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Stretch shortening cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900862/the-influence-of-growth-and-maturation-on-stretch-shortening-cycle-function-in-youth
#1
REVIEW
John M Radnor, Jon L Oliver, Charlie M Waugh, Gregory D Myer, Isabel S Moore, Rhodri S Lloyd
Hopping, skipping, jumping and sprinting are common tasks in both active play and competitive sports. These movements utilise the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), which is considered a naturally occurring muscle action for most forms of human locomotion. This muscle action results in more efficient movements and helps optimise relative force generated per motor unit recruited. Innate SSC development throughout childhood and adolescence enables children to increase power (jump higher and sprint faster) as they mature...
September 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893285/estimates-of-individual-muscle-power-production-in-normal-adult-walking
#2
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. METHODS: An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830536/the-preventive-effect-of-the-bounding-exercise-programme-on-hamstring-injuries-in-amateur-soccer-players-the-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
S Van de Hoef, B M A Huisstede, M S Brink, N de Vries, E A Goedhart, F J G Backx
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance...
August 22, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801518/effects-of-plyometric-and-isometric-training-on-muscle-and-tendon-stiffness-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Keitaro Kubo, Tomonobu Ishigaki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775069/the-effect-of-a-pre-hop-on-the-muscle-tendon-interaction-during-vertical-jumps
#5
Jeroen Aeles, Glen A Lichtwark, Dries Peeters, Christophe Delecluse, Ilse Jonkers, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Many movements use stretch-shortening cycles of a muscle-tendon unit (MTU) for storing and releasing elastic energy. The required stretching of medial gastrocnemius (MG) tendinous tissue during jumps, however, requires large length changes of the muscle fascicles, due to the lack of MTU length changes. This has a negative impact on the force generating capacity of the muscle fascicles. The purpose of this study was to induce a MG MTU stretch prior to shortening by adding a pre-hop to the squat jump. Eleven well-trained athletes specialized in jumping performed a pre-hop squat jump (PHSJ) and a standard squat jump (SSJ)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667097/shortening-induced-force-depression-is-modulated-in-a-time-and-speed-dependent-manner-following-a-stretch-shortening-cycle
#6
Rafael Fortuna, Martin Groeber, Wolfgang Seiberl, Geoffrey A Power, Walter Herzog
The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression, FD) or greater (residual force enhancement, RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanism underlying these phenomena is not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory, with few studies investigating the effects of FD and RFE in stretching-shortening cycle (SSC). The purpose of this study was to perform SSC, where the time between the end of stretch and the end of shortening was manipulated by (1) adding a pause between stretch and shortening (protocol 1) or (2) performing the shortening contraction at different speeds (protocol 2)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640774/the-difference-between-countermovement-and-squat-jump-performances-a-review-of-underlying-mechanisms-with-practical-applications
#7
Bas Van Hooren, Julia Zolotarjova
Van Hooren, B and Zolotarjova, J. The difference between countermovement and squat jump performances: a review of underlying mechanisms with practical applications. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2011-2020, 2017-Two movements that are widely used to monitor athletic performance are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Countermovement jump performance is almost always better than SJ performance, and the difference in performance is thought to reflect an effective utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628245/effects-of-resistance-training-using-known-vs-unknown-loads-on-eccentric-phase-adaptations-and-concentric-velocity
#8
J L Hernández-Davó, R Sabido, D G Behm, A J Blazevich
The aims of this study were to compare both eccentric- and concentric-phase adaptations in highly trained handball players to 4 weeks of twice-weekly rebound bench press throw training with varying loads (30%, 50% and 70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) using either known (KL) or unknown (UL) loads and to examine the relationship between changes in eccentric- and concentric-phase performance. Twenty-eight junior team handball players were divided into two experimental groups (KL or UL) and a control group...
June 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527424/influence-of-chronic-stretching-on-muscle-performance-systematic-review
#9
D M Medeiros, C S Lima
The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of chronic stretching on muscle performance (MP) by a systematic review. The search strategy included MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, LILACS, and manual search from inception to June 2016. Randomized and controlled clinical trials, non-randomized, and single group studies that have analyzed the influence of flexibility training (FT) (using any stretching technique) on MP were included. Differently, studies with special populations (children, elderly, and people with any dysfunction/disease), and articles that have used FT protocols shorter than three weeks or 12 sessions were excluded...
May 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500647/serum-bdnf-and-il-6-response-to-high-volume-mechanically-demanding-exercise
#10
Vaidas Verbickas, Sigitas Kamandulis, Audrius Snieckus, Tomas Venckunas, Neringa Baranauskiene, Marius Brazaitis, Danguole Satkunskiene, Alvydas Unikauskas, Albertas Skurvydas
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to follow circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in response to severe muscle-damaging exercise. METHODS: Young healthy men (N=10) performed a bout of mechanically demanding stretch shortening cycle exercise consisting of 200 drop jumps. Voluntary and electrically induced knee extension torque, serum BDNF levels, and IL-6 levels were measured before and for up to 7 days after exercise...
