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Hawthorn effect

Ying Peng, Li-Li Lou, Si-Fan Liu, Le Zhou, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Seven new neolignans (1-2, 7-11) and five known compounds (3-6, 12) were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of hawthorn seeds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of all the isolates were investigated. Most of the isolates showed moderate radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and significant activities in the ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, compounds 7-12 exhibited marked nitric oxide (NO) inhibition and compounds 1-4 had a potent necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitory effect...
October 7, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ahmer M Hameed, Henry C Pleass, Germaine Wong, Wayne J Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The two main options for renal allograft preservation are static cold storage (CS) and machine perfusion (MP). There has been considerably increased interest in MP preservation of kidneys, however conflicting evidence regarding its efficacy and associated costs have impacted its scale of clinical uptake. Additionally, there is no clear consensus regarding oxygenation, and hypo- or normothermia, in conjunction with MP, and its mechanisms of action are also debated. The primary aims of this article were to elucidate the benefits of MP preservation with and without oxygenation, and/or under normothermic conditions, when compared with CS prior to deceased donor kidney transplantation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Alper Gokbulut, F Sezer Senol
Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are well-known for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
F Burger, M Walgenbach, P Göbel, S Parbs, E Neugebauer
Background: We investigated and evaluated the cost effectiveness of coding by health care economists in a centre for orthopaedics and trauma surgery in Germany, by quantifying and comparing the financial efficiency of physicians with basic knowledge of the DRG-system with the results of healthcare economists with in-depth knowledge (M.Sc.). In addition, a hospital survey was performed to establish how DRG-coding is being performed and the identity of the persons involved. Material and Methods: In a prospective and controlled study, 200 in-patients were coded by a healthcare economist (study group)...
October 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
D J Gould, S Creedon, A Jeanes, N S Drey, J Chudleigh, D Moralejo
The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Zhenzhi Wang, Dongxia Zhai, Danying Zhang, Lingling Bai, Ruipin Yao, Jin Yu, Wen Cheng, Chaoqin Yu
Insulin resistance (IR) is a clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Quercetin, derived from Chinese medicinal herbs such as hawthorn, has been proven practical in the management of IR in diabetes. However, whether quercetin could decrease IR in PCOS is unknown. This study aims to observe the therapeutic effect of quercetin on IR in a PCOS rat model and explore the underlying mechanism. An IR PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection with dehydroepiandrosterone. The body weight, estrous cycle, and ovary morphology of the quercetin-treated rats were observed...
September 15, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Mariam M AlHilli, Marc A Becker, S John Weroha, Karen S Flatten, Rachel M Hurley, Maria I Harrell, Ann L Oberg, Matt J Maurer, Kieran M Hawthorne, Xiaonan Hou, Sean C Harrington, Sarah McKinstry, X Wei Meng, Keith M Wilcoxen, Kimberly R Kalli, Elizabeth M Swisher, Scott H Kaufmann, Paul Haluska
OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have yielded encouraging responses in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), but the optimal treatment setting remains unknown. We assessed the effect of niraparib on HGSOC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models as well as the relationship between certain markers of homologous recombination (HR) status, including BRCA1/2 mutations and formation of RAD51 foci after DNA damage, and response of these PDXs to niraparib in vivo...
September 7, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
John G Williams, M Fasih Alam, Laith Alrubaiy, Ian Arnott, Clare Clement, David Cohen, John N Gordon, A Barney Hawthorne, Mike Hilton, Hayley A Hutchings, Aida U Jawhari, Mirella Longo, John Mansfield, Jayne M Morgan, Frances Rapport, Anne C Seagrove, Shaji Sebastian, Ian Shaw, Simon P L Travis, Alan Watkins
BACKGROUND: Infliximab and ciclosporin are of similar efficacy in treating acute severe ulcerative colitis, but there has been no comparative evaluation of their relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In this mixed methods, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial, we recruited consenting patients aged 18 years or older at 52 district general and teaching hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales who had been admitted, unscheduled, with severe ulcerative colitis and failed to respond to intravenous hydrocortisone within about 5 days...
