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chronic C hepatitis

Cuncun Chen, Min Wu, Wen Zhang, Wei Lu, Min Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
Multi-layered mechanisms of virus host interaction exist for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which have been typically manifested at the microRNA level. Our previous study suggested that miRNA-939 (miR-939) may play a potential role in regulating HBV replication. Here we further investigated the mechanism by which miR-939 regulates HBV life cycle. We found that miR-939 inhibited the abundance of viral RNAs without direct miRNA-mRNA base pairing, but via host factors. Expression profiling and functional validation identified Jmjd3 as a target responsible for miR-939 induced anti-HBV effect...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eva Schrezenmeier, Kayin Wu, Fabian Halleck, Lutz Liefeldt, Susanne Brakemeier, Friederike Bachmann, Susanne Kron, Klemens Budde, Michael Duerr
Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in the kidney transplant may lead to continuous graft deterioration and the need for further renal replacement therapy. The novel direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) allow a highly effective and interferon-free treatment option for chronic HCV infected patients. Data on the therapeutic safety and efficacy in HCV infected renal transplant patients are sparse, especially for patients with severe renal impairment...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Donald P Rice, John J Faragon, Sarah Banks, Lisa M Chirch
Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C has evolved over the past decade, resulting in better control of infection and clinical outcomes; however, drug-drug interactions remain a significant hazard. Joint recommendations from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America regarding drug-drug interactions between HIV antiretroviral agents and direct-acting antiviral agents for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are reviewed here...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Kohtaro Ooka, Joseph K Lim
With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Anna Hojka-Osinska, Lucyna Budzko, Agnieszka Zmienko, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Patrick Maillard, Agata Budkowska, Marek Figlerowicz, Paulina Jackowiak
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of HCV infection-induced liver injury and host-virus interactions are still not well recognized. To better understand these processes we determined the changes in the host gene expression that occur during HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells. As a result, we identified genes that may contribute to the immune and metabolic cellular responses to infection. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HCV induced an increased expression of genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, adipocytokine signaling, cell cycle and nitrogen metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Jun Itakura, Masayuki Kurosaki, Chitomi Hasebe, Yukio Osaki, Kouji Joko, Hitoshi Yagisawa, Shinya Sakita, Hiroaki Okushin, Takashi Satou, Hiroyuki Hisai, Takehiko Abe, Keiji Tsuji, Takashi Tamada, Haruhiko Kobashi, Akeri Mitsuda, Yasushi Ide, Chikara Ogawa, Syotaro Tsuruta, Kouichi Takaguchi, Miyako Murakawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Namiki Izumi
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: We aimed to clarify the characteristics of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after treatment failure with NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV) in combination with NS3/4A inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection. METHODS: This is a nationwide multicenter study conducted by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group. The sera were obtained from 68 patients with virological failure after 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Fortier, Maryam Alavi, Julie Bruneau, Michelle Micallef, Jacinta Perram, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Adrian J Dunlop, Annie C Balcomb, Carolyn A Day, Carla Treloar, Nicky Bath, Paul S Haber, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and associated sociodemographic factors among people living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with a history of injecting drug use and to assess the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress and HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. METHODS: The Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings was an observational cohort study evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from 9 community health centers and opioid substitution therapy (OST) clinics (New South Wales, Australia)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Feng Su, Pamela K Green, Kristin Berry, George N Ioannou
: Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon (IFN)-based treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection whereas Asian race was associated with higher SVR rates compared to white patients. We aimed to describe the association between race/ethnicity and effectiveness of new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system nationally. We identified 21,095 HCV-infected patients (11,029 [52%] white, 6,171 [29%] black, 1,187 [6%] Hispanic, 348 [2%] Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native [Asian/PI/AI/AN] and 2,360 [11%] declined/missing race or ethnicity) who initiated antiviral treatment with regimens containing sofosbuvir (SOF), simeprevir + sofosbuvir (SMV+SOF), ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) or paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/dasabuvir (PrOD), during the 18-month period from 01/01/2014 to 06/30/2015...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hongbo Chen, Yinan Yao, Yifan Wang, Hua Zhou, Tianxiang Xu, Jing Liu, Guocheng Wang, Yongfeng Zhang, Xiang Chen, Qingwei Liu, Peng Huang, Rongbin Yu
BACKGROUND: HLA-DM gene, which is related to antigen processing and presentation and located in the non-classical class-II region of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, may play a crucial role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment outcomes. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the variant of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DM gene in HCV treatment outcomes. METHODS: We genotyped four SNPs from the candidate genes (HLA-DMA and DMB) in 336 patients who were treated with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
María Luján Cuestas
Since the British scientist Michael Houghton along with George Kuo, Qui-Lim Choo (Chiron Corporation Emeryville), and Daniel W. Bradley (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) co-discovered the causative agent of hepatitis C in 1989, so much progress has been made for the screening of blood donors and management of this chronic liver disease. In this regard, direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have emerged as the potential "cure" of this slowly progressing and devastating disease. However, improvements are still clearly required since the anti-hepatitis C drugs currently available in the market are so extremely expensive (i...
