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Hepatitis B infection

Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Elizabeth G Bannister, Lilly Yuen, Margaret Littlejohn, Rosalind Edwards, Vitina Sozzi, Danni Colledge, Xin Li, Stephen Locarnini, Winita Hardikar, Peter A Revill
Migration from sub-Saharan Africa is contributing to the rising incidence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and its complications in Australia. African CHB is associated with unique genotypes, such as E and A1, which are associated with reduced vaccine efficacy and early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, although the prevalence of these genotypes outside Africa is poorly described. Treatment-naïve children of African origin with CHB were recruited at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne...
June 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Delphine Weil, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Guillaume Mourey, Caroline Laheurte, Benoit Cypriani, Nicolas Badet, Eric Delabrousse, Emilie Grandclément, Vincent Di Martino, Philippe Saas, Laurent Lagrost, Thierry Thévenot
BACKGROUND&AIMS: The quantification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in biological fluids is challenging. We aimed to measure plasma LPS concentration using a new method of direct quantification of 3-hydroxymyristate (3-HM), a lipid component of LPS, and to evaluate correlations between 3-HM and markers of liver function, endothelial activation, portal hypertension and enterocyte damage. METHODS: Plasma from 90 non-infected cirrhotic patients (30 Child-Pugh [CP]-A, 30 CP-B, 30 CP-C) was prospectively collected...
June 22, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Zhijiang Xi, Quan Gong, Chao Wang, Bing Zheng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global public health problem and one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. HBsAg is the first serological marker to appear in the blood and is the most important marker of HBV infection. Detection of HBsAg in serum samples is commonly carried out using an immunoassay such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is complex to perform, time-consuming, and unsatisfactory for testing sensitivity. Therefore, new methods for highly sensitive detection of HBV infection are urgently needed...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lee-Won Chong, Chih-Chao Hsu, Chang-Yin Lee, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Yi-Chao Hsu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD), a type of psychiatric mood disorder, is manifested by chronic and recurrent mood fluctuations. This study aims to determine whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a risk factor for BD. METHODS: A total of 48,215 patients with newly diagnosed viral hepatitis from 2000 to 2010 were identified and frequency-matched with 192,860 people without hepatitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosis with BD, withdrawal from the national health insurance program, or the end of 2011...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Pei-Song Bai, Peng Hou, Ying Kong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-dominant cancer. Several factors may contribute to the gender difference. Recent investigations have reported that miRNAs are involved in sex-linked signaling pathways and play a critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Therefore, we speculated that some of these miRNAs might contribute to the gender differences observed in HBV-related HCC. Our results showed that miR-371a-5p was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue and serum from HCC patients and that the expression level of miR-371a-5p was related to HBV infection, sexuality, TNM stage, adjacent organ invasion and microvascular invasion...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Kouichi Kitamura, Lusheng Que, Miyuki Shimadu, Miki Koura, Yuuki Ishihara, Kousho Wakae, Takashi Nakamura, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Masamichi Muramatsu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major etiological pathogens for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic HBV infection is a key factor in these severe liver diseases. During infection, HBV forms a nuclear viral episome in the form of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Current therapies are not able to efficiently eliminate cccDNA from infected hepatocytes. cccDNA is a master template for viral replication that is formed by the conversion of its precursor, relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA)...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Antonio Aguilera, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Carmen de Mendoza, Vincent Soriano
BACKGROUND: The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. As HDV replication requires hepatitis B virus (HBV), HDV screening is limited to HBsAg+ carriers. To date, individuals with HDV-antibodies and markers of resolved hepatitis B are considered cured. However, a subset shows elevated liver enzymes and hepatic fibrosis. Could they represent HBsAg-seronegative occult HDV infections? METHODS: We tested for HDV-antibodies 406 individuals with markers of past HBV exposure...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Federica Magnè, Alessio Signori, Antonio Di Biagio, Laura Sticchi, Chiara Paganino, Paolo Durando, Claudio Viscoli
OBJECTIVES: Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended in people living with HIV (PLHIV), although immune response rates are lower than in healthy individuals. We aimed at assessing response rates and predictors as well as persistence of seroprotection in a cohort of PLHIV with no serological evidence of current or previous HBV infection. METHODS: PLHIV followed at our site were retrospectively included if they started a primary HBV vaccination course (20 mcg dose three-doses schedule, alone or combined with inactivated hepatitis A virus) between 2007 and 2012...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Memduh Sahin, Fahri Karayakar, Ali Riza Koksal, Aylin Yetim, Mehmet Sinan İyisoy, İlker Şen, Hüseyin Alkım, Canan Alkım, Tahsin Colak
Approximately 350-400 million people in the world have Hbs Ag (hepatitis B virus surface antigen) positivity. In the international guidelines, the permanent suppression of replication in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection therapy is reported as the primary therapeutic goal. Trace elements play a key role in liver diseases. The aim of our study is to determine some trace element concentrations in the liver during HBV treatment periods. The measurement of 11 trace elements (manganese, lead, nickel, chromium, cadmium, iron, copper, zinc, silver, cobalt, and aluminum) was carried out by the method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in liver biopsy materials (before starting treatment and at the sixth month of the treatment period)...
