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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220874/evolution-of-larval-competitiveness-and-associated-life-history-traits-in-response-to-host-shifts-in-a-seed-beetle
#1
Charles W Fox, Frank J Messina
Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioral, morphological, and life history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of seed size in determining larval competitiveness and associated traits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220543/skin-cancer-prevention-campaign-in-childhood-survey-based-on-3-676-children-in-brazil
#2
Paulo Ricardo Criado, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Anne Lise Dias, Walter Belda Junior, Nilton Di Chiachio, Aparecida Machado de Moraes, Meire Brasil Parada, Fátima de Oliveira Rabay, Octavio Moraes Junior, Renato Sau Rios, Cristiana Silveira da Silva, Francisco C S Ferreira, Samuel Henrique Mandeulbaum, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary skin cancer prevention campaigns are essential and more effective among children, not only because of the importance of sun exposure effects during this period, but also because at this age is when individuals are developing behaviors. The Brazilian Society of Dermatology - Regional State of Sao Paulo developed and conducted, the program named "The Sun, Friend of Childhood", a school health education and disease prevention project for children and parents...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216239/effects-of-early-afterdepolarizations-on-excitation-patterns-in-an-accurate-model-of-the-human-ventricles
#3
Enid Van Nieuwenhuyse, Gunnar Seemann, Alexander V Panfilov, Nele Vandersickel
Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216220/retarded-germination-of-nicotiana-tabacum-seeds-following-insertion-of-exogenous-dna-mimics-the-seed-persistent-behavior
#4
Elisabetta Onelli, Alessandra Moscatelli, Assunta Gagliardi, Mauro Zaninelli, Luca Bini, Antonella Baldi, Marco Caccianiga, Serena Reggi, Luciana Rossi
Tobacco seeds show a coat-imposed dormancy in which the seed envelope tissues (testa and endosperm) impose a physical constraint on the radicle protrusion. The germination-limiting process is represented by the endosperm rupture which is induced by cell-wall weakening. Transgenic tobacco seeds, obtained by insertion of exogenous genes codifying for seed-based oral vaccines (F18 and VT2eB), showed retarded germination with respect to the wild type and modified the expression of endogenous proteins. Morphological and proteomic analyses of wild type and transgenic seeds revealed new insights into factors influencing seed germination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215767/exposure-to-levonorgestrel-increases-nest-acquisition-success-and-decreases-sperm-motility-in-the-male-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#5
Tyler Frankel, Lance Yonkos, Franklin Ampy, Jack Frankel
Progestins are utilized as a component of human contraceptives, and enter the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluent. Certain progestins activate fish androgen receptors and cause decreases in fecundity and masculinization of females. In this study, a nest acquisition assay and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to examine the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproductive fitness. Males were exposed to 0, 10, or 100ng/L LNG for 14d. Combinations of a control male and a male from one of the treatments were placed into a competitive nesting assay, and time each male spent holding the nest and time spent exhibiting aggressive behaviors were analyzed at 48hrs post-exposure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215729/crosstalk-between-adipose-stem-cells-and-tendon-cells-reveals-a-temporal-regulation-of-tenogenesis-by-matrix-deposition-and-remodeling
#6
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Isabel Calejo, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Tendon injuries constitute an unmet clinical challenge owing to the limited intrinsic regenerative ability of this tissue. Cell-based therapies aim at improving tendon healing through the delicate orchestration of tissue rebuilding and regain of function. Hence, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been proposed as a promising cell source for boosting tendon regeneration. In this work, we investigated the influence of hASCs on native human tendon-derived cells (hTDCs) through the establishment of a direct contact co-culture system...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215713/nicotine-increases-colon-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt-cox-2-involvement
#7
Simona Dinicola, Maria Grazia Masiello, Sara Proietti, Pierpaolo Coluccia, Gianmarco Fabrizi, Angela Catizone, Giulia Ricci, Giorgio De Toma, Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandra Cucina
Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for colon cancer and nicotine, the principal active component of tobacco, plays a pivotal role in increasing colon cancer cell growth and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on cellular Caco-2 and HCT-8 migration and invasion, focusing on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction and COX-2 pathway involvement. In both these cell lines, treatment with nicotine increased COX-2 expression and the release of its enzymatic product PGE2 ...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215282/thermal-decomposition-of-phosgene-and-diphosgene
#8
Juan-Carlos Lizardo-Huerta, Baptiste Sirjean, Laurent Verdier, René Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
Phosgene (COCl2) is a toxic compound used or formed in a wide range of applications. The understanding of its thermal decomposition for destruction processes or in the event of accidental fire of stored reserves is a major safety issue. In this study, a detailed chemical kinetic model for the thermal decomposition and combustion of phosgene and diphosgene is proposed for the first time. A large number of thermo-kinetic parameters were calculated using quantum chemistry and reaction rate theory. The model was validated against experimental pyrolysis data from the literature...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215173/when-do-trade-offs-occur-the-roles-of-energy-constraints-and-trait-flexibility-in-a-bushcricket
#9
Flavia Barbosa, Darren Rebar, Michael D Greenfield
In many animal species, the expression of sexually-selected traits is negatively correlated with survival traits such as immune function, a relationship termed a 'trade-off'. But an alternative in which sexually-selected traits are positively correlated with survival traits is also widespread. The nature of inter-trait relationships may be largely determined by overall energy expenditure, energy availability, and trait flexibility, with trade-offs expected when individuals are subject to energy constraints...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211920/miconazole-enhances-nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#10
Tao Lin, Shuai Qiu, Liwei Yan, Shuang Zhu, Canbin Zheng, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu
Introduction Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination are crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. This study aims to evaluate the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Methods Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessments. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index...
