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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#1
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#2
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636085/herbivore-performance-and-plant-defense-after-sequential-attacks-by-inducing-and-suppressing-herbivores
#3
Elisa Faria de Oliveira, Angelo Pallini, Arne Janssen
It is well known that herbivore-induced plant defence alter host plant quality and can affect the behavior and performance of later arriving herbivores. Effects of sequential attacks by herbivores that either suppress or induce plant defenses are less well studied. We sequentially infested leaves of tomato plants with a strain of the phytophagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae that induces plant defenses and the closely related Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses plant defenses. Plant quality was quantified through oviposition of both spider mite species and by measuring proteinase inhibitor activity using plant material that had been sequentially attacked by both herbivore species...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632944/deconstructing-the-landscape-of-fear-in-stable-multi-species-societies
#4
A E Martínez, E Parra, L F Collado, V T Vredenburg
Animal distributions are influenced by variation in predation risk in space, which has been described as the "landscape of fear." Many studies suggest animals also reduce predation risk by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls, allowing them to occupy otherwise risky habitats. One unexplored area of study is understanding how different species' alarms vary in quality, and how this variation is distributed in the landscape. We tested this phenomenon in a unique system of avian mixed species flocks in Amazonian rainforests: flock mates (eavesdropping species) strongly associate with alarm-calling antshrikes (genus Thamnomanes), which act as sentinel species...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632936/peritumoral-cuffing-by-t-cell-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-distinguishes-hpv-related-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Kate Poropatich, David Hernandez, Joel Fontanarosa, Koshonna Brown, Gayle Woloschak, Ajit Paintal, Kirtee Raparia, Sandeep Samant
BACKGROUND: It is unclear why human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has improved clinical behavior compared to HPV-negative HNSCC. We sought to better characterize the immune microenvironment of tongue cancers by examining the CD3 and CD8 TIL pattern in HPV-positive and -negative tumors. METHODS: Histologic sections from 40 oral tongue and oropharyngeal cases were analyzed (n= 21 HPV DNA-positive, n= 19 HPV DNA-negative)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#6
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631879/context-dependent-effects-of-cold-stress-on-behavioral-physiological-and-life-history-traits-of-the-red-flour-beetle
#7
Inon Scharf, Keren-Or Wertheimer, Joy Lim Xin, Tomer Gilad, Inna Goldenberg, Aziz Subach
Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events vs. a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch...
June 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631838/aging-of-zn-added-to-soils-with-a-wide-range-of-different-properties-factors-and-modeling
#8
Xi Zhang, Bao Jiang, Yibing Ma
The aging of metals added to soil is significant in ecological risk assessment and the derivation of soil environmental quality criteria. Semi-mechanistic aging models have been developed for some metals, but not for zinc (Zn). In the present study, a published dataset detailing the changes in isotopic exchangeability with time, after water soluble Zn was added to 23 soils and incubated for 813 d, was used to analyze the effect of soil properties on aging and develop empirical and mechanistic models. Aging was mainly controlled by soil pH, probably due to precipitation, and was linearly correlated with the square root of incubation time, probably due to diffusion...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631831/spatial-and-temporal-trends-and-flow-dynamics-of-glyphosate-and-other-pesticides-within-an-agricultural-watershed-in-argentina
#9
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631403/-pseudomonas-protegens-pf-5-favors-self-produced-siderophore-over-free-loading-in-interspecies-competition-for-iron
#10
D Joseph Sexton, Rochelle C Glover, Joyce E Loper, Martin Schuster
Many microorganisms compete for extracellular iron using strain-specific chelators known as siderophores. The ferric-siderophore complex limits local access to iron because import requires a suitable cognate receptor. Interestingly, many species carry receptors that enable "cross-feeding" on heterologous siderophores made by neighboring organisms, although little is known about how this ubiquitous behavior is regulated. Here, we investigated the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, a strain remarkable for its ability to use dozens of heterologous siderophores...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631262/lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-and-career-characteristics-among-u-s-army-soldiers-results-from-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#11
Alexander J Millner, Robert J Ursano, Irving Hwang, Andrew J King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock
The current report presents data on lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and nonfatal attempts as reported by the large representative sample of U.S. Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). We also examine associations of key Army career characteristics with these outcomes. Prevalence estimates for lifetime suicide ideation are 12.7% among men and 20.1% among women, and for lifetime suicide attempts are 2...
