordant-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#10
Qiong Jiang, Yao Liu, Baoyan Xu, Wenhong Zheng, Xiaomei Xiang, Xiaoqin Tang, Hui Dong, Yongwen Chen, Chenhui Wang, Guohong Deng, Qing Mao, Xiaoyun Shang, Yuzhang Wu
Due to their identical inheritance and shared surroundings, identical twins have been the recommended group for studying the susceptibility and prognosis of diseases. Here, CD8 + T cell receptor beta (TCRβ) chains were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing in three pairs of healthy identical twins and chronic hepatitis B patients. The data showed a high level of similarity in the TCR repertoire of each pair in terms of average TCR Vβ segment expression and frequency of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) pattern and skewed or oligoclonal clonotypes...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438397/capacity-of-non-invasive-hepatic-fibrosis-algorithms-to-replace-transient-elastography-to-exclude-cirrhosis-in-people-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#11
Melissa Louise Kelly, Stephen M Riordan, Rohan Bopage, Andrew R Lloyd, Jeffrey John Post
INTRODUCTION: Achievement of the 2030 World Health Organisation (WHO) global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets will be underpinned by scale-up of testing and use of direct-acting antiviral treatments. In Australia, despite publically-funded testing and treatment, less than 15% of patients were treated in the first year of treatment access, highlighting the need for greater efficiency of health service delivery. To this end, non-invasive fibrosis algorithms were examined to reduce reliance on transient elastography (TE) which is currently utilised for the assessment of cirrhosis in most Australian clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438098/sustained-antiviral-effects-and-clearance-of-hepatitis-surface-antigen-after-combination-therapy-with-entecavir-and-pegylated-interferon-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Satoru Hagiwara, Naoshi Nishida, Tomohiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ida, Toshiharu Sakurai, Kazuomi Ueshima, Masahiro Takita, Yoriaki Komeda, Norihiro Nishijima, Yukio Osaki, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of combination therapy with lamivudine or tenofovir and pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the long-term effect of the combination based on the observation of clinical course remains to be clarified. We previously reported the efficacy of combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and Peg-IFN. Here, we investigated the long-term effect of this combination in patients with CHB. METHODS: We administered both ETV and Peg-IFN α-2a or -2b simultaneously to 26 patients with hepatitis B virus genotype C infection...
February 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437960/silencing-retinoid-x-receptor-alpha-expression-enhances-early-stage-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cell-cultures
#13
Mei Song, Yinyan Sun, Ji Tian, Wenhui He, Guangwei Xu, Zhiyi Jing, Wenhui Li
Multiple steps of the life cycle of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are known to be coupled to hepatic metabolism. However the details of involvement of hepatic metabolic milieu in HBV infection remain incompletely understood. Hepatic lipid metabolism is controlled by a complicated transcription factors network centered by Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα). Here, we report that RXRα negatively regulates HBV infection at early stage in cell cultures. RXR specific agonist Bexarotene inhibits HBV in HepG2 cells expressing the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) (HepG2-NTCP), HepaRG cells and primary Tupaia hepatocytes (PTHs); Reducing RXRα expression significantly enhanced HBV infection in the cells...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434654/quasispecies-variant-of-pre-s-s-gene-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-hbs-antigen-positive-and-occult-infection
#14
Yuri Hatazawa, Yoshihiko Yano, Rina Okada, Toshihito Tanahashi, Hiroki Hayashi, Hirotaka Hirano, Akihiro Minami, Yuki Kawano, Motofumi Tanaka, Takumi Fukumoto, Yoshiki Murakami, Masaru Yoshida, Yoshitake Hayashi
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can develop in patients who are negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum but positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver, referred to as occult HBV infection (OBI). Previous reports showed that HBV variants in OBI-related HCC are different from those in HBsAg-positive HCC. In the present study, HBV quasispecies based on the pre-S/S gene in OBI-related HCC patients were examined by high throughput sequencing and compared with those in HBsAg-positive HCC...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434477/high-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-madagascar-comparison-with-other-sexually-transmitted-infections
#15
Jérôme Bigoni, Rosa Catarino, Caroline Benski, Manuela Viviano, Maria Munoz, Honoré Tilahizandry, Patrick Petignat, Pierre Vassilakos
Background: In Madagascar, human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as well as syphilis share common risk factors but seem to differ in their prevalence. We measured and compared their prevalence in the country. Methods: The data used in this study came from the Saint Damien Health Centre in Ambanja, Madagascar. The tests used for disease detection were the Alere Determine, Virucheck, rapid plasma reagin, and S-DRY self-HPV samples for HIV infection, HBV infection, syphilis, and HPV infection, respectively...
