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chronic C hepatitis

L Thijs, P Messiaen, J van der Hilst, V Madoe, C Melis, P Van Eyken, I Vanmoerkerke, F Janssens
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma species. Intestinal and hepatic schistosomiases are the most common forms of chronic disease. We describe a case of a 26-year old patient from Eritrea who was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was made by liver biopsy and the patient was treated with praziquantel. Hepatic schistosomiasis is characterised by deposition of schistosomal eggs in the liver which results in a host cell immune response and leads to granuloma formation and neoangiogenesis...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Noura S Abul-Husn, Xiping Cheng, Alexander H Li, Yurong Xin, Claudia Schurmann, Panayiotis Stevis, Yashu Liu, Julia Kozlitina, Stefan Stender, G Craig Wood, Ann N Stepanchick, Matthew D Still, Shane McCarthy, Colm O'Dushlaine, Jonathan S Packer, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Nehal Gosalia, David Esopi, Sun Y Kim, Semanti Mukherjee, Alexander E Lopez, Erin D Fuller, John Penn, Xin Chu, Jonathan Z Luo, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Michael D Feldman, Aeron Small, Scott M Damrauer, Daniel J Rader, Brian Zambrowicz, William Olson, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, George D Yancopoulos, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen, Omri Gottesman, Tanya M Teslovich, Aris Baras, Tooraj Mirshahi, Jesper Gromada, Frederick E Dewey
BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Daniel Ianni Filho, Ilka de Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin, Ademar Yamanaka
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis are common structural hepatic change in patients with chronic hepatitis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the extent of liver fibrosis. Considering the technical difficulties and cost, improvements in non-invasive screening tools are greatly needed. Bioimpedance have been shown to be safe to evaluate tissue fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of using monofrequential bipolar bioimpedance for the detection of severity of liver fibrosis consistent with chronic viral hepatitis C infections...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Yanjie Li, Nan Lin, Jianliang Xu, Yi Lu, Shuxian Chen, Chuzhi Pan, Chusi Wang, Mingxing Xu, Boxuan Zhou, Ruiyun Xu, Yong-Jiang Xu
BACKGROUND Most forms of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are associated with varying degrees of chronic inflammation. The association between the expression of eicosanoids, which are bioactive lipid mediators of inflammation, and HCC remains unknown. The aim of this study was to measure serum and hepatic eicosanoids in a mouse model of HCC with the delivery of c-Met and activated b-catenin by hepatocyte hydrodynamic injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS The HCC mouse model, and normal control mice, were used in this study with co-delivery of human c-Met combined with activated β-catenin into hepatocytes through hydrodynamic injection...
March 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Janneke P Bil, Peter Ag Schrooders, Maria Prins, Peter M Kouw, Judith He Klomp, Maarten Scholing, Lutje Phm Huijbregts, Gerard Jb Sonder, Toos Chfm Waegemaekers, Henry Jc de Vries, Wieneke Meijer, Freke R Zuure, Alma Tostmann
We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Janesh Lakhoo, Senthil S Gunasekaran, R Peter Lokken, Andrew J Lipnik, Charles E Ray, James T Bui, Ron C Gaba
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There are currently limited data available summarizing the clinical outcomes and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in cases of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study aimed to assess efficacy and safety of TIPS in patients with advanced CKD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (M :F 8 :9, age 55 years, MELD 24) with grade 4-5 CKD who underwent TIPS for ascites (n = 7) or varices (n = 10) were analyzed...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Kazushige Nirei, Tatsuo Kanda, Hitomi Nakamura, Shunichi Matsuoka, Tadatoshi Takayama, Masahiko Sugitani, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
Objective: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has long been treated with interferon therapy (IFN). Currently, more than 90% of IFN-treated patients show a sustained virological response (SVR) when also treated with ribavirin and/or a protease inhibitor. Histological inflammation and fibrosis improve in IFN-treated patients, which indicates HCV clearance. IFN also reduces the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, a small proportion of patients with SVR develop HCC. To investigate the causes of hepatic carcinogenesis after SVR, we compared the liver histological findings before IFN to those after the development of HCC...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Shomi Oka, Takashi Higuchi, Hiroshi Furukawa, Minoru Nakamura, Atsumasa Komori, Seigo Abiru, Shinya Nagaoka, Satoru Hashimoto, Atsushi Naganuma, Noriaki Naeshiro, Kaname Yoshizawa, Masaaki Shimada, Hideo Nishimura, Minoru Tomizawa, Masahiro Kikuchi, Fujio Makita, Haruhiro Yamashita, Keisuke Ario, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Shigeto Tohma, Aya Kawasaki, Naoyuki Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi Migita
Several studies reported that autoimmune diseases share a number of susceptibility genes. Of these genes, a SNP rs7708392 in TNIP1 was reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a rare chronic progressive liver disease, shares some clinical features with SLE. Therefore, we investigated whether the SNP is associated with Japanese AIH. An association study of rs7708392 was conducted in 343 Japanese AIH patients and 828 controls. We found that rs7708392 is associated with AIH (P = 0...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Paula Tiittala, Matti Ristola, Kirsi Liitsola, Jukka Ollgren, Päivikki Koponen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Eija Hiltunen-Back, Irja Davidkin, Pia Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. METHODS: A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tony K L Kiang
