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Pancreatic islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778021/the-homing-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-subsequent-modulation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Yaqi Yin, Haojie Hao, Yu Cheng, Jieqing Gao, Jiejie Liu, Zongyan Xie, Qi Zhang, Li Zang, Weidong Han, Yiming Mu
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), with both immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative properties, are promising for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As efficient cell therapy largely relies on appropriate homing to target tissues, knowing where and to what extent injected UC-MSCs have homed is critically important. However, bio-distribution data for UC-MSCs in T2DM subjects are extremely limited. Beneficial effects of UC-MSCs on T2DM subjects are associated with increased M2 macrophages, but no systemic evaluation of M2 macrophages has been performed in T2DM individuals...
May 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777831/microcystis-bloom-containing-microcystin-lr-induces-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Qiong Zhang, Wendi Qin, Liuyan Yang, Jing An, Xuxiang Zhang, Hao Hong, Lizhi Xu, Yaping Wang
Epidemiological data from Lake Taihu showed significantly higher incidences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in other areas of China. This may be related to the occurrence of a Microcystis bloom in Lake Taihu in the summer and autumn every year. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the contaminated water from the Microcystis bloom and the derivative pollutant microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can explain the higher incidences of T2DM. Healthy male mice were fed with water from different regions of Lake Taihu, and were either acutely or chronically exposed to MC-LR through oral administration or intraperitoneal injection...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777263/folate-treatment-of-pregnant-rat-dams-abolishes-metabolic-effects-in-female-offspring-induced-by-a-paternal-pre-conception-unhealthy-diet
#3
Jian Li, Yong-Ping Lu, Oleg Tsuprykov, Ahmed A Hasan, Christoph Reichetzeder, Mei Tian, Xiao Li Zhang, Qin Zhang, Guo-Ying Sun, Jingli Guo, Mohamed M S Gaballa, Xiao-Ning Peng, Ge Lin, Berthold Hocher
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Paternal high-fat diet prior to mating programmes impaired glucose tolerance in female offspring. We examined whether the metabolic consequences in offspring could be abolished by folate treatment of either the male rats before mating or the corresponding female rats during pregnancy. METHODS: Male F0 rats were fed either control diet or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diet (HFSSD), with or without folate, before mating. Male rats were mated with control-diet-fed dams...
May 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773871/the-somatostatin-secreting-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Patrik Rorsman, Mark O Huising
The somatostatin-secreting δ-cells comprise ~5% of the cells of the pancreatic islets. The δ-cells have complex morphology and might interact with many more islet cells than suggested by their low numbers. δ-Cells contain ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which open at low levels of glucose but close when glucose is elevated. This closure initiates membrane depolarization and electrical activity and increased somatostatin secretion. Factors released by neighbouring α-cells or β-cells amplify the glucose-induced effects on somatostatin secretion from δ-cells, which act locally within the islets as paracrine or autocrine inhibitors of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773801/lrrc8-vrac-anion-channels-enhance-%C3%AE-cell-glucose-sensing-and-insulin-secretion
#5
Till Stuhlmann, Rosa Planells-Cases, Thomas J Jentsch
Glucose homeostasis depends critically on insulin that is secreted by pancreatic β-cells. Serum glucose, which is directly sensed by β-cells, stimulates depolarization- and Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis of insulin granules. Here we show that pancreatic islets prominently express LRRC8A and LRRC8D, subunits of volume-regulated VRAC anion channels. Hypotonicity- or glucose-induced β-cell swelling elicits canonical LRRC8A-dependent VRAC currents that depolarize β-cells to an extent that causes electrical excitation...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771768/high-density-infiltration-of-v-domain-immunoglobulin-suppressor-of-t-cell-activation-up-regulated-immune-cells-in-human-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Jinʼe Liu, Xiaoxue Xie, Chunxiao Xuan, Tingting Li, Lanlan Wang, Lianghong Teng, Jun Liu
V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is constitutively expressed in hematopoietic lineage and is highly up-regulated in tumor infiltrated myeloid cells and regulatory T cells in animal models. However, its expression in human pancreatic tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this research, we aimed at the expression of VISTA in human pancreatic cancer samples. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry to determine VISTA expression in human pancreatic cancer samples...
