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Chika Hamaya, Travis Barr, Gary R Strichartz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetics (LAs) are often infiltrated subcutaneously for localized perioperative numbing. In addition to blocking nerve conduction, LAs act on pathways used by a variety of pain-inducing and inflammatory mediators. We describe the effects in isolated model sensory neurons of LAs on responses to the algogenic and sensitizing peptide, bradykinin (BK). METHODS: ND/7 sensory neurons were stimulated by different concentrations of BK in the presence or absence of LAs, with transient increases in intracellular calcium (Δ[Ca]in) detected fluorometrically in fields of cells...
March 17, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Kengran Yang, V Ongun Özçelik, Nishant Garg, Kai Gong, Claire E White
Conventional drying of colloidal materials and gels (including cement) can lead to detrimental effects due to the buildup of internal stresses as water evaporates from the nano/microscopic pores. However, for these gel materials the underlying nanoscopic alterations that are, in part, responsible for macroscopically-measured strain values (especially at low relative humidity) remain a topic of open debate in the literature. In this study, sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate (C-(N)-A-S-H) gel, the major binding phase of silicate-activated blast furnace slag (one type of low-CO2 cement), is investigated from a drying perspective, since it is known to suffer extensively from drying-induced microcracking...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Li-Chuan Jia, Ding-Xiang Yan, Xiaofeng Liu, Rujun Ma, Hong-Yuan Wu, Zhongming Li
Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Meyer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNWs/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of this review are to provide perspective on evaluation of relative and absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reductions for assessing the efficacy of preventive therapies and to summarize methods for evaluation of CVD risk in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Major CVD risk factors can be used to stratify patients into risk categories. Results from recent trials reinforce the view that benefits of preventive therapies will be greatest in those with the highest absolute risk and in those with the most severe disturbance in the risk factor targeted...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Neivys García-Delgado, Myrian Velasco, Carmen Sánchez-Soto, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Marcia Hiriart
Pancreatic beta cells during the first month of development acquire functional maturity, allowing them to respond to variations in extracellular glucose concentration by secreting insulin. Changes in ionic channel activity are important for this maturation. Within the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), the most studied channels are high-voltage-activated (HVA), principally L-type; while low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels have been poorly studied in native beta cells. We analyzed the changes in the expression and activity of VGCC during the postnatal development in rat beta cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Franziska Just, Michael Oster, Kirsten Büsing, Luisa Borgelt, Eduard Murani, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Petra Wolf, Klaus Wimmers
BACKGROUND: In monogastric animals, phosphorus (P) homeostasis is maintained by regulating intestinal absorption, bone mobilization, and renal excretion. Since P is a non-renewable resource, a shortage is imminent due to widespread over-usage in the farming and animal husbandry industries. As a consequence, P efficiency should be improved in pig production. We sought to characterize the transcriptional response in re-/absorbing and excreting tissues in pigs to diets varying in calcium: phosphorus ratios...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yujing Huang, Jia Wang, Yao Tan, Lingqiao Wang, Hui Lin, Lan Lan, Yu Xiong, Wei Huang, Weiqun Shu
Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
George A Karpouzas, Joel Estis, Panteha Rezaeian, John Todd, Matthew J Budoff
Objectives: Patients with RA display greater occult coronary atherosclerosis burden and experience higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with controls. We here explored whether pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), a biomarker of myocardial injury, correlated with plaque burden and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in RA. Methods: We evaluated 150 patients with 64-slice coronary CT angiography. Coronary artery calcium, number of segments with plaque (segment involvement score), stenotic severity and plaque burden were assessed...
