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behavioral reserve

Lisa K Akison, Jenny Kuo, Natasha Reid, Roslyn N Boyd, Karen M Moritz
Prenatal alcohol exposure results in cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits in offspring. There is an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to overcome these effects. Maternal choline supplementation has been identified as a potential intervention. Our objective was to review preclinical and clinical studies using choline supplementation in known cases of fetal alcohol exposure to determine its effectiveness in ameliorating deficits in offspring. A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted and studies selected by reviewing titles/abstracts against specific inclusion/exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Zhengpei Ye, Ines M G Vollhardt, Nadia Parth, Oskar Rubbmark, Michael Traugott
1.Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can protect their aphid hosts from natural enemies such as hymenopteran parasitoids. As such, they have the capability to modulate interactions between aphids, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. However, the magnitude of these effects in natural aphid populations and their associated parasitoid communities is currently unknown. Moreover, environmental factors such as plant fertilization and landscape complexity are known to affect aphid-parasitoid interactions but it remains unclear how such environmental factors affect the interplay between aphids, parasitoids and endosymbionts...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Theis H Ipsen, Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Nicotine exposure during gestation is associated with a higher risk of adverse behavioral outcomes including a heightened liability for dependency to drugs of abuse, which can exhibit drug-specificity influenced by gender. This enhanced liability suggests that nicotine use during pregnancy alters neural development in circuits involved in motivation and reward learning. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical in motivated behaviors and we hypothesized that gestational exposure to nicotine could alter the development of excitatory circuits in this nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Meng Wang, Hua-Li Qin, Jing Leng, Ameeduz Zafar, Muhammad Wahab Amjad, Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
In the current study, a series of new ligustrazine-based chalcones was synthesized. For insertion of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, also designated as ligustrazine) in chemical backbone of chalcone a new ligustrazine-based aldehyde was prepared. New ketones were synthesized for inclusion of quinazolin-4-yl amino and pyrazin-2-yl amino moieties. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidases (MAO) inhibitory activities and also for in vitro cytotoxicity on PC12 cells...
June 19, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Erik Beňo, Róbert Góra, Milan Hutta
The presented work is focused on the separation and characterization of lignin samples isolated by Klason method from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) broadleaf hardwood and European aspen (Populus tremula) broadleaf softwood by size-exclusion chromatography. The separation was carried out using dimethylformamide as major component of the mobile phase and a 3 mm id microbore column packed with hydroxyethyl methacrylate gel, calibrated with polystyrene standards. The influence of mobile phase composition and sample solvent composition on the chromatographic behavior and molar mass distributions was investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Mariana Zancan, Rick Shandler R da Cunha, Francielle Schroeder, Léder L Xavier, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a sexually dimorphic area and plays a central role in the social behavior network of rats. Dendritic spines modulate synaptic processing and plasticity. Here, we compared the number and structure of dendritic spines in the MePD of prepubertal males and females, and postpubertal males with and without sexual experience. Spines were classified and measured after three-dimensional image reconstruction using DiI fluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy. Significantly differences are: (1) prepubertal males have more proximal spines, stubby/wide spines with long length and large head diameter, and thin and mushroom spines with wide neck and head diameters than prepubertal females, whereas (2) prepubertal females have more mushroom spines with long neck length than age-matched males...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Guillaume de Lartigue, Molly McDougle
Predicting the uncertainties of the ever-changing environment provides a competitive advantage for animals. The need to anticipate food sources has provided a strong evolutionary drive for synchronizing behavioral and internal processes with daily circadian cycles. When food is restricted to a few hours per day, rodents exhibit increased wakefulness and foraging behavior preceding the arrival of food. Interestingly, while the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus entrains daily rhythms to the light cycle, it is not necessary for this food anticipated activity...
June 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Parichat Wonggom, Huiyun DU, Robyn A Clark
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an avatar-based education application for improving knowledge and self-care behavior in patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND: Avatar-based technologies for supporting education are an innovative approach for patients with low literacy, low health literacy and English as a second language. The use of avatar technologies for patient education has shown benefits in improving knowledge, self-care behaviors and quality of life in chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and depression...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Christopher J Baillie, Jonathan H Grabowski
Invasive species can have profound ecological and evolutionary impacts on native fauna, particularly those from overlapping guilds. Intra-guild predation and competition often occur simultaneously, and ontogenetic shifts in competitive strength can dictate the magnitude and direction of species interactions. The recent introduction of the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus to the Atlantic coast of North America has resulted in the potential for considerable intraguild interactions with juvenile American lobsters Homarus americanus, with which it now co-occupies rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats...