September 2016: Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
Zhan Sun, Bin Yan, Wen Yan Yu, Xueping Yao, Xiaojuan Ma, Geli Sheng, Qi Ma
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. However, its clinical use has been hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Vitexin, which is the active ingredient of hawthorn leaf extract, has various biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The present study aimed to investigate whether vitexin was able to protect against DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in model rats and the mechanisms of this protective effect were assessed. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the control (saline only), model (DOX only) and vitexin-treated (DOX plus vitexin) groups...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wayne J Hawthorne, Lindy Williams, Yi Vee Chew
The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wayne J Hawthorne
For more than two decades we have been refining advances in islet cell transplantation as a clinical therapy for patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. A great deal of effort has gone to making this a viable therapy for a broader range of patients with type 1 diabetes. Clinical results have progressively improved, demonstrating clinical outcomes on par with other organ transplants, specifically in terms of insulin independence, graft and patient survival. We are now at the point where islet cell transplantation, in the form of allotransplantation, has become accepted as a clinical therapy in adult patients affected by type 1 diabetes, in particular those suffering from severe hypoglycaemic unawareness...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rachel Huey, Susan Hawthorne
Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), a 505 amino acid type-1 glycoprotein, is responsible for the neurotrophic nature of the rabies virus infection. Despite varying reports in the literature as to which receptor is ultimately responsible for interaction of RVG with the nervous system, there is a strong argument for major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) involvement. Peptide derivatives of RVG, such as rabies virus-derived peptide (RDP) and RVG-29 are emerging as promising targeting ligands for the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Gabriel Henrique Hawthorne, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci, Mariza Bortolanza, Vitor Tumas, Ana Carolina Issy, Elaine Del-Bel
Nanoparticles might be produced and manipulated to present a large spectrum of properties. The physicochemical features of the engineered nanomaterials confer to them different features, including the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The main objective of this review is to present the state-of-art research in nano manipulation concerning Parkinson's disease (PD). In the past few years, the association of drugs with nanoparticles solidly improved treatment outcomes. We systematically reviewed 28 studies, describing their potential contributions regarding the role of nanomedicine to increase the efficacy of known pharmacological strategies for PD treatment...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Philip G Griffiths, Robert H Taylor, Lisa M Henderson, Brendan T Barrett
PURPOSE: There are many anecdotal claims and research reports that coloured lenses and overlays improve reading performance. Here we present the results of a systematic review of this literature and examine the quality of the evidence. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature concerning the effect of coloured lenses or overlays on reading performance by searching the PsychInfo, Medline and Embase databases. This revealed 51 published items (containing 54 data sets)...
September 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Elise Paradis, Gary Sutkin
CONTEXT: Observational research is increasingly being used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet it is often criticised for being prone to observer effects (also known as the Hawthorne Effect), defined as a research participant's altered behaviour in response to being observed. This article explores this concern. METHODS: First, this article briefly reviews the initial Hawthorne studies and the original formulation of the Hawthorne Effect, before turning to contemporary studies of the Hawthorne Effect in HPE and beyond...
August 31, 2016: Medical Education
Abdoulaye Diane, Faye Borthwick, Sheng Wu, Jeanette Lee, Paula N Brown, Timothy A Dickinson, Kevin D Croft, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Hawthorn is a widely used herbal alternative medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the attributed health benefits, purported to be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, may depend on both the specific species and plant part. Studies to date investigating effects of hawthorn on heart disease(s) have used well-described European and/or Asian species, while little is known regarding the bioactivity of species native to North America. Six weeks of supplementation of both fireberry hawthorn berry (native Crataegus chrysocarpa) and English hawthorn leaf (C...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Xiao Han, Wenfeng Li, Di Huang, Xingbin Yang
Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice...
September 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
April A N Rose, Matthew G Annis, Dennie T Frederick, Marco Biondini, Zhifeng Dong, Lawrence N Kwong, Lynda Chin, Tibor Keler, Thomas Hawthorne, Ian R Watson, Keith T Flaherty, Peter M Siegel
PURPOSE: To determine if BRAF and/or MEK inhibitor-induced GPNMB expression renders melanomas sensitive to CDX-011, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting GPNMB. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The TCGA melanoma dataset was interrogated for a panel of MITF-regulated melanosomal differentiation antigens, including GPNMB. BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines treated with BRAF or MEK inhibitors were assessed for GPNMB expression by RT-qPCR, immunoblot and FACs analyses. Transient siRNA-mediated knockdown approaches were used to determine if MITF is requirement for treatment-induced GPNMB upregulation...
August 11, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
R Wachter, M Halbach, G Bakris, J Bisognano, H Haller, J Beige, A A Kroon, M Nadim, E Lovett, J Schafer, P W de Leeuw
OBJECTIVE: To compare safety and blood pressure (BP) reductions obtained with first- and second-generation systems for administering baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) in patients with resistant hypertension, as well as to verify that BP reductions with active BAT are distinguishable from placebo and Hawthorne effects observed with sham control. DESIGN AND METHOD: Second-generation data were available from 30 patients implanted in a single-arm verification study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Stephen D Persell, Jason N Doctor, Mark W Friedberg, Daniella Meeker, Elisha Friesema, Andrew Cooper, Ajay Haryani, Dyanna L Gregory, Craig R Fox, Noah J Goldstein, Jeffrey A Linder
BACKGROUND: Clinicians frequently prescribe antibiotics inappropriately for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Our objective was to test information technology-enabled behavioral interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs in a randomized controlled pilot test trial. METHODS: Primary care clinicians were randomized in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 3 interventions: 1) Accountable Justifications; 2) Suggested Alternatives; and 3) Peer Comparison...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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