October 19, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Dana Tedesco, Manoj Thapa, Sanjeev Gumber, Elizabeth J Elrod, Khalidur Rahman, Chris C Ibegbu, Joseph F Magliocca, Andrew B Adams, Frank Anania, Arash Grakoui
: Persistent hepatotropic viral infections are a common etiologic agent of chronic liver disease. Unresolved infection can be attributed to non-functional intrahepatic CD8+ T cell responses. In light of dampened CD8+ T cell responses, liver disease often manifests systemically as Ig-related syndromes due to aberrant B cell functions. These two opposing yet co-existing phenomena implicate the potential of altered CD4+ T cell help. Elevated CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were evident in both human liver disease and a mouse model of chemically induced liver injury despite marked activation and spontaneous IgG production by intrahepatic B cells...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Takashi E Komatsu, Sarita Boyd, Adam Sherwat, LaRee Tracy, Lisa K Naeger, Julian J O'Rear, Patrick R Harrington
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elbasvir (an NS5A inhibitor) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A protease inhibitor) are direct-acting antiviral agents recently approved in the US for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 infections, as a fixed-dose combination. Trials of elbasvir and grazoprevir, with or without ribavirin, demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment ended (SVR12). However, 12 weeks of treatment with elbasvir and grazoprevir failed in a small proportion of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Kiran Gajurel, Jack T Stapleton
Hepatitis viruses are named for their primary clinical illness, inflammation of the liver. Currently, six types of viruses are designated hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, and G), although only five of these cause hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses are composed of RNA and DNA viruses from different families and with different virologic properties, some of which typically cause acute hepatitis while others cause acute and chronic hepatitis. In addition to their role in liver disease, members of this group of viruses may cause a variety of pathologic changes in the kidney and other organs, and chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis in addition to raising a variety of important issues in the management of kidney transplant recipients...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Nimish Bhatt, J Mark Sloan, Carl J O'Hara, Roy Oommen, Katrina Steiling, Virginia R Litle
We describe two patients with hepatitis C and a diagnosis of pulmonary extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. Both patients demonstrated a chronic nonproductive cough without hemoptysis. Diagnosis was obtained after a computed tomographic chest scan and flexible bronchoscopic biopsy. We discuss the staging and prognosis of this disease, its correlation with hepatitis C, and potential benefits of treating the associated hepatitis C.
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Norihiko Morisawa, Yohei Koshima, Jun-Ichi Satoh, Yukio Maruyama, Satoru Kuriyama, Takashi Yokoo, Morimasa Amemiya
AIM: Combination therapy with Daclatasvir (DCV) plus Asunaprevir (ASV) has been proven effective in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, little is known as to the effect of this therapy in patients with reduced renal function. Focusing on CKD patients whose renal function has declined, the present trial addresses the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in CKD patients with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design is a single-center, retrospective longitudinal observational study enrolling 106 patients with (n = 29) or without (n = 77) CKD...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
G Fenna van Breda, Lennart G Bongartz, Wenqing Zhuang, Rachel P L van Swelm, Jeanne Pertijs, Branko Braam, Maarten-Jan Cramer, Dorine W Swinkels, Pieter A Doevendans, Marianne C Verhaar, Roos Masereeuw, Jaap A Joles, Carlo A J M Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis by downregulating the iron exporter ferroportin. Circulating hepcidin is mainly derived from the liver but hepcidin is also produced in the heart. We studied the differential and local regulation of hepcidin gene expression in response to myocardial infarction (MI) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that cardiac hepcidin gene expression is induced by and regulated to severity of cardiac injury, either through direct (MI) or remote (CKD) stimuli, as well as through increased local iron content...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Eric Lawitz, Fred Poordad, Julio A Gutierrez, Jennifer T Wells, Carmen E Landaverde, Barbara Evans, Anita Howe, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Jerry Jing Li, Peggy Hwang, Frank J Dutko, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Barbara Haber
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combining DAAs with different mechanisms may allow for shorter treatment durations that are effective across multiple genotypes. The aim of the C-SWIFT study was to identify the minimum effective treatment duration across multiple genotypes. C-SWIFT was an open-label, single-center trial in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype (GT)1 or 3 infection. All patients received elbasvir (EBR) 100 mg/grazoprevir (GZR) 50 mg with sofosbuvir (SOF) 400 mg for 4-12 weeks...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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