June 19, 2018: Ecology
J A Ruskey, S Zhou, R Santiago, L-A Franche, A Alam, L Roncière, D Spiegelman, E A Fon, J-F Trempe, L V Kalia, R B Postuma, N Dupre, G-E Rivard, S Assouline, D Amato, Z Gan-Or
Biallelic GBA mutations cause Gaucher disease (GD), and heterozygous carriers are at risk for synucleinopathies. No founder GBA mutations in French-Canadians are known. GBA was fully sequenced using targeted next generation and Sanger sequencing in French-Canadian Parkinson disease (PD) patients (n=436), REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients (n=189) and controls (n=891). Haplotype, identity by descent (IBD) and principal component analyses (PCA) were performed using SNP-chip data. Data on GD patients from Toronto and Montreal were collected from patients' files...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Jyotika Bahuguna, Philipp Weidel, Abigail Morrison
The basal ganglia have been hypothesized to be involved in action selection, i.e. resolving competition between simultaneously activated motor programs. It has been shown that the direct pathway facilitates action execution whereas the indirect pathway inhibits it. However, as the pathways are both active during an action, it remains unclear whether their role is co-operative or competitive. In order to investigate this issue, we designed a striatal model consisting of D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and interfaced it to a simulated robot moving in an environment...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Youngmi Kang, Kwisoon Choe, Jinna Yu
AIM: This study identified the moderating role of the amount of caregiving tasks on relationships between dementia family caregivers' characteristics (age, education, etc.) and outcomes (burden, etc.). DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of surveyed data. METHOD: A convenience sample of 369 family caregivers (151 males, 218 females) aged 20 years or older was recruited from 10 cities in the southern area of South Korea. Data were collected from November - December 2011...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Ashley Vena, Andrea King, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be of value in treating alcohol use disorder, either by reducing the rewarding effects of alcohol or reducing negative affect induced by alcohol withdrawal. However, the effect of a single dose of oxytocin on subjective and psychomotor responses to alcohol in social drinkers is not known. METHODS: The present study examined the effect of intranasal oxytocin on subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to a moderate dose of alcohol (0...
June 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lorraine J Phillips, Nancy M Birtley, Gregory F Petroski, Carol Siem, Marilyn Rantz
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotic use in nursing homes varies widely across the United States; inadequate staffing, skill mix, and geropsychiatric training impede sustained improvement. AIM: This study identified risk factors of antipsychotic use in long-stay residents lacking qualifying or potentially qualifying diagnoses. METHOD: This secondary analysis used 2015 Minimum Data Set and cost report data from 458 Missouri nursing homes. The full sample (N=29,679) was split into two subsamples: residents with (N=15,114) and without (N=14,565) a dementia diagnosis...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Sirorat Thongrod, Chaitip Wanichanon, Wilairat Kankuan, Tanapan Siangcham, Suratchanee Phadngam, Federica Morani, Ciro Isidoro, Prasert Sobhon
Invertebrate neuropeptide F-I (NPF-I), much alike its mammalian homolog neuropeptide Y, influences several physiological processes, including circadian rhythms, cortical excitability, stress response, and food intake behavior. Given the role of autophagy in the metabolic stress response, we investigated the effect of NPF-1 on autophagy during fasting and feeding conditions in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of the male giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii . Starvation up-regulated the expression of the autophagy marker LC3 in both tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fernando Gómez, Lu Wang, Senjie Lin
Some diatoms are able to colonize as epibionts on their potential zooplankton predators. Here we report Pseudohimantidium pacificum living on the copepod Corycaeus giesbrechti and as a new finding on Oithona nana, Protoraphis atlantica living on the copepod Pontellopsis brevis, Protoraphis hustedtiana on the cypris larvae of barnacles, and Falcula hyalina on the copepod Acartia lilljeborgii. The epizoic diatoms were able to grow as free-living forms under culture conditions. Pseudohimantidium pacificum and Protoraphis atlantica appeared as the most derived species from their benthic diatom ancestors...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Hayley S McLoughlin, Lauren R Moore, Ravi Chopra, Robert Komlo, Megan McKenzie, Kate G Blumenstein, Hien Zhao, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Vikram G Shakkottai, Henry L Paulson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease, is the most common dominantly inherited ataxia. Despite advances in understanding this CAG repeat/polyglutamine expansion disease, there are still no therapies to alter its progressive fatal course. Here we investigate whether an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3, can prevent molecular, neuropathological, electrophysiological and behavioral features of the disease in a mouse model of SCA3...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Natasja Leth Bergholt, Morten Foss, Anwer Saeed, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Helle Lysdahl, Martin Lind, Casper Bindzus Foldager
Understanding the behavior of chondrocytes in contact with artificial culture surfaces is becoming increasingly important in attaining appropriate ex vivo culture conditions of chondrocytes in cartilage regeneration. Chondrocyte transplantation-based cartilage repair requires efficiently expanded chondrocytes and the culture surface plays an important role in guiding the behavior of the cell. Micro- and nanoengineered surfaces make it possible to modulate cell behavior. We hypothesized that the combined influence of topography, substrate, and surface chemistry may affect the chondrocyte culturing in terms of proliferation and phenotypic means...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Rubén Corpas, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Verónica Palomera-Ávalos, David Porquet, Pablo García de Frutos, Silvia M Franciscato Cozzolino, Eduard Rodríguez-Farré, Mercè Pallàs, Coral Sanfeliu, Bárbara R Cardoso
Melatonin is an endogenous pleiotropic molecule which orchestrates regulatory functions and protective capacity against age-related ailments. The increase in circulating levels of melatonin through dietary supplements intensifies its health benefits. Investigations in animal models have shown that melatonin protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, although clinical studies have not been conclusive. We hypothesized that melatonin induces changes in the brain that prevent or attenuate AD by increasing resilience...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Grace S Kao
This article describes a family that had to deal with grief from losing a family member. They sought help for 13-yr-old Katie's prolonged pain following a sprain. The family's unresolved grief over their second child's passing continued to emerge, peeping through the small talk, the wry smiles, the daily efforts to move and do, despite physical pain. As the demands of Katie's rehabilitation stripped away reserves of politeness and energy, the family's emotional pain became more fully uncovered.The author describes the 6-week course of physical and occupational therapies, pain medicine management, and individual and family behavioral health support...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
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