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Shot put

Michalina Błażkiewicz, Barbara Łysoń, Adam Chmielewski, Andrzej Wit
The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
Carolin Tuch, Thomas Teubel, Roberto La Marca, Lilian Roos, Hubert Annen, Thomas Wyss
This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT)...
December 13, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
José Pereira, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Cristiana Bessa, Isabel Mesquita
This study conducted a comparative analysis of students' knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Ying Chen, Yupeng Liao, Lisha Yuan, Hui Liu, Seong Dae Yun, Nadim Joni Shah, Zhong Chen, Jianhui Zhong
Single-shot spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) MRI is a novel fast imaging method capable of retaining the time efficiency of single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) but with distortion artifacts significantly reduced. Akin to EPI, the phase inconsistencies between mismatched even and odd echoes also result in the so-called Nyquist ghosts. However, the characteristic of the SPEN signals provides the possibility of obtaining ghost-free images directly from even and odd echoes respectively, without acquiring additional reference scans...
December 2, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Stephen Ragole, Jacob M Taylor
Atom interferometers provide exquisite measurements of the properties of noninertial frames. While atomic interactions are typically detrimental to good sensing, efforts to harness entanglement to improve sensitivity remain tantalizing. Here we explore the role of interactions in an analogy between atomic gyroscopes and SQUIDs, motivated by recent experiments realizing ring-shaped traps for ultracold atoms. We explore the one-dimensional limit of these ring systems with a moving weak barrier, such as that provided by a blue-detuned laser beam...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
B R Maddox, M C Akin, A Teruya, D Hunt, D Hahn, J Cradick, D V Morgan
Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Cecilia Wainryb, Stacia Bourne
War creates a multifaceted web of inequities that encompass most levels of the ecology of youth development. These include psychosocial inequities bearing on war-exposed youth's limited access to medical and educational services and job-training and employment opportunities, as well as some of the unique psychological sequelae of trauma exposure. In this chapter we put forth a twofold argument. First, we argue that the protracted hardships of war also create enduring psychological inequities that go beyond the well-documented psychosocial needs and psychological trauma, and encompass other aspects of youths' healthy development; these are inequities inasmuch as they represent profound alterations of the developmental pathways available to war-affected youth...
2016: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Brahmananda Chakraborty, Sharif Kidwai, Lavanya M Ramaniah
A molten salt mixture of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride (LiF-ThF4) serves as a fuel as well as a coolant in the most sophisticated molten salt reactor (MSR). Here, we report for the first time dynamic correlations, Onsager coefficients, Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities, and the concentration dependence of density and enthalpy of the molten salt mixture LiF-ThF4 at 1200 K in the composition range of 2-45% ThF4 and also at eutectic composition in the temperature range of 1123-1600 K using Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Marcus Dolan, Mark DeBeliso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ram Niranjan, R K Rout, R Srivastava, T C Kaushik, Satish C Gupta
A 17 kJ transportable plasma focus (PF) device with flexible transmission lines is developed and is characterized. Six custom made capacitors are used for the capacitor bank (CB). The common high voltage plate of the CB is fixed to a centrally triggered spark gap switch. The output of the switch is coupled to the PF head through forty-eight 5 m long RG213 cables. The CB has a quarter time-period of 4 μs and an estimated current of 506 kA is delivered to the PF device at 17 kJ (60 μF, 24 kV) energy. The average neutron yield measured using silver activation detector in the radial direction is (7...
March 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P B Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Acta Physiologica
P Kammerlander, J Anders
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems...
2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas I Gee, Stefan Deniel
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery of power-producing ability following a strength training (ST) session. METHODS: Eleven resistance-trained males, performed baseline measures of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a seated shot-put throw (SSPT). In a counterbalanced fashion, participants were provided with either 20-g of BCAA or a placebo. Each dose was divided into two equal quantities and consumed before and after a ST session consisting of various multi-joint barbell exercises...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Lawrence W Judge, David M Bellar, Bruce W Craig, Erin L Gilreath, Scott A Cappos, Ashley B Thrasher
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. This investigation was designed to test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes (20.9 ± 1.18 years.) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I schools in the Midwestern United States (n = 23 male and n = 18 female). Mean distance for OHB throw with a competition shot put was examined after treatment (control, light shot put warm-up, and heavy shot put warm-up) through repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Bonferroni-corrected post hoc analysis...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Daniel T Tarara, Lucas K Fogaca, Jeffrey B Taylor, Eric J Hegedus
OBJECTIVE: In parts 1 and 2 of this systematic review, the methodological quality as well as the quality of the measurement properties of physical performance tests (PPTs) of the lower extremity in athletes was assessed. In this study, part 3, PPTs of the upper extremity in athletes are examined. METHODS: Database and hand searches were conducted to identify primary literature addressing the use of upper extremity PPTs in athletes. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed and the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to critique the methodological quality of each paper...
May 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Haixing Miao, Yiqiu Ma, Chunnong Zhao, Yanbei Chen
Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use optical cavities to resonantly enhance their shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Because of positive dispersion of these cavities-signals at different frequencies pick up different phases, there is a tradeoff between the detector bandwidth and peak sensitivity, which is a universal feature for quantum measurement devices having resonant cavities. We consider embedding an active unstable filter inside the interferometer to compensate the phase, and using feedback control to stabilize the entire system...
November 20, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Nathaniel R Huck, Bart M Ballard, Alan M Fedynich, Kevin J Kraai, Mauro E Castro
Historically, lead poisoning through lead shot ingestion was one of the largest health issues affecting waterfowl in North America. Lead shot was banned for use in waterfowl hunting in the US in 1991 and was banned in Canada in 1997. However, biologists need to understand how, and if, lead shot remaining in the environment will continue to impact waterfowl. Our goal was to estimate lead and nontoxic shot consumption by female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) wintering along the Texas coast. We found shot or metal fragments (or both) in the gizzards of 39 (17%) of 227 female Northern Pintails collected along the Texas coast...
January 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kerrie Evans, Neil Tuttle
Golf, a global sport enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities, involves relatively long periods of low intensity exercise interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity. To meet the physical demands of full swing shots and the mental and physical demands of putting and walking the course, it is frequently recommended that golfers undertake golf-specific exercise programs. Biomechanics, motor learning, and motor control research has increased the understanding of the physical requirements of the game, and using this knowledge, exercise programs aimed at improving golf performance have been developed...
September 2015: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
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