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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944602/hepatitis-e-virus-and-related-viruses-in-wild-domestic-and-zoo-animals-a-review
#1
REVIEW
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, T Vahlenkamp, R G Ulrich, R Johne
Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942625/current-status-of-and-strategies-for-hepatitis-c-control-in-south-korea
#2
REVIEW
Beom Kyung Kim, Eun Sun Jang, Jeong Han Kim, Soo Young Park, Song Vogue Ahn, Hyung Joon Kim, Do Young Kim
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, and the majority of those infected progress to chronic hepatitis, and some of them develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Transmission of HCV is parenteral, and the major transmission routes include drug abuse, insecure injections or medical procedures, contaminated syringes or needles, sexual contact with an HCV-infected person, vertical infection of newborns by infected mothers, the transfusion of blood or blood products contaminated with viruses, and organ transplants...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942620/current-status-and-strategies-for-viral-hepatitis-control-in-korea
#3
REVIEW
Dong Hyun Sinn, Eun Ju Cho, Ji Hoon Kim, Do Young Kim, Yoon Jun Kim, Moon Seok Choi
Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942429/increased-incidence-of-bk-virus-viraemia-among-patients-undergoing-chronic-haemodialysis-a-case-control-study
#4
Samer Fuad Swedan
AIMS: Incidence of BK virus (BKV) viraemia, a major risk factor for nephropathy, among patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis remains poorly investigated. This case-control study evaluated the risk of infection by BKV, in addition to hepatitis C virus (HCV) among haemodialysis subjects (n=100), compared with age-matched controls (n=100). METHODS: Subjects' blood plasma samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction, followed by real-time PCR to evaluate viraemia by BKV and HCV, while sera samples were subjected to ELISA, to identify IgG seropositivity for HCV...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941023/long-term-follow-up-of-clinical-trial-patients-treated-for-chronic-hcv-infection-with-daclatasvir-based-regimens
#5
K Rajender Reddy, Stanislas Pol, Paul J Thuluvath, Hiromitsu Kumada, Joji Toyota, Kazuaki Chayama, James Levin, Eric J Lawitz, Adrian Gadano, Wayne Ghesquiere, Guido Gerken, Maurizia R Brunetto, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Marcelo Silva, Simone I Strasser, Jeong Heo, Fiona McPhee, Zhaohui Liu, Rong Yang, Misti Linaberry, Stephanie Noviello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Daclatasvir has achieved high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of daclatasvir-based regimens administered during clinical studies. METHODS: Patients enrolled within 6 months of parent study completion or protocol availability at the study sites. The primary objective was durability of SVR at follow-up Week 12 (SVR12). Secondary objectives included analyzing HCV sequences in non-responders or responders who relapsed, and characterization of liver disease progression...
September 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941022/endoglin-in-human-liver-disease-and-murine-models-of-liver-fibrosis-a-protective-factor-against-liver-fibrosis
#6
Muhammad Alsamman, Viktor Sterzer, Steffen Klaus Meurer, Hacer Sahin, Ute Schäper, Deniz Kuscuoglu, Pavel Strnad, Ralf Weiskirchen, Christian Trautwein, David Scholten
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrosis is the outcome of chronic liver injury. TGF-β is a major profibrogenic cytokine modulating hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and extracellular matrix homeostasis. This study analyzes the effect of Endoglin (Eng), a TGF-β type III auxiliary receptor, on fibrogenesis in two models of liver injury by HSC specific endoglin deletion. METHODS: Eng expression was measured in human and murine samples of liver injury. After generating (GFAPC)(re(+)) Eng(Δ)(HSC) mice the impact of Endoglin deletion on chronic liver fibrosis was analyzed...
September 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940673/statins-reduce-the-risk-of-liver-decompensation-and-death-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis-a-propensity-score-weighted-landmark-analysis
#7
J C-T Wong, H L-Y Chan, Y-K Tse, T C-F Yip, V W-S Wong, G L-H Wong
BACKGROUND: Decompensated liver disease due to portal hypertension leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Statins can modulate intrahepatic vascular tone, but the clinical significance remains uncertain. AIM: To determine the effects of statin use on the risk of liver decompensation and death among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We conducted a population wide cohort study using a hospital based database from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority...
