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Stretch shortening cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771823/residual-force-enhancement-is-attenuated-in-a-shortening-magnitude-dependent-manner
#1
Atsuki Fukutani, Walter Herzog
INTRODUCTION: The isometric force attained after active stretch is greater than that attained in a purely isometric contraction. This property is referred to as residual force enhancement (RFE). Although RFE is thought to contribute to the enhanced force and power in stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs), it is unclear whether shortening that occurs after active stretch eliminates the RFE induced by active stretch. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of shortening on RFE. METHODS: Skinned rabbit soleus fibers (N = 43) were used for all tests...
May 16, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768095/test-retest-reliability-of-kinetic-variables-measured-on-campus-board-in-sport-climbers
#2
Edgardo Alvares de Campos Abreu, Sílvia Ribeiro Santos Araújo, Gustavo Henrique da Cunha Peixoto Cançado, André Gustavo Pereira de Andrade, Mauro Heleno Chagas, Hans-Joachim Karl Menzel
Sport climbers frequently use campus board (CB) to improve their upper limb strength under similar conditions of high-difficulty sport climbing routes. The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of peak force and impulse measured using a CB instrumented with two load cells on starting holds. The same evaluator examined 22 climbers on two days with 48 h between the assessments. The participants performed five concentric lunges (CL) and five lunges with stretch-shortening cycle with 1 min intervals between repetitions and 10 min between exercises...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745784/short-term-effects-of-rolling-massage-on-energy-cost-of-running-and-power-of-the-lower-limbs
#3
Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMFR) is a type of self-massage that is becoming popular among athletes. However, SMFR effects on running performance have not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR on cost of running (Cr). In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs muscle power. METHODS: The measurement of Cr and lower limb muscle power during squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were performed before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 3hours after (POST 3h) a SMFR protocol (experimental condition)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734063/neuromechanical-adaptations-to-slippery-sport-shoes
#4
Cédric Y M Morio, Alexis Herbaut
Although shoe friction has been widely studied in occupational ergonomics, information was lacking about friction in sport shoes. The purpose of the study was to examine the neuromechanical adaptations to different shoe-surface interface in an aerobic-gym specific movement. Sixteen females performed 10 change of direction movements in two shoe conditions differing by their outsoles (ethyl-vinyl-acetate: EVA and rubber: RB) to ensure significant differences in mechanical coefficients of friction (EVA = 0...
May 4, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726964/size-history-dependent-activation-and-three-dimensional-effects-on-the-work-and-power-produced-during-cyclic-muscle-contractions
#5
Stephanie A Ross, David S Ryan, Sebastian Dominguez, Nilima Nigam, James M Wakeling
Muscles undergo cycles of length change and force development during locomotion, and these contribute to their work and power production to drive body motion. Muscle fibres are typically considered to be linear actuators whose stress depends on their length, velocity, and activation state, and whose properties can be scaled up to explain the function of whole muscles. However, experimental and modelling studies have shown that a muscle's stress additionally depends on inactive and passive tissues within the muscle, the muscle's size, and its previous contraction history...
May 3, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706410/muscle-shear-wave-elastography-in-inclusion-body-myositis-feasibility-reliability-and-relationships-with-muscle-impairments
#6
Damien Bachasson, Guillaume J R Dubois, Yves Allenbach, Olivier Benveniste, Jean-Yves Hogrel
Degenerative muscle changes may be associated with changes in muscle mechanical properties. Shear wave elastography (SWE) allows direct quantification of muscle shear modulus (MSM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of SWE in the severely disordered muscle as observed in inclusion body myositis. To explore the clinical relevance of SWE, potential relationships between MSM values and level muscle impairments (weakness and ultrasound-derived muscle thickness and echo intensity) were investigated...
