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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667359/predicting-responses-to-mechanical-ventilation-for-preterm-infants-with-acute-respiratory-illness-using-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Katharine Brigham, Samir Gupta, John C Brigham
Infants born prematurely are particularly susceptible to respiratory illness due to underdeveloped lungs, which can often result in fatality. Preterm infants in acute stages of respiratory illness typically require mechanical ventilation assistance, and the efficacy of the type of mechanical ventilation and its delivery has been the subject of a number clinical studies. With recent advances in machine learning approaches, particularly deep learning, it may be possible to estimate future responses to mechanical ventilation in real-time, based on ventilation monitoring up to the point of analysis...
April 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665231/estrogen-returns-to-the-stage-in-melanoma
#2
Jennifer L McQuade, Michael A Davies
It has long been recognized that female sex is associated with a lower risk of and improved survival in melanoma (Joosse et al., 2012). However, the mechanism underlying this disparity in outcomes is not understood. One potential explanation is behavioral- i.e. differences by sex in UV exposure, screening and detection, and healthcare utilization. Observed differences between men and women in prognostic factors in primary melanomas would support this. For example, men are more likely to have thicker, ulcerated tumors, which could reflect diagnostic delays...
April 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665159/detailed-investigation-of-ventilation-rates-and-airflow-patterns-in-a-northern-california-residence
#3
Yingjun Liu, Pawel K Misztal, Jianyin Xiong, Yilin Tian, Caleb Arata, William W Nazaroff, Allen H Goldstein
Building ventilation rates and indoor airflow conditions influence occupants' exposure to indoor air pollutants. By making time- and space-resolved measurement of three inert tracers steadily released in a single-family house in California for eight weeks in summer and five weeks in winter, the present study quantifies the air change rate of the living zone with 2-h time resolution; estimates airflow rates between the living zone, attic, and crawlspace; and characterizes mixing of air in the split-level living space...
April 17, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665135/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-associated-with-gut-microbiota-profile-and-inflammation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Sherrie Bhoori, Chiara Castelli, Lorenza Putignani, Licia Rivoltini, Federica Del Chierico, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Daniele Morelli, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Sofia Reddel, Riccardo Calvani, Chiara Camisaschi, Anna Picca, Alessandra Tuccitto, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Pompili, Vincenzo Mazzaferro
The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the third cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the link between gut microbiota and hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be clarified. The aim of this study is to explore what features of the gut microbiota are associated with HCC in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD. A consecutive series of patients with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and HCC (group 1: 21 patients), NAFLD-related cirrhosis without HCC (group 2: 20 patients) and healthy controls (group 3: 20 patients) was studied for gut microbiota profile, intestinal permeability, inflammatory status and circulating mononuclear cells...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#5
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665010/developmental-trajectories-and-influences-of-environmental-complexity-on-oxytocin-receptor-and-vasopressin-1a-receptor-expression-in-male-and-female-prairie-voles
#6
George S Prounis, Kyle Thomas, Alexander G Ophir
Nonapeptide receptors, like oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), modulate a variety of functions across taxa, and mediate phenotypic variation within and between species. Despite the popularity of studying nonapeptides in adults, developmental perspectives on properties of OTR and V1aR expression are lacking. Study of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has facilitated an understanding of mechanisms of social behavior, and provides great potential to inform how early life experiences alter phenotype...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664208/evaluating-size-dependent-relaxivity-of-pegylated-uspios-to-develop-gadolinium-free-t1-contrast-agents-for-vascular-imaging
#7
Amit P Khandhar, Gregory J Wilson, Michael G Kaul, Johannes Salamon, Caroline Jung, Kannan M Krishnan
Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles provide a safer alternative to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in T1-weighted MR imaging. MRI contrast behavior of USPIOs depends on their magnetic properties, which in turn depend on their physicochemical composition. Identifying and tailoring USPIO structural characteristics that influence proton relaxation in MRI is crucial to developing effective gadolinium-free T1 contrast agents. Here we present a systematic empirical evaluation of the relationship between USPIO size and MRI relaxivity (r1 and r2 values)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#8
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663595/adult-neurogenesis-affects-motivation-to-obtain-weak-but-not-strong-reward-in-operant-tasks
#9
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#10
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#11
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663551/termite-soldiers-contribute-to-social-immunity-by-synthesizing-potent-oral-secretions
#12
Shulin He, Paul R Johnston, Benno Kuropka, Sophie Lokatis, Christoph Weise, Rudy Plarre, Hans-Jörg Kunte, Dino P McMahon
The importance of soldiers to termite society defense has long been recognized, but the contribution of soldiers to other societal functions, such as colony immunity, is less well understood. We explore this issue by examining the role of soldiers in protecting nestmates against pathogen infection. Even though they are unable to engage in grooming behavior, we find that the presence of soldiers of the Darwin termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, significantly improves the survival of nestmates following entomopathogenic infection...