May 13, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456776/effect-of-sprint-cycling-and-stretch-shortening-cycle-exercises-on-the-neuromuscular-immune-and-stress-indicators-in-young-men
#11
V Verbickas, N Baranauskiene, N Eimantas, S Kamandulis, S Rutkauskas, D Satkunskiene, S Sadauskas, M Brazaitis, A Skurvydas
Selection of optimal physical load is essential for desired adaptation including health benefits. We hypothesized that neuromuscular, immune and stress indicators will be higher after energy demanding sprint interval exercise (SIE) than to mechanically demanding stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSE). The main aim of this study was to assess and compare the kinetics of blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (as stress indicators) and proinflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines within 24 hours after metabolically demanding SIE and after muscle damage inducing SSE...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386453/both-the-elongation-of-attached-crossbridges-and-residual-force-enhancement-contribute-to-joint-torque-enhancement-by-the-stretch-shortening-cycle
#12
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
This study examined the influence of the elongation of attached crossbridges and residual force enhancement on joint torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). Electrically evoked submaximal tetanic plantar flexions were adopted. Concentric contractions were evoked in the following three conditions: after 2 s isometric preactivation (ISO condition), after 1 s isometric then 1 s eccentric preactivation (ECC condition), and after 1 s eccentric then 1 s isometric preactivation (TRAN condition)...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368956/the-effect-of-varying-plyometric-volume-on-stretch-shortening-cycle-capability-in-collegiate-male-rugby-players
#13
Mark Jeffreys, Mark De Ste Croix, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver, Jonathan Hughes
The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282755/the-acute-effects-of-an-intense-stretch-shortening-cycle-fatigue-protocol-on-the-neuromechanical-parameters-of-lower-limbs-in-men-and-prepubescent-boys
#14
Savvas Lazaridis, Dimitrios A Patikas, Eleni Bassa, Themistoklis Tsatalas, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, Christos Ftikas, Christos Kotzamanidis
The study examined the differences between boys and adults after an intense stretch-shortening cycle fatigue protocol on neuromechanical parameters of the lower limb. Thirteen boys (9-11 years old) and 13 adult men (22-28 years old) were tested for maximal isometric voluntary knee extension torque and drop jump (DJ) performance from 30 cm before and immediately after a fatigue protocol, consisted of 10 × 10 maximum effort vertical jumps. Three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) parameters of the lower extremities muscles were recorded during DJs before and after the fatigue test...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263394/conditioning-hops-increase-triceps-surae-muscle-force-and-achilles-tendon-strain-energy-in-the-stretch-shortening-cycle
#15
J Kümmel, N J Cronin, A Kramer, J Avela, M Gruber
Postactivation potentiation can improve athletic performance, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of conditioning hops on triceps surae muscle force and tendon strain and its contribution to potentiated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) performance. Thirty-two subjects participated in two experiments. In both experiments, subjects performed three drop jumps (DJs) after prior conditioning with 10 maximal hops, three unconditioned DJs served as control. Ground reaction forces, kinematics, and triceps surae electromyographic activity were recorded...
March 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179885/plyometric-training-favors-optimizing-muscle-tendon-behavior-during-depth-jumping
#16
Kuniaki Hirayama, Soichiro Iwanuma, Naoki Ikeda, Ayumi Yoshikawa, Ryoichi Ema, Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscle-tendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705774/mechanism-of-axonal-contractility-in-embryonic-drosophila-motor-neurons-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Alireza Tofangchi, Anthony Fan, M Taher A Saif
Several in vitro and limited in vivo experiments have shown that neurons maintain a rest tension along their axons intrinsically. They grow in response to stretch but contract in response to loss of tension. This contraction eventually leads to the restoration of the rest tension in axons. However, the mechanism by which axons maintain tension in vivo remains elusive. The objective of this work is to elucidate the key cytoskeletal components responsible for generating tension in axons. Toward this goal, in vivo experiments were conducted on single axons of embryonic Drosophila motor neurons in the presence of various drugs...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660301/bouncing-on-mars-and-the-moon-the-role-of-gravity-on-neuromuscular-control-correlation-of-muscle-activity-and-rate-of-force-development
#18
Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbors Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647157/chronic-adaptations-to-eccentric-training-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
May 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632850/eccentric-loading-of-triceps-surae-modulates-stretch-shortening-cycle-behaviour-a-possible-therapeutic-mechanism
#20
James R Debenham, William I Gibson, Mervyn J Travers, Amity C Campbell, Garry T Allison
CONTEXT: Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are one potential mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) behaviour during a hopping task...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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