April 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619805/using-blood-lactate-concentration-to-predict-muscle-damage-and-jump-performance-response-to-maximal-stretch-shortening-cycle-exercise
#7
Vladimir Manojlović, Frane Erčulj
BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric muscle contractions induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ERB), both of which are related to high blood levels of muscle damage markers after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) is, together with some other markers (e.i. myoglobin, α-actin, skeletal troponin), widely used in determination of muscle damage. Moreover, DOMS after eccentric exercise has been shown to be associated with altered blood lactate concentration after subsequent submaximal or maximal cycling exercise...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561245/the-efficacy-of-downhill-running-as-a-method-to-enhance-running-economy-in-trained-distance-runners
#8
Andrew J Shaw, Stephen A Ingham, Jonathan P Folland
Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523053/the-evaluation-of-changes-of-angles-in-selected-joints-during-topspin-forehand-in-table-tennis
#9
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aims of this study were to evaluate movement patterns of topspin forehand, to define the main principles of performing this shot, and to determine the essential differences in individual types of topspin forehand. In total, 10 female high-level athletes participated in this study. The BTS analysis system was used with a novel model for the range-of-motion measurement. An acoustic sensor was attached to the racket for identification of a ball-racket contact. Players, performing topspin forehand, attempt to achieve maximal racket velocity based on the principles of proximal-to-distal sequences and summation of speed with a stretch-shortening character of cycle...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471731/the-role-of-pelvis-thorax-coupling-in-controlling-within-golf-club-swing-speed
#10
Peter F Lamb, Todd C Pataky
Pelvis-thorax coordination has been recognised to be associated with swing speed. Increasing angular separation between the pelvis and thorax has been thought to initiate the stretch shortening cycle and lead to increased clubhead speed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pelvis-thorax coupling played a significant role in regulating clubhead speed, in a group of low-handicap golfers (mean handicap = 4.1). Sixteen participants played shots to target distances determined based on their typical 5- and 6-iron shot distances...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401201/relationship-between-reactive-strength-index-variants-in-rugby-league-players
#11
John J McMahon, Timothy J Suchomel, Jason P Lake, Paul Comfort
Two reactive strength index (RSI) variants exist, the RSI and RSI modified (RSImod) which are typically calculated during the drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively. Both RSI variants have been used to monitor athletes' ability to complete stretch-shortening cycle actions quickly, but they have never been compared. The purpose of this study was to determine if they yield relatable information about reactive strength characteristics. Male professional rugby league players (n = 21, age = 20...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367663/force-depression-following-a-stretch-shortening-cycle-is-independent-of-stretch-peak-force-and-work-performed-during-shortening
#12
Rafael Fortuna, Hannah Kirchhuebel, Wolfgang Seiberl, Geoffrey A Power, Walter Herzog
The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms behind these phenomena remain not fully understood, with few studies investigating the effects of FD and RFE in stretch-shortening cycles (SSC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of RFE and peak force at the end of the stretch phase on the steady-state isometric force following shortening...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364043/lower-leg-morphology-and-stretch-shortening-cycle-performance-of-dancers
#13
Paige E Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K Merritt, Jeffrey M McBride
Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress-strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle-joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. Ten female collegiate dancers and ten untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexions, countermovement hops and drop hops at 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351163/comparison-of-the-force-velocity-and-power-time-curves-between-the-concentric-only-and-eccentric-concentric-bench-press-exercises
#14
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paul Comfort, John J McMahon, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Amador García-Ramos