June 20, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#12
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627746/hepatic-perivascular-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-myogenic-properties
#13
Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose
Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located on the walls of blood vessels in various organs and are characterized as CD146(+) cells.. In this study, we have first immunohistochemically detected such pericytes in the perivascular regions of liver from two mouse genotypes namely wild-type (WT) and myostatin null (Mstn(-/-) ). We further isolated such pericytes using sorting as CD146(+) CD34(-) CD56(-) CD45(-) cells. The main finding of this study involve the contrasting -fibrogenic versus myogenic behavior of liver pericytes from WTMstn(-/-) ) mouse respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626969/different-patterns-of-expression-of-cell-cycle-control-and-local-invasion-related-proteins-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-affecting-young-patients
#14
Marisol Miranda Galvis, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Juscelino Freitas Jardim, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Marcio A Lopes, Oslei P Almeida, Clóvis A Lópes Pinto, Estela Kaminagakura, Iris Sawazaki-Calone, Paul M Speight, Luiz Paulo Kowalski
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) predominantly affects males in the fifth decade of life; nevertheless, an increased incidence in young patients has been reported worldwide and the clinical and behavioral characteristics of tumors in this group are controversial and the literature shows divergent results PURPOSE: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic significance of the immunoexpression of cell cycle and local invasion proteins in OSCC affecting young patients (≤ 40 years old) METHODS: A tissue microarray was performed with 132 OSCC samples (61 cases of young patients vs...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626934/thermal-phsyiology-a-new-dimension-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome
#15
C T Goulet, M B Thompson, M Michelangeli, B B M Wong, D G Chapple
1.Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2.We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is predicted that thermal physiology and behavior would covary whereby individual positioning along the thermal continuum would coincide with that of the behavioral continuum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622447/does-sexual-selection-influence-ornamentation-of-hemipenes-in-old-world-snakes
#16
Kostadin Andonov, Nikolay Natchev, Yurii V Kornilev, Nikolay Tzankov
In the present study, we investigated and documented the morphology of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes) in fifteen wide-ranging snake species. The species represent four families (Boidae, Colubridae, Lamprophiidae, and Viperidae) and ten genera. We applied the same preparation techniques for all species, successfully everting and expanding the organs completely. The detailed description of the general morphology of the male copulatory organs was based on 31 specimens. Our data were compared with published observations and we point out some incorrectly described details in previous investigations...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622442/muscular-basis-of-whisker-torsion-in-mice-and-rats
#17
Sebastian Haidarliu, Knarik Bagdasarian, Namrata Shinde, Ehud Ahissar
Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622414/reflectance-confocal-microscopic-presentation-of-basosquamous-carcinoma
#18
A Oliveira, I Zalaudek
Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is considered a variant of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) associated with squamous differentiation.(1) It may display local aggressive behavior, and increased potential for recurrence and metastases.(2) Therefore, early and appropriate treatment will have prognostic repercussion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 16, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621508/avoidance-of-parasitized-host-by-female-wasps-of-aphidius-gifuensis-hymenoptera-braconidae-the-role-of-natal-rearing-effects-and-host-availability
#19
Ming-Zhen Pan, Tong-Xian Liu, Christian Nansen
Natal rearing experience of animals may affect their behaviors, such as, habitat selection and oviposition decision. As part of the overall fitness of insect parasitoids, successful host discrimination (distinguishing parasitized hosts from unparasitized hosts) is of paramount importance. In this study we examined whether and how parasitoids' natal rearing experience would affect their host discrimination ability according to host availability. We established separate colonies of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead by continually reared on two hosts, Sitobion avenae F...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620988/when-do-predatory-mites-phytoseiidae-attack-understanding-their-diel-and-seasonal-predation-patterns
#20
Consuelo Pérez-Sayas, Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa, Mónica A Hurtado, Josep A Jaques, Tatiana Pina
Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
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