March 14, 2018: Rheumatology
Marleen Vonder, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Merel A Kaatee, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Peter M A van Ooijen, Geertruida H de Bock, Jan Willem Gratama, Dirkjan Kuijpers, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of high-pitch spiral acquisition on radiation dose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification by coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment with computed tomography in individuals with a high heart rate. METHODS: Of the ROBINSCA trial, 1990 participants with regular rhythm and heart rates >65 beats per minute (bpm) were included. As reference, 390 participants with regular heart rates ≤65 bpm were used. All participants underwent prospectively electrocardiographically(ECG)-triggered imaging of the coronary arteries using dual source CT at 120 kVp, 80 ref mAs using both high-pitch spiral mode and sequential mode...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Wen Hao, Shutian Shi, Shenghui Zhou, Xiao Wang, Shaoping Nie
This study aimed to examine the effects of aspirin on the growth and cardiomyocyte differentiation grade of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). BMMSCs were divided into five differentiation groups with different concentrations of aspirin (0mM, 0.5mM, 1mM, 2mM, or 5mM), and a undifferentiated control group. Cell growth was measured by cell proliferation, apoptosis assays and DNA cycle analysis. The differentiation grade of BMMSC-derived cardiomyocyte-like cells was examined by measuring the levels of cardiac-specific proteins with cyto-immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and Western blotting...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Nashwa M Samra, Shaimaa Emad El Abrak, Hanaa H El Dash, Mona El Said El Raziky, Manal A El Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption is thought to develop in children with cholestatic liver disease leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism and rickets or osteomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental and bone mineral densities and the serum level of vitamin D in cholestatic infants and children and to correlate this process with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that include 50 patients presenting with cholestasis...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Jarrod M Zamparini, Andrew R Immelman, Frederick J Raal
BACKGROUND: Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) develop significant vascular calcification early in life, the cause of which is not yet fully understood. Patients with chronic kidney disease have similar vascular calcification, with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) implicated in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there was a difference in FGF23 between patients with HoFH and age- and gender-matched controls and whether there is a correlation between FGF23 and serum low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with HoFH...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jesse P Goff, Nicholas J Koszewski
Most studies demonstrating that diets with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) reduce hypocalcemia in cows add enough anions to the diet to reduce urine pH below 7.0. One objective of these experiments was to determine whether there is any benefit to periparturient plasma Ca concentration if diet anion addition results in a lesser degree of acidification of the cow and urine pH does not go below 7.0. Another method for reducing hypocalcemia involves feeding a prepartal diet that is Ca deficient. This places the cow in negative Ca balance before calving, stimulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D secretion before calving and thus promoting Ca homeostasis at calving...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Cynthia L Miltenburg, Todd F Duffield, Dorothee Bienzle, Elizabeth L Scholtz, Stephen J LeBlanc
The determinants of metabolic and reproductive health disorders in the peripartum period and the degree to which feeding and lying space and management can influence health are only partially understood. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to determine whether providing noncompetitive feeding and lying access in the close-up dry period improves health and immune function. Forty-eight Holstein cows of all parities were randomly assigned to a treatment group of 6 to 10 cows in 1 pen with either 80% cows to stalls and 90 cm of feeding space per cow (understocked) or 120% stocking density and 45 cm of feeding space per cow (overstocked) for 3 wk before expected calving...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Patrícia T Goldenstein, Precil D Neves, Bruno E Balbo, Rosilene M Elias, Alexandre C Pereira, Luiz F Onuchic, Harald Jüppner, Vanda Jorgetti, Hugo Abensur, Rosa Maria Moysés
Primary tumoral calcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ectopic calcified tumoral masses. Mutations in 3 genes (GALNT3, FGF23, and KL) have been linked to this human disorder. We describe a case of a 28-year-old man with a history of painful firm masses over his right and left gluteal region, right clavicle region, knees, and left elbow. Biochemical analysis disclosed hyperphosphatemia (phosphate, 9.0 mg/dL) and normocalcemia (calcium, 4.8 mg/dL), with normal kidney function and fractional excretion of phosphate of 3%...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Xue Lin, Yilin Liu, Tiantian Meng, Chunyan Xie, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different circadian calcium feeding regimes on parameters of Zn status and gene expression of circadian clock, calcium transporters and oxidative status in laying hens. In total, 180 of 41-weeks Brown Hy-line laying hens were assigned randomly into three groups, 1-CON group (Control Ca, diets contained 3.4% Ca at both 0730 and 1530 h), 2-HL group (High-low Ca, diets contained 3.6%-3.2% Ca respectively) and 3-LH group (Low-high Ca, diets contained 3.2%-3...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Rafiq Ahmad, Nirmalya Tripathy, Min-Sang Ahn, Jin-Young Yoo, Yoon-Bong Hahn
Seed layer plays a crucial role to achieve high electrical conductivity and ensure higher performance of the devices. In this study, we report fabrication of a solution-gated field-effect transistor (FET) sensor based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) modified iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3 NPs) grown on a highly conductive sandwich-like seed layer (ZnO seed layer/Ag nanowires/ZnO seed layer). The sandwich-like seed layer and ZnO NRs modification with α-Fe2O3 NPs provide excellent conductivity and prevent possible ZnO NRs surface damage from low pH enzyme immobilization, respectively...
March 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
Ruchita Dixit, Sowmya Nettem, Simerjit S Madan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Leah D Vance, Patrick J Stover
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sana Amhimmid Badr, Maryan Waheeb Fahmi, Manal Mahmoud Nomir, Mamdouh Mohammad El-Shishtawy
Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. The identification of new simple, inexpensive and highly accurate markers for HCC diagnosis and screening is needed. This case-control study evaluates the role of annexin A2 and voltage-gated calcium channels α2δ1 subunit as serum biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. Methods: The study comprised three groups: group 1, 50 patients with an initial diagnosis of HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection; group 2, 25 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and cirrhosis without any evidence of HCC; and group 3, 15 healthy controls...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Danial Ahmad, Naila Medhat, Syed Aizaz Hussain Zaidi, Hadia Farooq, Sair Ahmad Tabraiz
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities in patients of probable and culture-proven sepsis on admission and assess any association of electrolyte disorders with mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, from October 2015 to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: All neonates with the diagnosis of probable and culture-proven sepsis during the study period admitted in NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, were included in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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