The aim of this study was to compare the temporal and mechanical variables between the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press (BP) variants. Twenty-one men (age: 22.0±4.2 years, body mass: 73.4±7.7 kg, height: 177.2±8.0 cm; one-repetition maximum [1RM]: 1.12±0.12 kg⋅kg) were evaluated during the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric BP variants using 80% 1RM. Temporal (concentric phase duration, propulsive phase duration, and time to reach the maximum values of force, velocity, and power) and mechanical variables (force, velocity, and power), determined using a linear velocity transducer, were compared between both BP variants...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300147/relationships-between-highly-skilled-golfers-clubhead-velocity-and-force-producing-capabilities-during-vertical-jumps-and-an-isometric-mid-thigh-pull
#15
Jack E T Wells, Andrew C S Mitchell, Laura H Charalambous, Iain M Fletcher
Whilst previous research has highlighted significant relationships between golfers' clubhead velocity (CHV) and their vertical jump height and maximum strength, these field-based protocols were unable to measure the actual vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may correlate to performance. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump (DJ) vGRF variables and CHV in highly skilled golfers...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180479/influence-of-residual-force-enhancement-and-elongation-of-attached-cross-bridges-on-stretch-shortening-cycle-in-skinned-muscle-fibers
#16
Atsuki Fukutani, Venus Joumaa, Walter Herzog
Increased muscle force during stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) has been widely examined. However, the mechanisms causing increased muscle force in SSCs remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of residual force enhancement and elongation of attached cross-bridges on the work enhancement in SSCs. For the Control condition, skinned rabbit soleus fibers were elongated passively from an average sarcomere length of 2.4 to 3.0  μ m, activated and then actively shortened to 2.4  μ m...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179043/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-joint-power-and-dynamics-in-ergometer-double-poling-performed-by-cross-country-skiers
#17
Jørgen Danielsen, Øyvind Sandbakk, David McGhie, Gertjan Ettema
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the role of joint powers in ergometer double poling (DP), while taking specific dynamic constraints into account. One main question was whether lower-body power contribution increased or decreased with increasing intensity. Nine male Norwegian national-level cross-country skiers performed ergometer DP at low, moderate, high and maximal intensity. Kinematics, and ground (GRF) and poling (Fpoling ) reaction forces were recorded and used in link segment modeling to obtain joint and whole-body dynamics...
February 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166984/a-comparison-of-musculo-articular-stiffness-and-maximal-isometric-plantar-flexion-and-knee-extension-force-in-dancers-and-untrained-individuals
#18
Paige E Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Denzel J Dejournette, Reed D Gurchiek, John W Mackall, Jeffrey M McBride
Dance involves a high volume of aesthetic, stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions, which may cause unique adaptations to performance. The strength dancers possess to withstand such frequency of SSCs remains elusive. The extensive training that dancers experience from a young age, however, yields anatomical and strength development that may contrast with that of untrained individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in musculo-articular stiffness and maximal isometric plantar flexion and knee extension force between dancers and untrained individuals...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059895/consistency-of-surface-electromyography-assessment-at-lower-limb-selected-muscles-during-vertical-countermovement
#19
Carlos Rodrigues, Miguel Correia, Joao M C S Abrantes, Jurandir Nadal, Marco A Benedetti Rodrigues
Given the difficulty of invasive methods to assess muscle action during natural human movement, surface electromyography (sEMG) has been increasingly used to capture muscle activity in relation to kinesiological analysis of specific tasks. Isolated isometric, concentric and eccentric forms of muscle action have been receiving the most attention for research purposes. Nevertheless natural muscle action frequently involves the use of a preceding eccentric muscle action as a form of potentiation of immediate muscle concentric action, in what is designated as muscle stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939561/effects-of-a-titin-mutation-on-negative-work-during-stretch-shortening-cycles-in-skeletal-muscles
#20
Anthony L Hessel, Kiisa C Nishikawa
Negative work occurs in muscles during braking movements such as downhill walking or landing after a jump. When performing negative work during stretch-shortening cycles, viscoelastic structures within muscles store energy during stretch, return a fraction of this energy during shortening, and dissipate the remaining energy as heat. Because tendons and extracellular matrix are relatively elastic rather than viscoelastic, energy is mainly dissipated by cross bridges and titin. Recent studies demonstrate that titin stiffness increases in active skeletal muscles, suggesting that titin contributions to negative work may have been underestimated in previous studies...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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