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Stretch shortening cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386453/both-the-elongation-of-attached-crossbridges-and-residual-force-enhancement-contribute-to-joint-torque-enhancement-by-the-stretch-shortening-cycle
#1
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
This study examined the influence of the elongation of attached crossbridges and residual force enhancement on joint torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). Electrically evoked submaximal tetanic plantar flexions were adopted. Concentric contractions were evoked in the following three conditions: after 2 s isometric preactivation (ISO condition), after 1 s isometric then 1 s eccentric preactivation (ECC condition), and after 1 s eccentric then 1 s isometric preactivation (TRAN condition)...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368956/the-effect-of-varying-plyometric-volume-on-stretch-shortening-cycle-capability-in-collegiate-male-rugby-players
#2
Mark Jeffreys, Mark De Ste Croix, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver, Jonathan Hughes
The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282755/the-acute-effects-of-an-intense-stretch-shortening-cycle-fatigue-protocol-on-the-neuromechanical-parameters-of-lower-limbs-in-men-and-prepubescent-boys
#3
Savvas Lazaridis, Dimitrios A Patikas, Eleni Bassa, Themistoklis Tsatalas, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, Christos Ftikas, Christos Kotzamanidis
The study examined the differences between boys and adults after an intense stretch-shortening cycle fatigue protocol on neuromechanical parameters of the lower limb. Thirteen boys (9-11 years old) and 13 adult men (22-28 years old) were tested for maximal isometric voluntary knee extension torque and drop jump (DJ) performance from 30 cm before and immediately after a fatigue protocol, consisted of 10 × 10 maximum effort vertical jumps. Three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) parameters of the lower extremities muscles were recorded during DJs before and after the fatigue test...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263394/conditioning-hops-increase-triceps-surae-muscle-force-and-achilles-tendon-strain-energy-in-the-stretch-shortening-cycle
#4
J Kümmel, N J Cronin, A Kramer, J Avela, M Gruber
Postactivation potentiation can improve athletic performance, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of conditioning hops on triceps surae muscle force and tendon strain and its contribution to potentiated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) performance. Thirty-two subjects participated in two experiments. In both experiments, subjects performed three drop jumps (DJs) after prior conditioning with 10 maximal hops, three unconditioned DJs served as control. Ground reaction forces, kinematics, and triceps surae electromyographic activity were recorded...
March 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179885/plyometric-training-favors-optimizing-muscle-tendon-behavior-during-depth-jumping
#5
Kuniaki Hirayama, Soichiro Iwanuma, Naoki Ikeda, Ayumi Yoshikawa, Ryoichi Ema, Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscle-tendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705774/mechanism-of-axonal-contractility-in-embryonic-drosophila-motor-neurons-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Alireza Tofangchi, Anthony Fan, M Taher A Saif
Several in vitro and limited in vivo experiments have shown that neurons maintain a rest tension along their axons intrinsically. They grow in response to stretch but contract in response to loss of tension. This contraction eventually leads to the restoration of the rest tension in axons. However, the mechanism by which axons maintain tension in vivo remains elusive. The objective of this work is to elucidate the key cytoskeletal components responsible for generating tension in axons. Toward this goal, in vivo experiments were conducted on single axons of embryonic Drosophila motor neurons in the presence of various drugs...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660301/bouncing-on-mars-and-the-moon-the-role-of-gravity-on-neuromuscular-control-correlation-of-muscle-activity-and-rate-of-force-development
#7
Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbors Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647157/chronic-adaptations-to-eccentric-training-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
September 19, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632850/eccentric-loading-of-triceps-surae-modulates-stretch-shortening-cycle-behaviour-a-possible-therapeutic-mechanism
#9
James R Debenham, William I Gibson, Mervyn J Travers, Amity C Campbell, Garry T Allison
CONTEXT: Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are one potential mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) behaviour during a hopping task...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618527/the-relationship-between-maximal-strength-and-reactive-strength
#10
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Ian C Kenny
Maximum- and reactive-strength qualities both have important roles in athletic movements and sporting performance. Very little research has investigated the relationship between maximum-strength and reactive-strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum-strength (isometric mid-thigh pull peak force; IMTP PF) and reactive-strength (drop-jump reactive-strength index; DJ-RSI) variables at 0.3 m, 0.4 m, 0.5 m and 0.6 m box heights. A secondary aim investigated the between- and within-group differences in reactive-strength characteristics between relatively 'strong' and 'weak' athletes...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609762/additional-in-series-compliance-reduces-muscle-force-summation-and-alters-the-time-course-of-force-relaxation-during-fixed-end-contractions
#11
Dean L Mayfield, Bradley S Launikonis, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, because of their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties; however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557407/the-effect-of-water-temperature-during-cold-water-immersion-on-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Vieira, A F Siqueira, J B Ferreira-Junior, J do Carmo, J L Q Durigan, A Blazevich, M Bottaro
This study investigated the effects of 5 and 15°C cold-water immersion on recovery from exercise resulting in exercise-induced muscle damage. 42 college-aged men performed 5×20 drop-jumps and were randomly allocated into one of 3 groups: (1) 5°C; (2) 15°C; or (3) control. After exercise, individuals from the cold-water immersion groups had their lower limbs immerged in iced water for 20 min. Isometric knee extensor torque, countermovement jump, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h post-exercise...