May 15, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770600/how-does-glucagon-like-peptide-1-stimulate-human-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-a-lesson-from-islet-graft-experiments
#7
Yoshio Fujitani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The age-dependent decline in functional β-cell mass contributes to the increased risk of onset of diabetes, reflecting the central role of pancreatic β cells in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, the replication rate of human and rodent β cells is known to decline sharply with age, and such a characteristic of β cells may explain the increased onset of type 2 diabetes in the older population. The molecular mechanism involved in the age-dependent decline of β-cell proliferation has been extensively studied, mainly using rodents and in vitro culture systems, but its molecular basis is still largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770308/allo-and-auto-percutaneous-intra-portal-pancreatic-islet-transplantation-pipit-for-diabetes-cure-and-prevention-the-role-of-imaging-and-interventional-radiology
#8
REVIEW
Massimo Venturini, Claudio Sallemi, Paolo Marra, Anna Palmisano, Giulia Agostini, Carolina Lanza, Gianpaolo Balzano, Massimo Falconi, Antonio Secchi, Paolo Fiorina, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paola Maffi, Antonio Esposito, Francesco De Cobelli, Alessandro Del Maschio
Although the life expectancy of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has improved since the introduction of insulin therapy, the acute life-threatening and long-term complications from diabetes mellitus are significant causes of both mortality and morbidity. Percutaneous intra-portal pancreatic islet transplantation (PIPIT) is a minimally invasive, repeatable procedure which allows a β-cell replacement therapy through a liver islet engraftment, leading to insulin release and glycaemic control restoration in patients with diabetes...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769672/pancreas-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Qiao Zhou, Douglas A Melton
The pancreas is made from two distinct components: the exocrine pancreas, a reservoir of digestive enzymes, and the endocrine islets, the source of the vital metabolic hormone insulin. Human islets possess limited regenerative ability; loss of islet β-cells in diseases such as type 1 diabetes requires therapeutic intervention. The leading strategy for restoration of β-cell mass is through the generation and transplantation of new β-cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Other approaches include stimulating endogenous β-cell proliferation, reprogramming non-β-cells to β-like cells, and harvesting islets from genetically engineered animals...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758481/kaempferol-alleviates-palmitic-acid-induced-lipid-stores-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-through-ampk-mtor-mediated-lipophagy
#10
Ritu Varshney, Rajat Varshney, Rutusmita Mishra, Sumeet Gupta, Debabrata Sircar, Partha Roy
Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has the beneficial effects of preserving pancreatic β-cell mass and function, but its action on β-cell lipid metabolism still remains elusive. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a major role in lipid metabolism in various cell types, but its role in pancreatic β-cell's lipid metabolism is rarely reported. Here, we investigated the role of kaempferol-induced autophagy in inhibition of lipid stores, ER stress and β-cell dysfunction in palmitic acid-challenged RIN-5F cells and isolated pancreatic islets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758224/humanised-recombinant-antibody-fragments-bind-human-pancreatic-islet-cells
#11
Abigail C Buenafe, Philip R Streeter
We describe here the humanisation of two mouse monoclonal antibodies that bind to surface markers on human pancreatic islet endocrine cells. Monoclonal antibodies produced by the HIC1-2B4 and HIC0-4F9 mouse hybridomas bind distinct surface molecules expressed on endocrine cells and have been validated for a number of experimental methods including immunohistochemistry and live cell sorting by flow cytometry. Variable region framework and first constant region domain sequences were replaced with that from compatible human antibody sequences, and the resulting recombinant antigen-binding fragments were cloned and expressed in mouse myeloma cells...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757902/differential-impact-of-t-bet-and-ifn%C3%AE-on-pancreatic-islet-allograft-rejection
#12
Alix Besançon, Zeynep Demir, Tania Goncalves, Fabrice Valette, Emilie Panafieu, Lucienne Chatenoud, Sylvaine You
BACKGROUND: T-cell-mediated graft rejection is mostly correlated with potent Th1 responses. However, since IFNγ mice reject their graft as efficiently as wild-type (WT) mice, the exact contribution of IFNγ and its transcription factor T-bet remains a matter of debate. Here, we address this question in the context of pancreatic islet allograft to better inform the molecular pathways that hampers islet survival in vivo. METHODS: Pancreatic islets from BALB/c mice were transplanted in WT, IFNγ or T-bet C57BL/6 mice...
May 2, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757700/adhesion-characteristics-of-porcine-pancreatic-islets-and-exocrine-tissue-to-coating-materials
#13
Yoshiki Nakashima, Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Hirofumi Noguchi
Since the report of the Edmonton protocol in 2000, islet transplantation has been implemented worldwide, and xenotransplantation using porcine islets has also been reported. In addition, many basic experiments using pancreatic islets and exocrine tissue after isolation have been reported. Recently, exocrine cells have been found to be essential for inducing the differentiation of pancreatic islets. Therefore, the importance of the culture conditions for pancreatic tissue when conducting experiments using pancreatic tissue is also increasing...
