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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457655/importance-of-growth-rate-on-hg-and-pcb-bioaccumulation-in-fish
#1
Jiajia Li, G Douglas Haffner, Gordon Paterson, David M Walters, Michael D Burtnyk, Ken G Drouillard
To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulation, a non-steady state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed versus predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from five different waterbodies across North America. The non-steady state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in three of five waterbodies: Apsey, Sharbot and Stonelick Lake...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457321/wine-aromatic-compound-production-and-fermentative-behavior-within-different-non-saccharomyces-species-and-clones
#2
Rocío Escribano, Lucía González-Arenzana, Javier Portu, Patrocinio Garijo, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
AIMS: 25 enological yeasts belonging to 9 different species (Candida zeylanoides, Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis pratensis, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were screened for aroma formation and fermentative behavior as part of a non-Saccharomyces yeasts selection program. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pure cultures were inoculated in pasteurized grape juice in order to perform alcoholic fermentations...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457204/prevention-and-management-of-childhood-obesity
#3
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455472/double-digest-rad-sequencing-outperforms-microsatellite-loci-at-assigning-paternity-and-estimating-relatedness-a-proof-of-concept-in-a-highly-promiscuous-bird
#4
Derrick J Thrasher, Bronwyn G Butcher, Leonardo Campagna, Michael S Webster, Irby J Lovette
Information on genetic relationships among individuals is essential to many studies of the behavior and ecology of wild organisms. Parentage and relatedness assays based on large numbers of SNP loci hold substantial advantages over the microsatellite markers traditionally used for these purposes. We present a double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) analysis pipeline that, as such, simultaneously achieves the SNP discovery and genotyping steps and which is optimized to return a statistically powerful set of SNP markers (typically 150-600 after stringent filtering) from large numbers of individuals (up to 240 per run)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455453/homelessness-and-emergency-medicine-where-do-we-go-from-here
#5
Kelly M Doran, Maria C Raven
In many emergency departments (EDs) around the country, providers care for patients experiencing homelessness on every single shift. Despite its proven impact on health, housing status is not a routine part of the history taken by most emergency providers, and in many cases providers are unaware that they are caring for someone who has no stable home. Patients experiencing homelessness have unique needs spanning acute and chronic illness, injury, behavioral health diagnoses, and material deprivation. This article is protected by copyright...
February 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453905/sleep-apnea-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of this review is to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes while more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA. Similarly to the Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453876/prognostic-importance-of-fgf2-and-fgfr1-expression-for-patients-affected-by-ameloblastoma
#7
Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Bernar Monteiro Benites, Ciro Dantas Soares, Thayná Melo de Lima Morais, Gleyson Kleber do Amaral-Silva, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Fernando Augusto Soares, Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) have been investigated in different human neoplasms and were shown to play important roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, very few is known regarding their prognostic importance in the context of ameloblastoma. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if the expression of FGF2 and FGFR1 is associated with ameloblastoma clinical behavior. METHODS: Fifty-eight cases of ameloblastoma arranged in tissue microarray were submitted to immunohistochemistry against FGF2 and FGFR1...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453804/probiotics-affect-one-carbon-metabolites-and-catecholamines-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#8
Sandra Tillmann, Hussain M Awwad, Amanda R Eskelund, Giulia Treccani, Juergen Geisel, Gregers Wegener, Rima Obeid
SCOPE: Probiotics may influence one-carbon (C1) metabolism, neurotransmitters, liver function markers, or behavior. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats (model of depression, FSL; n = 22) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (10 9 or 10 10 colony-forming units/d) or vehicle for 10 weeks. The controls, Flinders Resistant Line rats (FRL, n = 8), only received vehicle. C1-related metabolites were measured in plasma, urine, and different tissues...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453793/cross-cultural-comparison-of-predictors-for-self-care-behaviors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Kaori Ikeda, Shimpei Fujimoto, Beth Morling, Shiho Ayano-Takahara, Shin-Ichi Harashima, Yukiko Uchida, Nobuya Inagaki
The aim of this study is to evaluate how culture moderates the behavioral and psychosocial predictors of diabetes self-care activities. Patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in the outpatient department at two sites: Kyoto University hospital in Japan and the Christiana Care Health System in the United States. The data was collected by survey using questionnaires including questions on the frequency of self-care activities, behavioral and psychosocial predictors, and other background information from 149 Japanese patients and 48 American patients...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-bdnf-mtor-signaling-pathway
#10
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450943/cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-gray-squirrels-sciurus-carolinensis
#11
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements toward environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of gray squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioral characteristics of gray squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450896/circadian-mechanisms-in-alcohol-use-disorder-and-tissue-injury
#12
Booker T Davis, Robin M Voigt, Maliha Shaikh, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
Heavy use of alcohol can lead to addictive behaviors and to eventual alcohol related tissue damage. While increased consumption of alcohol has been attributed to various factors including level of alcohol exposure and environmental factors such as stress, data from behavioral scientists and physiological researchers is revealing roles for the circadian rhythm in mediating the development of behaviors associated with alcohol use disorder as well as the tissue damage that drives physiological disease. In this work, we compile recent work on the complex mutually influential relationship that exists between the core circadian rhythm and the pharmacodynamics of alcohol...
