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Herpes simplex 1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454196/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-immune-activation-among-hiv-infected-but-virally-suppressed-youth-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Tanya L Kowalczyk Mullins, Su X Li, James Bethel, Maureen M Goodenow, Stephanie Hudey, John W Sleasman
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation. OBJECTIVES: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and little is known about the impact of STIs on immune activation in HIV-infected youth, we conducted an exploratory study examining the association between STIs and systemic inflammation and immune activation among HIV-infected adolescents...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447697/herpes-simplex-virus-1-vp22-inhibits-aim2-dependent-inflammasome-activation-to-enable-efficient-viral-replication
#2
Yuhei Maruzuru, Takeshi Ichinohe, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake, Tokuju Okano, Toshihiko Suzuki, Takumi Koshiba, Naoto Koyanagi, Shumpei Tsuda, Mizuki Watanabe, Jun Arii, Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447144/quickstats-age-adjusted-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-among-adolescents-and-adults-aged-14-49-years-united-states-1999-2000-through-2015-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
During 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-1 was 48.1% among adolescents and adults aged 14-49 years (50.9% for females and 45.2% for males). Prevalence was higher for females than males in most 2-year periods from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Also during 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-2 for those aged 14-49 years was 12.1% (15.9% among females compared to 8.2% among males) and was higher for females than males for all 2-year periods. Prevalence significantly declined from 1999-2000 through 2015-2016 for HSV-1 and HSV-2 among both males and females...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444978/an-off-target-effect-of-bx795-blocks-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-eye
#4
Dinesh Jaishankar, Abraam M Yakoub, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex Agelidis, Neel Thakkar, Satvik Hadigal, Joshua Ames, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444614/in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-effect-of-total-flavonoid-from-trollius-ledebouri-reichb
#5
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442994/prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-type-2-in-persons-aged-14-49-united-states-2015-2016
#6
Geraldine McQuillan, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Elaine W Flagg, Ryne Paulose-Ram
During 2015-2016, prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was 47.8%, and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 11.9%. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased with age. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was higher among females than males. Prevalence of HSV-1 was highest among Mexican- American persons and lowest among non-Hispanic white persons. HSV-2 prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic black persons and lowest among non-Hispanic Asian persons. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 decreased from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016 (from 59...
February 2018: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438303/cytoskeletons-in-the-closet-subversion-in-alphaherpesvirus-infections
#7
REVIEW
Christopher E Denes, Monica Miranda-Saksena, Anthony L Cunningham, Russell J Diefenbach
Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments form the cytoskeleton of vertebrate cells. Involved in maintaining cell integrity and structure, facilitating cargo and vesicle transport, remodelling surface structures and motility, the cytoskeleton is necessary for the successful life of a cell. Because of the broad range of functions these filaments are involved in, they are common targets for viral pathogens, including the alphaherpesviruses. Human-tropic alphaherpesviruses are prevalent pathogens carried by more than half of the world's population; comprising herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus, these viruses are characterised by their ability to establish latency in sensory neurons...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437966/herpes-simplex-virus-1-dramatically-alters-loading-and-positioning-of-rna-polymerase-ii-on-host-genes-early-in-infection
#8
Claire H Birkenheuer, Charles G Danko, Joel D Baines
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) transcription is mediated by cellular RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). Recent studies investigating how Pol II transcription of host genes is altered after HSV-1 are conflicting. ChIP-seq studies suggest Pol II is almost completely removed from host genes at 4 hours post infection (hpi), while 4SU labeling experiments show that host transcription termination is extended at 7 hpi implying a significant amount of Pol II remains associated with host genes in infected cells. To address this discrepancy, we used precision nuclear run on (PRO-seq) to determine the location of Pol II to single base pair resolution in combination with quantitative, reverse transcription PCR (qRTPCR) analysis 3 hpi...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427299/herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-igg-antibodies-in-sera-of-umbilical-cord-as-a-proxy-for-placental-infection-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women
#9
Fabiana Finger-Jardim, Emiliana Claro Avila, Vanusa Pousada da Hora, Paula Costa Dos Santos, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Gil Mor, Ana Maria Barral de Martinez, Marcelo Alves Soares
PROBLEM: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is mainly sexually transmitted. When infecting pregnant women, HSV-2 is able to infect the placenta, can reach the fetus, and may affect the fetal development. We sought to determine the prevalence of HSV-2 infection and reactivation in asymptomatic pregnant women, the correlation between IgG in the maternal circulation and cord blood, and the correlation between circulating IgG, placental, and newborn infection (blood cord)...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426904/trim56-mediated-monoubiquitination-of-cgas-for-cytosolic-dna-sensing
#10
Gil Ju Seo, Charlotte Kim, Woo-Jin Shin, Ella H Sklan, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung
Intracellular nucleic acid sensors often undergo sophisticated modifications that are critical for the regulation of antimicrobial responses. Upon recognition of DNA, the cytosolic sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cGAMP, which subsequently initiates downstream signaling to induce interferon-αβ (IFNαβ) production. Here we report that TRIM56 E3 ligase-induced monoubiquitination of cGAS is important for cytosolic DNA sensing and IFNαβ production to induce anti-DNA viral immunity...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409994/infectious-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adults-in-denmark-a-prospective-nationwide-observational-cohort-study-dasgib