November 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414804/effect-of-preactivation-on-torque-enhancement-by-the-stretch-shortening-cycle-in-knee-extensors
#13
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362587/medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-tendon-interaction-and-architecture-change-during-exhaustive-hopping-exercise
#14
Daniel E Lidstone, Herman van Werkhoven, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Madison Burris, Paige Rice, Garrett Feimster, Jeffrey M McBride
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown in vivo changes in muscle-tendon interaction during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. It is unclear whether these changes in muscle-tendon length during exhaustive SSC exercise are associated with changes in mechanical efficiency (ME). The purpose of the study was to investigate whether changes in platarflexor contractile component (CC) length, tendon length, and changes in plantarflexor muscle activity could explain reduction in ME during exhaustive SSC exercise...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328276/intersession-and-intrasession-reliability-and-validity-of-the-my-jump-app-for-measuring-different-jump-actions-in-trained-male-and-female-athletes
#15
Francisco Gallardo-Fuentes, Jorge Gallardo-Fuentes, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Cristian Martínez, Alexis Caniuqueo, Rodrigo Cañas, Winfried Banzer, Irineu Loturco, Fabio Y Nakamura, Mikel Izquierdo
Gallardo-Fuentes, F, Gallardo-Fuentes, J, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Martínez, C, Caniuqueo, A, Cañas, R, Banzer, W, Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, and Izquierdo, M. Intersession and intrasession reliability and validity of the My Jump app for measuring different jump actions in trained male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2049-2056, 2016-The purpose of this study was to analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of the iPhone app named My Jump for measuring jump height in 40-cm drop jumps (DJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and squat jumps (SJs)...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103353/recumbent-vs-upright-bicycles-3d-trajectory-of-body-centre-of-mass-limb-mechanical-work-and-operative-range-of-propulsive-muscles
#16
Riccardo Telli, Elena Seminati, Gaspare Pavei, Alberto Enrico Minetti
Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102488/detyrosinated-microtubules-buckle-and-bear-load-in-contracting-cardiomyocytes
#17
Patrick Robison, Matthew A Caporizzo, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Alexey I Bogush, Christina Yingxian Chen, Kenneth B Margulies, Vivek B Shenoy, Benjamin L Prosser
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton can transmit mechanical signals and resist compression in contracting cardiomyocytes. How MTs perform these roles remains unclear because of difficulties in observing MTs during the rapid contractile cycle. Here, we used high spatial and temporal resolution imaging to characterize MT behavior in beating mouse myocytes. MTs deformed under contractile load into sinusoidal buckles, a behavior dependent on posttranslational "detyrosination" of α-tubulin. Detyrosinated MTs associated with desmin at force-generating sarcomeres...
April 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054319/the-role-of-arch-compression-and-metatarsophalangeal-joint-dynamics-in-modulating-plantar-fascia-strain-in-running
#18
Kirsty A McDonald, Sarah M Stearne, Jacqueline A Alderson, Ian North, Neville J Pires, Jonas Rubenson
Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040693/early-phase-interference-between-low-intensity-running-and-power-training-in-moderately-trained-females
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gerasimos Terzis, Kostas Spengos, Spyros Methenitis, Per Aagaard, Nikos Karandreas, Gregory Bogdanis
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity running performed immediately after lower-body power-training sessions on power development. METHODS: Twenty young females participated in 6 weeks, 3/week, of either lower body power training (PT) or lower body power training followed by 30 min of low-intensity running (PET) eliciting 60-70 % of maximal heart rate. The following were measured before and after the training period: counter-movement jump, isometric leg press force and rate of force development (RFD), half squat 1-RM, vastus lateralis fiber type composition and cross sectional area, resting intramuscular fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), and heart rate during the modified Bruce treadmill test...
May 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985131/age-and-gender-related-development-of-stretch-shortening-cycle-during-a-sub-maximal-hopping-task
#20
G Laffaye, M A Choukou, N Benguigui, J Padulo
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of age and gender (and their interaction) on a stretch shortening cycle solicited during a hopping task. For this aim, 147 girls and 148 boys aged 11 to 20 years, who were enrolled in middle school or secondary school with no experience in sport activity, or training less than three times per week, performed 3×5 hops in place. Leg-stiffness, jump-height and reactive-strength indices were assessed using an accelerometer (Myotest). The participants were selected in order to form five age groups: 11 12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18 and 19-20 years...
March 2016: Biology of Sport
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