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Pancreatic islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731996/-pancreatitis-genes-and-islet-cells-auto-transplant-updates-and-new-horizons
#1
Edgardo D Rivera Rivera
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can progress from an acute presentation to an acute recurring presentation and eventually to chronic pancreatitis, which is characterized by irreversible morphological changes and scarring of the pancreas. The entity known as hereditary pancreatitis has been recognized in the literature for years and certainly the discovery of the PRSS1 gene in 1996 marked the beginning of a new era of genetic discoveries associated with the disease. Since then, multiple genes have been described as the causing agents of pancreatitis or disease modifiers, some of the most important ones being the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CASR, CTRC, CLDN2, and CPA1...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730907/the-rs10229583-polymorphism-near-paired-box-gene-4-is-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-chinese-women
#2
Tianyi Xu, Yiru Shi, Jiangbo Liu, Yun Liu, Ailin Zhu, Cui Xie, Yan Zhang, Yan Chen, Lirong Ren
Objective The rs10229583 polymorphism near paired box gene 4 ( PAX4) is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in the PAX4 gene may be associated with impaired differentiation/development of pancreatic islet beta cells during fetal development and, consequently, a compromised insulin response to high blood glucose. To ascertain whether this polymorphism plays a role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we investigated the genotypic and allele frequency differences between GDM and normal pregnancies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730233/assessment-of-t-and-b-lymphocytes-and-vegf-a-in-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Elena Irina Căluianu, Dragoş Ovidiu Alexandru, Elena Anca Târtea, Marius Georgescu, Dorin MercuŢ, Emil Tiberius Traşcă, Maria Iancău
AIM: Highlighting certain characteristics of T- and B-lymphocytes, as well as of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) as a prognosis factors for patients suffering from acute pancreatitis, with the scope of establishing diagnosis and therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic tissue samples were analyzed, originating from 21 patients deceased due to acute pancreatitis, between the years 2015 and 2016. The study group was subdivided into two subgroups by pathology duration...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#4
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729654/cryopreservation-protocol-for-human-biliary-tree-stem-progenitors-hepatic-and-pancreatic-precursors
#5
Lorenzo Nevi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Daniele Costantini, Sabina Di Matteo, Alfredo Cantafora, Fabio Melandro, Roberto Brunelli, Carlo Bastianelli, Camilla Aliberti, Marco Monti, Daniela Bosco, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Lola Reid, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
Human biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (hBTSCs) are being used for cell therapies of patients with liver cirrhosis. A cryopreservation method was established to optimize sourcing of hBTSCs for these clinical programs and that comprises serum-free Kubota's Medium (KM) supplemented with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 15% human serum albumin (HSA) and 0.1% hyaluronans. Cryopreserved versus freshly isolated hBTSCs were similar in vitro with respect to self-replication, stemness traits, and multipotency. They were able to differentiate to functional hepatocytes,cholangiocytes or pancreatic islets, yielding similar levels of secretion of albumin or of glucose-inducible levels of insulin...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727072/the-equine-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-dysregulation
#6
M H Kheder, M N Sillence, L M Bryant, M A de Laat
Metabolic disease is a significant problem that causes a range of species-specific comorbidities. Recently, a better understanding of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) biology has led to the suggestion that inhibiting its action may attenuate obesity in several species. In horses, antagonism of GIP may also reduce hyperinsulinemia, which leads to insulin-associated laminitis, a painful comorbidity unique to this species. However, little is known about GIP in horses. The aims of this study were to examine the tissue distribution of equine GIP receptors (eGIPR), to determine whether eGIPR can be blocked using a GIP antagonist not tested previously in horses, and to establish whether there is any association between GIP concentrations and body mass in this species...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726377/a-novel-targeted-mass-spectrometry-approach-enabled-discov-ery-of-o-glycosylated-insulin-and-related-signaling-peptides-in-mouse-and-human-pancreatic-islets
#7
Qing Yu, Alejandra Canales, Matthew S Glover, Rahul Das, Xudong Shi, Yang Liu, Mark P Keller, Alan D Attie, Lingjun Li
O-linked glycosylation often involves the covalent attachment of sugar moieties to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine on proteins/peptides. Despite growing interest in glycoproteins, little attention has been directed to glycosylated signaling peptides, largely due to lack of enabling analytical tools. Here we explore the occurrence of naturally O-linked glycosylation on the signaling peptides extracted from mouse and human pancreatic islets using mass spectrometry (MS). A novel targeted MS-based method is developed to increase the likelihood of capturing these modified signaling peptides and to provide improved sequence coverage and accurate glycosite localization, enabling the first large-scale discovery of O-glycosylation on signaling peptides...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726200/intranasal-insulin-restores-metabolic-parameters-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#8