May 14, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757200/a-rationally-designed-hsp70-variant-rescues-the-aggregation-associated-toxicity-of-human-iapp-in-cultured-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Marie Nicole Bongiovanni, Francesco Antonio Aprile, Pietro Sormanni, Michele Vendruscolo
Molecular chaperones are key components of the protein homeostasis system against protein misfolding and aggregation. It has been recently shown that these molecules can be rationally modified to have an enhanced activity against specific amyloidogenic substrates. The resulting molecular chaperone variants can be effective inhibitors of protein aggregation in vitro, thus suggesting that they may provide novel opportunities in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Before such opportunities can be exploited, however, their effects on cell viability should be better characterised...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756009/molecular-architecture-of-mouse-and-human-pancreatic-zymogen-granules-protein-components-and-their-copy-numbers
#15
Jin-Sook Lee, Joseph A Caruso, Garrett Hubbs, Patricia Schnepp, James Woods, Jingye Fang, Chunying Li, Kezhong Zhang, Paul M Stemmer, Bhanu P Jena, Xuequn Chen
A molecular model of pancreatic zymogen granule (ZG) is critical for understanding its functions. We have extensively characterized the composition and membrane topology of rat ZG proteins. In this study, we report the development of targeted proteomics approaches to quantify representative mouse and human ZG proteins using LC-SRM and heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides. The absolute quantities of mouse Rab3D and VAMP8 were determined as 1242 ± 218 and 2039 ± 151 (mean ± SEM) copies per ZG...
2018: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755562/investigation-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-and-prangol-extracted-from-achillea-tenoifolia-along-with-whole-root-extract-on-isolated-rat-pancreatic-islets
#16
Mahban Rahimifard, Azadeh Manayi, Maryam Baeeri, Mahdi Gholami, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Mohammad Abdollahi
The genus Achillea (Asteraceae) consisting of important medicinal species, growing wildly in Iran, of which A. tenuifolia is found in Iran-o-Turan regions. Regarding the traditional use of Achillea species for treatment of diabetes and also lack of information on phyto-constituents of A. tenuifolia underground parts, in this study anti-diabetic activity of the plant have been reported. In order to find the main active components, underground parts of the plant were extracted with water and fractioned by hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the separation of the main compounds were carried out via medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755519/simulated-cholinergic-reinnervation-of-%C3%AE-ins-1-cells-antidiabetic-utility-of-heterotypic-pseudoislets-containing-%C3%AE-cell-and-cholinergic-cell
#17
Ao Jiao, Feng Li, Chengshuo Zhang, Wu Lv, Baomin Chen, Jialin Zhang
Cholinergic neurons can functionally support pancreatic islets in controlling blood sugar levels. However, in islet transplantation, the level of cholinergic reinnervation is significantly lower compared to orthotopic pancreatic islets. This abnormal reinnervation affects the survival and function of islet grafts. In this study, the cholinergic reinnervation of beta cells was simulated by 2D and 3D coculture of INS-1 and NG108-15 cells. In 2D culture conditions, 20 mM glucose induced a 1.24-fold increase ( p < 0...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753073/glycine-transporter-1-and-glycine-receptor-mediate-the-antioxidant-effect-of-glycine-in-diabetic-rat-islets-and-ins-1-cells
#18
Lei Chen, Junqing Zhang, Changhong Li, Ziwei Wang, Jingjing Li, Dan Zhao, Suxia Wang, Hong Zhang, Youyuan Huang, Xiaohui Guo
Oxidative stress is the main inducer of β-cell damage, which underlies the pathogenesis of diabetes. Evidence suggests that glycine, a recognized antioxidant, may improve β-cell function; however, its mechanism in protecting diabetic β-cells against oxidative stress has not been directly investigated. Using a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model and INS-1 pancreatic β-cells, we evaluated whether glycine can attenuate diabetic β-cell damage induced by oxidative stress. In diabetic rats, glycine stimulated insulin secretion; enhanced plasma glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase levels; reduced plasma 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine and islet p22phox levels; and improved islet β-cell mitochondrial degeneration and insulin granule degranulation...
May 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751963/ameliorative-effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-on-hyperglycemia-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Hamdy Rizk, A F Tohamy, Walaa Mohamed Sayed, Abdelbary Prince
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Bone marrow derived pancreatic progenitor cells (BM- PPCs) in diabetic rats. It was conducted on 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-220 g. They were divided into three groups: (a) Group 1 was the control group; (b) Group 2 was the diabetic (induced diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) and (c) Group 3 was the treated (received injection of 2.5 X 106 BM- PPCs via the tail vein twice with a 21-day time interval)...
May 8, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749986/-urtica-dioica-distillate-regenerates-pancreatic-beta-cells-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Ali Gohari, Ali Noorafshan, Masoumeh Akmali, Fahimeh Zamani-Garmsiri, Atefeh Seghatoleslam
Background: Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as "aragh gazaneh". In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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