December 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211753/response-of-pumas-puma-concolor-to-migration-of-their-primary-prey-in-patagonia
#11
Maria L Gelin, Lyn C Branch, Daniel H Thornton, Andrés J Novaro, Matthew J Gould, Anthony Caragiulo
Large-scale ungulate migrations result in changes in prey availability for top predators and, as a consequence, can alter predator behavior. Migration may include entire populations of prey species, but often prey populations exhibit partial migration with some individuals remaining resident and others migrating. Interactions of migratory prey and predators have been documented in North America and some other parts of the world, but are poorly studied in South America. We examined the response of pumas (Puma concolor) to seasonal migration of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in La Payunia Reserve in northern Patagonia Argentina, which is the site of the longest known ungulate migration in South America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211317/neurobiology-of-gender-identity-and-sexual-orientation
#12
REVIEW
Charles E Roselli
Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209201/do-lifestyle-activities-protect-against-cognitive-decline-in-aging-a-review
#13
Gregory J Christie, Tara Hamilton, Bradley D Manor, Norman A S Farb, Faranak Farzan, Andrew Sixsmith, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Sylvain Moreno
The number of patients suffering from dementia is expected to more than triple by the year 2040, and this represents a major challenge to publicly-funded healthcare systems throughout the world. One of the most effective prevention mechanisms against dementia lies in increasing brain- and cognitive-reserve capacity, which has been found to reduce the behavioral severity of dementia symptoms as neurological degeneration progresses. To date though, most of the factors known to enhance this reserve stem from largely immutable history factors, such as level of education and occupational attainment...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206306/nail-extracting-behavior-as-an-unusual-manifestation-of-adjustment-disorder-confused-with-onychotillomania
#14
H Lee, W S Lee
Nails are the subject of various psychocutaneous disorders. This spectrum of disorders includes onychophagia, nail tic disorder, onychotillomania, and nail destruction associated with psychiatric disorders.[1] Although self-induced nail injuries, such as biting and rubbing, are common, there was an extraordinary case of self-inflicted, nail-extracting behaviors in an unusual presentation of adjustment disorder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 5, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206302/network-analysis-of-hippocampal-neurons-by-microelectrode-array-in-the-presence-of-hiv-1-tat-and-cocaine
#15
Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Masoud Shekarabi, Emilie A Decoppet, T Dianne Langford, Kamel Khalili
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders affecting greater than 30% of patients are caused by HIV-1 infection of the CNS, and in part, include neurotoxic effects of the viral transactivator of transcription, Tat protein. In addition to increasing the risk for becoming HIV infected, cocaine abuse enhances the neuropathogenic impacts of HIV-1. To investigate the outcome of Tat and cocaine interference in the hippocampal neuronal network, microelectrode arrays were employed to develop a systematic framework to assess the rank-cross-correlation coefficient in cultured hippocampal neurons...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205855/multi-level-factors-are-associated-with-immunosuppressant-nonadherence-in-heart-transplant-recipients-the-international-bright-study
#16
Kris Denhaerynck, Lut Berben, Fabienne Dobbels, Cynthia L Russell, Marisa G Crespo-Leiro, Alain Jean Poncelet, Sabina De Geest
Factors at the level of family/healthcare worker-, organization- and system are neglected in medication nonadherence research in heart transplantation (HTx). The four-continent, eleven-country cross-sectional BRIGHT study used multi-staged sampling to examine 36 HTx centers, including 36 HTx directors, 100 clinicians, and 1397 patients. Nonadherence to immunosuppressants-defined as any deviation in taking or timing adherence and/or dose reduction-was assessed using the BAASIS® interview. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model, we analyzed factors at these multiple levels using sequential logistic regression analysis (6 blocks)...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205618/different-responses-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-related-alpha-activity-to-ambient-luminance-changes
#17
Alessandro Benedetto, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Rufin VanRullen
Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205599/postnatal-separation-prevents-the-development-of-prenatal-stress-induced-anxiety-in-association-with-changes-in-estrogen-receptor-and-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-female-mandarin-vole-microtus-mandarinus-offspring
#18
Fengqin He, Zijian Wang, Guanlin Guo
Estrogen has both anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects because of variation in opposing action on alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) estrogen receptors in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala (MeA). Oxytocin (OT) reverses some of the anxiogenic effects of estrogen in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON). Because anxiety disorders are twice as common in women as in men, and estrogen and OT are more important in females, we examined interactions between prenatal restraint stress (GS) and postnatal early short-term maternal separation (MS) and female mandarin vole behavior, estrogen receptors and OT...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205517/within-day-energy-deficiency-and-reproductive-function-in-female-endurance-athletes
#19
I L Fahrenholtz, A Sjödin, D Benardot, Å B Tornberg, S Skouby, J Faber, J Sundgot-Borgen, A Melin
We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded...
December 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205408/ovarian-hormones-contribute-to-high-levels-of-binge-like-drinking-by-female-mice
#20
Rosalba Satta, Elisa R Hilderbrand, Amy W Lasek
BACKGROUND: Recently, the incidence of binge drinking by women has increased. Binge drinking is detrimental to women's health, yet the biological mechanisms that promote excessive drinking by women are not well understood. One method of assessing binge-like ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice is the drinking in the dark (DID) test, in which mice drink sufficient EtOH to achieve intoxication. In this study, we directly compared male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice for DID and tested whether 17β-estradiol (E2) contributes to DID...
December 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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