February 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450895/a-test-of-multi-session-automatic-action-tendency-retraining-to-reduce-alcohol-consumption-among-young-adults-in-the-context-of-a-human-laboratory-paradigm
#13
Robert F Leeman, Christine Nogueira, Reinout W Wiers, Janna Cousijn, Kelly Serafini, Kelly S DeMartini, John A Bargh, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Young adult heavy drinking is an important public health concern. Current interventions have efficacy but with only modest effects, thus novel interventions are needed. In prior studies, heavy drinkers, including young adults, have demonstrated stronger automatically triggered approach tendencies to alcohol-related stimuli than lighter drinkers. Automatic action tendency retraining has been developed to correct this tendency and consequently reduce alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test multiple iterations of automatic action tendency retraining, followed by laboratory alcohol self-administration...
February 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446088/the-second-visual-system-of-the-tree-shrew
#14
REVIEW
Heywood M Petry, Martha E Bickford
This review provides a historical account of the discovery of secondary visual pathways (from retina to the superior colliculus to the dorsal thalamus and extrastriate cortex), and Vivien Casagrande's pioneering studies of this system using the tree shrew as a model. Subsequent studies of visual pathways in the tree shrew are also reviewed, beginning with a description of the organization and central projections of the tree shrew retina. The organization and connectivity of 2nd visual system components, that include the retino-recipient superior colliculus, tecto-recipient pulvinar nucleus and its projections, and the tecto-recipient dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and its projections are detailed...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446081/under-the-weather-the-direct-effects-of-climate-warming-on-a-threatened-desert-lizard-are-mediated-by-their-activity-phase-and-burrow-system
#15
Danae Moore, Adam Stow, Michael Ray Kearney
1.For ectotherms such as lizards, the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in avoiding thermal extremes is well established and is increasingly acknowledged in modern studies of climate warming and its impacts. Less appreciated and understood are the buffering roles of retreat sites and activity phase, in part because of logistical challenges of studying below-ground activity. Burrowing and nocturnal activity are key behavioral adaptations that have enabled a diverse range of reptiles to survive extreme environmental temperatures within hot desert regions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444383/stemness-and-anti-cancer-drug-resistance-in-abcg2-highly-expressed-pancreatic-cancer-is-induced-on-3d-culture-condition
#16
Norihiko Sasaki, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Fumio Hasegawa, Masaki Michishita, Hiroki Kawai, Yoko Matsuda, Tomio Arai, Naoshi Ishikawa, Junko Aida, Kaiyo Takubo, Masashi Toyoda
The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is related with tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) in several cancers. However, the effects of ABCG2 on CSC-related malignant characteristics in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not well elucidated. In this study, we compared the characteristics of low (ABCG2-) and high (ABCG2+)-ABCG2-expressing PDAC cells after cell sorting. In adherent culture condition, human PDAC cells, PANC-1, contained approximately 10% ABCG2+ cell populations, and ABCG2+ cells displayed more and longer microvilli compared with ABCG2- cells...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444350/nurses-beliefs-about-nursing-diagnosis-a-study-with-cluster-analysis
#17
Fabio D'Agostino, Luca Pancani, Romero-Sánchez José Manuel, Iris Lumillo-Gutierrez, Olga Paloma-Castro, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro
AIMS: To: (1)identify clusters of nurses in relation to their beliefs about nursing diagnosis among two populations (Italian and Spanish); (2) to investigate differences among clusters of nurses in each population considering the nurses' sociodemographic data, attitudes towards nursing diagnosis, intentions to make nursing diagnosis and actual behaviors in making nursing diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Nurses' beliefs concerning nursing diagnosis can influence its use in practice but this is still unclear...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442368/effects-of-copper-on-olfactory-behavioral-and-other-sublethal-responses-of-saltwater-organisms-are-estimated-chronic-limits-using-the-biotic-ligand-model-protective
#18
David K DeForest, Robert W Gensemer, Joseph W Gorsuch, Joseph S Meyer, Robert C Santore, Burt K Shephard, Jean M Zodrow
There is concern whether regulatory criteria for copper (Cu) are protective against chemosensory and behavioral impairment in aquatic organisms. We compiled Cu toxicity data for these and other sublethal endpoints in 35 tests with saltwater organisms and compared the Cu toxicity thresholds to biotic ligand model (BLM)-based estimated chronic limits (ECL values, which are EC20 values [20% effect concentrations] for the embryo-larval life stage of the blue mussel [Mytilus edulis]-a sensitive saltwater species to Cu that has historically been used to derive saltwater Cu criteria)...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441682/genome-wide-analysis-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-sweet-potato-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#19
Yang Zeng, Yu-Ting Yang, Qing-Jun Wu, Shao-Li Wang, Wen Xie, You-Jun Zhang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of insects are thought to play roles in olfactory recognition affecting host choice, copulation, reproduction, and other behaviors. Previous descriptions of OBPs and CSPs in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci often provided no or incomplete genetic information. In this study, we present a genome-wide and transcriptome-wide investigation of the OBPs and CSPs in B. tabaci MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor1 species). Eight OBP and 19 CSP genes were identified that covered all previous sequences...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436775/the-effects-of-rodent-abundance-and-richness-on-cache-pilfering
#20
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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