April 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663396/internet-trolling-and-everyday-sadism-parallel-effects-on-pain-perception-and-moral-judgment
#13
Erin E Buckels, Paul D Trapnell, Tamara Andjelovic, Delroy L Paulhus
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the association between online trolling and sadistic personality; and provide evidence that the reward and rationalization processes at work in sadism are likewise manifest in online trolling. METHOD: Online respondents (total N = 1,715) completed self-report measures of personality and trolling behavior. They subsequently engaged in one of two judgment tasks. In Study 1, respondents viewed stimuli depicting scenes of emotional/physical suffering, and provided ratings of (a) perceived pain intensity and (b) pleasure experienced while viewing the photos...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660804/nutritional-stress-reduces-flight-performance-and-exploratory-behavior-in-a-butterfly
#14
Elisabeth Reim, Danny Eichhorn, Jan D Roy, Philip O M Steinhoff, Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660229/extracellular-matrix-composition-modulates-pdac-parenchymal-and-stem-cell-plasticity-and-behavior-through-the-secretome
#15
Giulia Biondani, Katrine Zeeberg, Maria Raffaella Greco, Stefania Cannone, Ilaria Dando, Elisa Dalla Pozza, Maria Mastrodonato, Stefania Forciniti, Valeria Casavola, Marta Palmieri, Stephan Joel Reshkin, Rosa Angela Cardone
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers. Its aggressiveness is driven by an intense fibrotic desmoplastic reaction in which the increasingly collagen I-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) and several cell types, including cancer stem cells (CSCs), create a tumor-supportive environment. However, how ECM composition regulates CSC dynamics and their relationship to the principal parenchymal tumor population to promote early invasive growth is not yet characterized. For this we utilized a platform of 3D organotypic cultures composed of laminin-rich Matrigel, representative of an early tumor, plus increasing concentrations of collagen I to simulate malignant stroma progression...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659164/development-and-functional-organization-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-lampreys
#16
Manuel A Pombal, Manuel Megías
Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659142/an-uneasy-alliance-a-nesting-association-between-aggressive-ants-and-equally-fierce-social-wasps
#17
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658737/negative-beliefs-about-accepting-coworker-help-implications-for-employee-attitudes-job-performance-and-reputation
#18
Phillip S Thompson, Mark C Bolino
For more than 30 years, researchers have investigated interpersonal helping in organizations, with much of this work focusing on understanding why employees help their colleagues. Although this is important, it is also critical that employees are willing to accept assistance that is offered by peers. Indeed, helping behavior should only enhance individual and organizational effectiveness if employees are actually willing to accept offers of assistance. Unfortunately, employees may sometimes have reservations about accepting help from their peers...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656416/women-infected-with-hiv-and-the-impact-of-associated-sexually-transmitted-infections
#19
REVIEW
Somaia Reda, Fernanda Aguiar Gonçalves, Melissa Mello Mazepa, Newton Sérgio de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between concomitant sexually transmitted infections in women infected with HIV. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched for articles published in English and Portuguese between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2015, using relevant keywords, including AIDS, HIV, female genital diseases, and sexually transmitted infections. Articles that associated sexually transmitted infections with HIV-infected women were selected for inclusion...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652754/pattern-of-antibiotic-prescription-for-oral-implant-treatment-among-dentists-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Khalid E El-Kholey, Othman Wali, Aamna Elkomy, Ahmed Almozayen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate antibiotic prophylaxis prescription behavior among dentists practicing dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational questionnaire study was conducted in the period between October 2016 and December 2016. A link to an online previously validated questionnaire was sent to a convenience sample of dentists practicing dental implant placement in the different areas of Saudi Arabia. Absolute frequencies were used to describe the data...
April 12, 2018: Implant Dentistry
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