June 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Shuki Oya, Tsuyoshi Muta
We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had received umbilical cord blood transplantation after two courses of induction therapy. Empirical therapy with caspofungin was initiated 5 days before transplantation. Tacrolimus was continuously infused to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A minidose of methotrexate was intravenously administered on days 1 and 3 post-transplantation, which was changed to prednisolone from day 7 due to severe mucositis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Zhen Gong, Guan-Zhu Han
The origin of hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae), a group of reverse-transcribing DNA viruses that infect vertebrates, remains mysterious. All the known retrotransposons are only distantly related to hepadnaviruses. Here we report the discovery of two novel lineages of retroelements, which we designate hepadnavirus-like retroelement (HEART1 and HEART2), within the insect genomes through screening 1,095 eukaryotic genomes. Both phylogenetic and similarity analyses suggest that the HEART retroelements represent the closest non-viral relatives of hepadnaviruses so far...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Wanyun Gong, Lin Liu, Manyu Li, Lin Wang, Mingyu Zhang, Zhengxin Luo, Siddharth Sridhar, Patrick C Y Woo, Ling Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis. Patients with chronic hepatitis B superinfected with HEV may progress to liver failure. Babao Dan (BD) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used as an auxiliary option for the treatment of chronic hepatitis and liver cancer in China. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BD on the management of HEV infection in a rabbit model. Sixty-two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups and treated with BD or placebo for 2 weeks...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Xinyu Zhao, Xinghuo Pang, Fuzhen Wang, Fuqiang Cui, Li Wang, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dietary factors during pregnancy may modulate the immunity of offspring by epigenetic programming. But the relationship between intrauterine environment and persistence of protective antibody after hepatitis B vaccination has not been reported. This study was to investigate the 5-year persistence of protective antibody response after primary hepatitis B vaccination, and its relationship with maternal folic acid supplementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1461 children who completed a 3-dose 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at birth and did not infect hepatitis B virus were followed up...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
AmirReza Hesari, Faezeh Ghasemi, Reza Salarinia, Hamed Biglari, Agheel Tabar Molla Hassan, Vali Abdoli, Hamed Mirzaei
Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in traditional medicine for centuries. This component is non-toxic and shown different therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasites, and anti-oxidant. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus (Hepadnaviridae family) which is a highly contagious blood-borne viral pathogen. HBV infection is a major public health problem with 2 billion people infected throughout the world and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Odette Popovici, Rodica Radu, Angela Romaniuc, Doina Azoicăi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Action Plan for viral hepatites in the WHO European Region aims to eliminate them as a public health threat by the end of 2030. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission is a problem of major concern. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women in Romania, as scientific evidence for recommending public health interventions. METHODS: The serum samples were prospectively collected in randomly selected maternities, from pregnant women admitted for birth beginning with July 1st, 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Mona Seyed Attaran, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Javad Fakhari, Zohreh Sharifi
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus belongs to Hepadnaviridea family. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with 2 billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the serological pattern and molecular characterization of HBV diversity in asymptomatic blood donors in Iran alongside with the mutation status of HBV in relation to blood safety. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty six samples from asymptomatic blood donors who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen during 2012 to 2014 were selected...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Hiroteru Kamimura, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Takeshi Yokoo, Akira Sakamaki, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of proteins. Liver dysfunction affects many organs because it communicates with the spleen and all digestive organs through the portal vein. Additionally, the kidney is an organ that is closely related to the liver and is involved in liver diseases. Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting HBV polymerase, thus decreasing the levels of serum HBV-DNA and delaying the progression of cirrhosis...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Yu-Lan Chen, Jun Jing, Ying-Qian Mo, Jian-Da Ma, Li-Juan Yang, Le-Feng Chen, Xiang Zhang, Tao Yan, Dong-Hui Zheng, Frank Pessler, Lie Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but there are no studies on the presence of HBV antigens or nucleic acid in synovium from patients with RA with HBV infection. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HBV in the synovium and its clinical significance in RA. METHODS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients with active RA (Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment based on C-reactive protein ≥ 2...
June 19, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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