Elbasvir and grazoprevir, in a fixed-dose combination of 50 and 100 mg, respectively, have received approval to be administered orally once daily, with or without ribavirin, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The absorption characteristics of elbasvir and grazoprevir have been adequately summarized, although differences were observed for grazoprevir (e.g., increased exposure at steady state in patients), but not elbasvir, between healthy and HCV-infected subjects. Inconsistencies with respect to absorption were also reported on the effects of food or acid reducers (famotidine or pantoprazole) in the literature...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Moisés Uriarte-Pinto, Herminia Navarro-Aznarez, Natalia De La Llama-Celis, Piedad Arazo-Garcés, Ana María Martínez-Sapiña, María Reyes Abad-Sazatornil
Background HIV-HCV coinfection produces high morbi-mortality. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have shown high efficacy, although special attention should be paid to the risk of drug interactions. However, due to the lack of representativeness of coinfected patients in clinical trials, it is important to know real-world results. Objective To evaluate DAA treatment effectiveness in coinfected patients. We also analyse safety profile of DAA treatment and drug interactions between HCV and HIV therapy. Setting Descriptive study carried in a tertiary hospital of Spain Method HIV-HCV coinfected patients treated with DAAs between November 2014 and June 2016 were included...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
A C Jemilohun, O G Adewoye
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). It presents with varied clinical features from acute hepatitis to CLDs like chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, making it difficult to diagnose in the absence of a high index of suspicion and adequate laboratory support. Autoantibody-mediated hepatocyte injury is the major feature of AIH. We present a 44 year old woman with recurrent jaundice, ascites, splenomegaly, coagulopathy, negative chronic viral hepatitis screening, elevated IgG and positive anti-smooth muscle antibody...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Hung-Chih Yang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Sung-Nan Pei, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Jia-Hong Chen, Ming Yao, Shyh-Jer Lin, Johnson Lin, Quan Yuan, Ningshao Xia, Tsang-Wu Liu, Pei-Jer Chen, Ann-Lii Cheng, Chiun Hsu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Absence or low anti-hepatitis B (HBV) surface antibody (anti-HBs) is associated with increased risk of HBV reactivation in lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Quantification of anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is a new marker associated with the natural history and treatment response of chronic HBV infection. This study investigated whether baseline anti-HBc and anti-HBs levels may better predict HBV reactivation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Yao-Chun Hsu, Terry Cheuk-Fung Yip, Hsiu J Ho, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Yen-Tsung Huang, Hashem B El-Serag, Teng-Yu Lee, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jaw-Town Lin, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Chun-Ying Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is inadequately predicted by the scores built from untreated patients. We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to predict HCC in CHB patients on entecavir or tenofovir treatment. METHODS: This study analyzed population-wide data from the healthcare databases in Taiwan and Hong Kong to identify CHB patients continuously receiving entecavir or tenofovir...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Massimo Puoti, Graham R Foster, Stanley Wang, David Mutimer, Edward Gane, Christophe Moreno, Ting Tsung Chang, Samuel S Lee, Rui Marinho, Jean-Francois DuFour, Stanislas Pol, Christophe Hezode, Stuart C Gordon, Simone I Strasser, Paul J Thuluvath, Zhenzhen Zhang, Sandra Lovell, Tami Pilot-Matias, Federico J Mensa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir (G/P) is a pangenotypic, once-daily, ribavirin-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In nine phase 2 or 3 clinical trials, G/P achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) rates of 93-100% across all six major HCV genotypes (GTs). An integrated efficacy analysis of 8- and 12-week G/P in non-cirrhotic patients with HCV GT1-6 infection was performed. METHODS: Data were pooled from nine phase 2 and 3 trials and included patients with chronic HCV GT 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection without cirrhosis who received G/P (300mg/120mg) for either 8 or 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Sarene Koh, Janine Kah, Christine Y L Tham, Ninghan Yang, Erica Ceccarello, Adeline Chia, Margaret Chen, Atefeh Khakpoor, Andrea Pavesi, Anthony T Tan, Maura Dandri, Antonio Bertoletti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies to develop virus-specific T cells against hepatic viral infections have been hindered by safety concerns. We engineered non-lytic human T cells to suppress replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) without overt hepatotoxicity, and investigated their antiviral activity. METHODS: We electroporated resting T cells or T cells activated by anti-CD3 with mRNAs encoding HBV or HCV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) to create 2 populations of TCR-reprogrammed T cells...
March 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Ioannis Griveas, Eirini Sveroni, Vasiliki Argiana, Antonios Kalliaropoulos, Beatriz Martinez-Gonzalez, Melanie Deutsch
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. AIMS: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Young-A Heo, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; Vosevi® ) is approved in the EU for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in adults. In the phase III POLARIS trials, in patients who had HCV genotype 1-6 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, overall rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 ) with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir were high after 8 weeks of treatment in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients and 12 weeks of treatment in DAA-experienced patients...
March 15, 2018: Drugs
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