K V Derkach, A O Ivantsov, O V Chistyakova, I B Sukhov, D M Buzanakov, A A Kulikova, A O Shpakov
We studied the effect of 10-week treatment with intranasal insulin (0.5 IU/day) on glucose tolerance, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, functions of pancreatic β cells, and insulin system in the liver of rats with cafeteria diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The therapy reduced body weight and blood levels of insulin, triglycerides, and atherogenic cholesterol that are typically increased in metabolic syndrome, normalized glucose tolerance and its utilization, and increased activity of insulin signaling system in the liver, thus reducing insulin resistance...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724742/the-myokine-irisin-is-released-in-response-to-saturated-fatty-acids-and-promotes-pancreatic-beta-cell-survival-and-insulin-secretion
#9
Annalisa Natalicchio, Nicola Marrano, Giuseppina Biondi, Rosaria Spagnuolo, Rossella Labarbuta, Immacolata Porreca, Angelo Cignarelli, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
This study explored the role of irisin as a new pancreatic beta-cell secretagogue and survival factor and its potential role in the communication between skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta-cells under lipotoxic conditions. Recombinant irisin stimulated insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a PKA-dependent manner, and prevented saturated fatty acid-induced apoptosis in human and rat pancreatic beta-cells, as well as in human and murine pancreatic islets, via AKT/BCL2 signaling...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724056/prevalence-of-pancreatic-autoantibodies-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-and-its-relation-to-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-tolerance
#10
Carolina Sallorenzo, Regina Silva, Teresa Kasamatsu, Sérgio Dib
Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and tyrosine phosphatase-protein antibodies (IA2A), their titers and their relation to first phase insulin response (FPIR) and glucose tolerance in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) patients. Subjects and methods: Graves' disease (GD; n = 181) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n = 143) patients in addition to healthy controls (n = 93) were studied. Secondly, FPIR and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 11 anti-pancreatic islet-cell (+) and in 20 anti-pancreatic-cell (-) patients...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721437/erk1-is-dispensable-for-mouse-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-but-is-necessary-for-glucose-induced-full-activation-of-msk1-and-creb
#11
Michele Leduc, Joy Richard, Safia Costes, Dany Muller, Annie Varrault, Vincent Compan, Julia Mathieu, Jean-François Tanti, Gilles Pagès, Jacques Pouyssegur, Gyslaine Bertrand, Stéphane Dalle, Magalie A Ravier
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, which is associated with a decrease in beta cell mass, is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibition in beta cells has been reported to affect insulin secretion, gene transcription and survival, although whether ERK1 and ERK2 play distinct roles is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the individual roles of ERK1 and ERK2 in beta cells using ERK1 (also known as Mapk3)-knockout mice (Erk1 (-/-) mice) and pharmacological approaches...
July 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719390/total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-recent-updates-and-outcomes
#12
Yoshitaro Shindo, Mazhar A Kanak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a reliable therapy to retain endocrine function, to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in adult and pediatric patients suffering from refractory chronic pancreatitis and recurrent acute pancreatitis. Recently, an expansion of indications to include benign and malignant pancreatic disease has been suggested. Improved methods for evaluating the functional quality of islets and predicting transplant outcome have been discussed...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715390/mammalian-cell-encapsulation-in-alginate-beads-using-a-simple-stirred-vessel
#13
Corinne A Hoesli, Roger L J Kiang, Kamini Raghuram, René G Pedroza, Karen E Markwick, Antonio M R Colantuoni, James M Piret
Cell encapsulation in alginate beads has been used for immobilized cell culture in vitro as well as for immunoisolation in vivo. Pancreatic islet encapsulation has been studied extensively as a means to increase islet survival in allogeneic or xenogeneic transplants. Alginate encapsulation is commonly achieved by nozzle extrusion and external gelation. Using this method, cell-containing alginate droplets formed at the tip of nozzles fall into a solution containing divalent cations that cause ionotropic alginate gelation as they diffuse into the droplets...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711973/piwi-interacting-rnas-as-novel-regulators-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-function
#14
Imène Sarah Henaoui, Cécile Jacovetti, Inês Guerra Mollet, Claudiane Guay, Jonathan Sobel, Lena Eliasson, Romano Regazzi
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: P-element induced Wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that interact with PIWI proteins and guide them to silence transposable elements. They are abundantly expressed in germline cells and play key roles in spermatogenesis. There is mounting evidence that piRNAs are also present in somatic cells, where they may accomplish additional regulatory tasks. The aim of this study was to identify the piRNAs expressed in pancreatic islets and to determine whether they are involved in the control of beta cell activities...