2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434181/efficacy-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-among-children-in-special-region-of-yogyakarta-indonesia-evaluation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity
#16
Caessar Pronocitro, Nenny Sri Mulyani, Afif Avicenna Ghufron, Yugata Halimawan Hazazi, Bambang Ardianto, Didik Setyo Heriyanto
Hepatitis B remains a global burden, with estimated 15 to 40 percents of infected individuals eventually suffer from liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Vaccination aims to form anti-HBs antibody with protective titer to prevent infection. CD4 T cell lymphocytes are known to play a major role in establishing immunity after vaccination. This study aimed to investigate protective titer rate among Indonesian children in Special Region of Yogyakarta following hepatitis B vaccination and correlation between anti-HBs titer and CD4 count...
January 17, 2018: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433454/hepatitis-b-c-in-the-countries-of-the-eu-eea-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-among-at-risk-groups
#17
Abby May Falla, Sanne Henrietta Ina Hofstraat, Erika Duffell, Susan Josien Maria Hahné, Lara Tavoschi, Irene Karen Veldhuijzen
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organisation set a goal to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Robust epidemiological information underpins all efforts to achieve elimination and this systematic review provides estimates of HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) among three at-risk populations: people in prison, men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Estimates of the prevalence among the three risk groups included in our study were derived from multiple sources...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433428/comparison-of-hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-between-hbsag-positive-population-and-healthy-controls-in-shandong-province-china
#18
Li Zhang, Zechun Jiang, Jingjing Lv, Jiaye Liu, Bingyu Yan, Yi Feng, Li Li, Guomin Zhang, Fuzhen Wang, Aiqiang Xu
BACKGROUND: Persons with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection were reported to suffer severe disease after hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection, but the studies regarding HEV seroprevalence in this population were limited. A recent study in Vietnam found higher HEV seroprevalence among CHB patients compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A community-based case-control study was conducted in two counties of Shandong province, China, where hepatitis E incidence was at the highest (Rushan) and lowest (Zhangqiu) in the province based on data from routine public health surveillance...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432906/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-synergize-to-enhance-trail-induced-apoptosis-of-renal-tubular-cells-by-upregulation-of-dr4
#19
Yitong Yang, Xuan Wang, Yueyue Zhang, Weijie Yuan
Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN). Presence of HBV-DNA and -RNA in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) suggests direct virus-induced injury. Increase in proinflammatory cytokines is also observed under these conditions. Apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HBV-infections. However, the effects of HBV X protein (HBx) on TRAIL-induced apoptosis of RTECs especially under certain inflammatory conditions remain obscure...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432880/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-d-virus-coinfection-in-western-burkina-faso-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-detected-virus-strains
#20
Armel M Sanou, Kenza Benkirane, Bachirou Tinto, Assana Cissé, Tani Sagna, Abdoul Kader Ilboudo, Claire Dording, Zekiba Tarnagda, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we monitored the seroprevalence of HBV-HDV co-infection in different population groups in the Western part of Burkina Faso, and described the genetic diversity of the detected virus strains. METHODS: Between October 2013 and December 2014, venous blood samples were collected from different cohorts (blood donors, pregnant women, outpatients) in the western region of Burkina Faso. Samples were tested for HBsAg and total anti-HDV antibodies...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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