September 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939957/effect-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dasabuvir-on-renal-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-extrahepatic-manifestations-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-phase-3-clinical-trials
#8
Darshan A Mehta, Eric Cohen, Mariem Charafeddine, Daniel E Cohen, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Tram T Tran
INTRODUCTION: We analyzed phase 3 trial data of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) ± ribavirin (RBV) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients to investigate the impact of 3D ± RBV on renal, cardiovascular and metabolic extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), including persistency 52 weeks post treatment and differential impact by EHM disease severity. METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting triglyceride and fasting glucose values from clinical trials were used to assess renal, cardiovascular and metabolic EHMs, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938670/statins-and-the-risk-of-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-or-c-patients-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
Yaqin Wang, Jianping Xiong, Meng Niu, Xiaowei Chen, Long Gao, Qirun Wu, Kechuang Zheng, Ke Xu
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are leading causes of chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis. Recently, several studies have observed that statins have an inverse relationship with cirrhosis in hepatitis B or C patients. However, no published meta-analysis studied the protective effect of statins on cirrhosis. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies to better understand the relationship between statins and the risk of cirrhosis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science for articles published before April 2017...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938650/genomic-variants-link-to-hepatitis-c-racial-disparities
#10
Matthew M Yeh, Sarag Boukhar, Benjamin Roberts, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Sayed S Daoud
Chronic liver diseases are one of the major public health issues in United States, and there are substantial racial disparities in liver cancer-related mortality. We previously identified racially distinct alterations in the expression of transcripts and proteins of hepatitis C (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) subgroups. Here, we performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of normal vs. HCV+ (cirrhotic state), and normal adjacent tissues (HCCN) vs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936471/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particle-heterogeneity-in-immunodeficient-human-liver-chimeric-fah-mice
#11
Ursula Andreo, Ype P de Jong, Margaret A Scull, Jing W Xiao, Koen Vercauteren, Corrine Quirk, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Sonia Bergaya, Arjun Menon, Edward A Fisher, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity of the particles with respect to their buoyant density therefore cannot be determined, pointing to the need for better in vivo model systems...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935432/effectiveness-of-ravidasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-in-interferon-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treated-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4
#12
Gamal Esmat, Tamer Elbaz, Maissa El Raziky, Asmaa Gomaa, Mahmoud Abouelkhair, Hadeel Gamal El Deen, Aliaa Sabry, Mohamed Ashour, Naglaa Allam, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Ola Nada, Sherine Helmy, Hanaa Abdel-Maguid, Richard Colonno, Nathaniel Brown, Eric Ruby, Pamela Vig, Imam Waked
Although treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) and HCV-genotype-4 (GT4) has become very effective, yet treatment is very expensive, and affordable options are needed especially in limited resource countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of ravidasvir (an NS5A inhibitor) and sofosbuvir to treat chronic HCV-GT4 infected patients. DESIGN: A total of three hundred patients with HCV-GT4 infection were recruited in 3 groups: treatment-naïve patients with or without compensated Child-A cirrhosis (Group 1); interferon-experienced patients without cirrhosis (Group 2); and interferon-experienced patients with cirrhosis (Group 3)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934424/the-impact-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-failure-on-long-term-natural-course-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-seropositive-children
#13
Chi-San Tai, Jia-Feng Wu, Huey-Ling Chen, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Mei-Hwei Chang
Background: Vaccine failure with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection still develops in children after universal hepatitis B immunization. This study aimed to investigate the natural course of chronic HBV infection in children with vaccine failure and compare it with that of nonvaccinated children. Methods: Three hundred fifty-six hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-seropositive, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier children, who were followed for at least 1 year without antiviral therapy, were enrolled...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934311/characteristics-and-risk-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-of-liver-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#14
Chien-Ting Chen, Chun-Yu Liu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Chia-Jen Liu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jing-Hwang Liu, Yao-Chung Liu
Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Among various organ-specific cGvHD, the cGvHD of liver is less well-characterized. In this study, we applied the National Institutes of Health 2014 scoring criteria of cGvHD to analyze a retrospective cohort of 362 allo-HSCT recipients focusing on cGvHD of liver. The overall incidence of liver cGvHD with a score of 3 by 1.5 years post-transplant was 5.8% (21/362). Poor outcome, in terms of overall survival (OS), were observed in patients with scores of 3 liver cGvHD, comparing to those with scores less than 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933704/the-association-between-serum-cytokine-and-chemokine-levels-and-antiviral-response-by-entecavir-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#15
Mio Kurihara, Masataka Tsuge, Eisuke Murakami, Nami Mori, Waka Ohishi, Takuro Uchida, Hatsue Fujino, Takashi Nakahara, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Daiki Miki, Akira Hiramatsu, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Yizhou Zhang, Grace Naswa Makokha, C Nelson Hayes, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Although Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B(CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analyzed. METHODS: Seventy-eight Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933180/-viral-hepatitis-c-and-organ-transplantation
#16
Libuše Husová, Vladimír Mejzlík
At the Centre for Cardiovascular and Transplantation Surgery, Brno (CKTCH), a total of 638 liver transplantations were performed from the beginning of the transplantation programme on 2/2 1983 to 1/1 2017. Of the overall number of 638 transplantations indicated based on cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis C (HCV), 68 patients (11 %) underwent liver transplantation. Patients with HCV diagnosis were treated both while on the waiting list and after liver transplantation (LT). There was interferon as well as interferon-free therapy used during the treatment...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933169/-history-and-presence-of-hepatitis-b%C3%A2-and-c%C3%A2-therapy
#17
Petr Husa
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the worlds major causes of chronic liver disease. Care of patients infected with HBV and HCV and/or over the last 20 years has significantly improved thanks to the better understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, improvement of diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive options. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to extend the length of life and improve its quality through the barriers of the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, decompensation cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930859/p16-methylation-was-associated-with-the-development-age-hepatic-viruses-infection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-p16-expression-had-a-poor-survival-a-systematic-meta-analysis-prisma
#18
Xueyou Lv, Guoliang Ye, Xinjun Zhang, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Loss of tumor suppressor gene p16 expression via promoter methylation has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between p16 methylation and HCC. Additionally, we also analyzed the potential prognostic role of p16 methylation, expression or alteration-associated HCC. METHODS: Online databases based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline were performed to analyze the role of p16 gene in HCC...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930257/physicochemical-properties-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-crude-extracts-and-fractions-from-phyllanthus-amarus
#19
Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett
Background:Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657...
June 18, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
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