July 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710249/amyloid-precursor-protein-in-pancreatic-islets
#15
Joshua Kulas, Kendra Puig, Colin K Combs
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated for its role in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), a plaque forming peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological evidence suggests type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for AD. The pancreas is an essential regulator of blood glucose levels through the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic dysfunction is a well characterized consequence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study we have examined the expression and processing of pancreatic APP to test the hypothesis that APP may play a role in pancreatic function and the pathophysiology of diabetes...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708480/optimizing-diabetes-treatment-in-the-presence-of-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Mary Angelynne Esquivel, M Cecilia Lansang
Evidence of a neurophysiologic mechanism that involves hormones from adipocytes, pancreatic islet cells, and the gastrointestinal tract implicated in both obesity and diabetes has led to a search for drugs that not only either target obesity and diabetes or reduce hemoglobin A1c, but also have weight loss as a potential side effect. The authors review medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (including pramlintide, also approved for type 1 diabetes) that also have weight loss as a side effect...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706979/the-optimization-of-short-term-hepatocyte-preservation-before-transplantation
#17
Kengo Fukuoka, Akiko Inagaki, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Muneyuki Matsumura, Satoru Yoshida, Takehiro Imura, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Shigehito Miyagi, Kazuo Ohashi, Shin Enosawa, Takashi Kamei, Michiaki Unno, Noriaki Ohuchi, Susumu Satomi, Masafumi Goto
BACKGROUND: No optimal methods for short-term hepatocyte preservation have been established. We have recently developed a prominent oxygen-permeable bag (Tohoku Device [TD]) for pancreatic islet culture and transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether TD is also effective for hepatocyte preservation and tried to optimize other conditions. METHODS: Hepatocytes were preserved in the following conditions, and their outcomes were observed. First, the effectiveness of TD was investigated...
July 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705881/defining-a-novel-role-for-the-pdx1-transcription-factor-in-islet-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-and-proliferation-during-weaning
#18
Jason M Spaeth, Manisha Gupte, Mark Perelis, Yu-Ping Yang, Holly Cyphert, Shuangli Guo, Jin-Hua Liu, Min Guo, Joseph Bass, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher Wright, Roland Stein
The transcription factor encoded by the Pancreas Duodenum Homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene is a critical transcriptional regulator, as it has fundamental actions in the formation of all pancreatic cell types, islet β cell development, and adult islet β cell function. Transgenic- and cell line-based experiments have identified 5'-flanking conserved sequences that control pancreatic and β cell-type-specific transcription, which are found within Area I (base pairs (bp) -2694 to -2561), II (bp -2139 to -1958), III (bp -1879 to -1799), and IV (bp -6200 to -5670)...
July 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702523/implications-of-peptide-assemblies-in-amyloid-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Pu Chun Ke, Marc-Antonie Sani, Feng Ding, Aleksandr Kakinen, Ibrahim Javed, Frances Separovic, Thomas P Davis, Raffaele Mezzenga
Neurodegenerative disorders and type 2 diabetes are global epidemics compromising the quality of life of millions worldwide, with profound social and economic implications. Despite the significant differences in pathology - much of which are poorly understood - these diseases are commonly characterized by the presence of cross-β amyloid fibrils as well as the loss of neuronal or pancreatic β-cells. In this review, we document research progress on the molecular and mesoscopic self-assembly of amyloid-beta, alpha synuclein, human islet amyloid polypeptide and prions, the peptides and proteins associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type 2 diabetes and prion diseases...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702323/aav-mediated-pancreatic-overexpression-of-igf1-counteracts-progression-to-autoimmune-diabetes-in-mice
#20
Cristina Mallol, Estefania Casana, Veronica Jimenez, Alba Casellas, Virginia Haurigot, Claudia Jambrina, Victor Sacristan, Meritxell Morró, Judith Agudo, Laia Vilà, Fatima Bosch
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of β-cells leading to severe insulin deficiency. Although many improvements have been made in recent years, exogenous insulin therapy is still imperfect; new therapeutic approaches, focusing on preserving/expanding β-cell mass and/or blocking the autoimmune process that destroys islets, should be developed. The main objective of this work was to test in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes, the effects of local expression of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a potent mitogenic and pro-survival factor for β-cells with immunomodulatory properties...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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