#11
Jacob Bodilsen, Merete Storgaard, Lykke Larsen, Lothar Wiese, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Christian Brandt, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark from 1st of January 2015 to 30th of June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30-days after discharge...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408023/broad-anti-herpesviral-activity-of-%C3%AE-hydroxytropolones
#12
Shannon D Dehghanpir, Claire H Birkenheuer, Kui Yang, Ryan P Murelli, Lynda A Morrison, Stuart F J Le Grice, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous in animals and cause economic losses concomitant with many diseases. Most of the domestic animal herpesviruses are within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which includes human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Suppression of HSV-1 replication has been reported with α-hydroxytropolones (αHTs), aromatic ring compounds that have broad bioactivity due to potent chelating activity. It is postulated that αHTs inhibit enzymes within the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS). These enzymes require divalent cations for nucleic acid cleavage activity...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405145/aetiological-study-of-viruses-causing-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-north-west-india
#13
Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Bharti Malhotra, Aradhana Chauhan, Hemant Malhotra, Pratibha Sharma, Farah Deeba, Khushbu Trivedi, Anjenya M Swamy
CONTEXT: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study is a hospital-based descriptive, observational study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401338/a-tertiary-care-center-s-experience-with-novel-molecular-meningitis-encephalitis-diagnostics-and-implementation-with-antimicrobial-stewardship
#14
David Chang, Jason F Okulicz, Lindsey E Nielsen, Brian K White
Background: Novel molecular techniques, such as the Biofire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel, are increasingly used to improve pathogen detection and time to detection (TtD). The Brooke Army Medical Center antibiotic stewardship program evaluated the impact of the ME panel on empiric antimicrobial usage. Methods: Negative ME panels were analyzed for days of therapy (DOT). The ME panel became available at Brooke Army Medical Center on January 1, 2016 and a retrospective chart review was performed on all hospitalized patients tested by ME panel through April 30, 2016...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399408/oncolytic-viruses-sensitize-human-tumor-cells-for-ny-eso-1-tumor-antigen-recognition-by-cd4-effector-t-cells
#15
Tiphaine Delaunay, Mathilde Violland, Nicolas Boisgerault, Soizic Dutoit, Virginie Vignard, Christian Münz, Monique Gannage, Brigitte Dréno, Kristine Vaivode, Dace Pjanova, Nathalie Labarrière, Yaohe Wang, E Antonio Chiocca, Fabrice Le Boeuf, John C Bell, Philippe Erbs, Frédéric Tangy, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Oncolytic immunotherapy using oncolytic viruses (OV) has been shown to stimulate the antitumor immune response by inducing the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and danger signals from the dying infected tumor cells. In this study, we sought to determine if the lysis of tumor cells induced by different OV: measles virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex type I virus, adenovirus or enterovirus, has consequences on the capacity of tumor cells to present TAA, such as NY-ESO-1...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396398/mutant-torsina-in-the-heterozygous-dyt1-state-compromises-hsv-propagation-in-infected-neurons-and-fibroblasts
#16
Bence György, Lilian Cruz, David Yellen, Massimo Aufiero, Isabel Alland, Xuan Zhang, Maria Ericsson, Cornel Fraefel, Yu-Ching Li, Shuko Takeda, Bradley T Hyman, Xandra O Breakefield
Most cases of early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a 3-base pair deletion in one allele of the TOR1A gene causing loss of a glutamate in torsinA, a luminal protein in the nuclear envelope. This dominantly inherited neurologic disease has reduced penetrance and no other medical manifestations. It has been challenging to understand the neuronal abnormalities as cells and mouse models which are heterozygous (Het) for the mutant allele are quite similar to wild-type (WT) controls. Here we found that patient fibroblasts and mouse neurons Het for this mutation showed significant differences from WT cells in several parameters revealed by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) which replicates in the nucleus and egresses out through the nuclear envelope...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393359/connexin-43-sumoylation-improves-gap-junction-functions-between-liver-cancer-stem-cells-and-enhances-their-sensitivity-to-hsvtk-gcv
#17
Yimeng Shen, Yanxia Li, Xiaofang Ma, Qiaohao Wan, Zhongmin Jiang, Yixin Liu, Dianying Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Wenhan Wu
Connexin 43 (Cx43) can be modified and regulated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)1; however, its role in liver cancer stem cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found a significant difference in the expression of Cx43 and SUMO1 between cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells in liver cancer. In liver cancer stem cells, Cx43 was almost absent, although the level of SUMO1 was significantly higher than that in non-cancer stem cells. Further experiments confirmed that the conjugated site of Cx43 by SUMO1 was located in Lys-144 and Lys-237, both of which are highly conserved among species...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386590/anti-rift-valley-fever-virus-activity-in-vitro-pre-clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-oral-bioavailability-of-benzavir-2-a-broad-acting-antiviral-compound
#18
Md Koushikul Islam, Mårten Strand, Michael Saleeb, Richard Svensson, Pawel Baranczewski, Per Artursson, Göran Wadell, Clas Ahlm, Mikael Elofsson, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385170/remoteness-influences-access-to-sexual-partners-and-drives-patterns-of-viral-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevalence-among-nomadic-pastoralists
#19
Ashley Hazel, James Holland Jones
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprise a significant portion of the infectious-disease burden among rural people in the Global South. Particular characteristics of ruralness-low-density settlements and poor infrastructure-make healthcare provision difficult, and remoteness, typically a characteristic of ruralness, often compounds the difficultly. Remoteness may also accelerate STI transmission, particularly that of viral STIs, through formation of small, highly connected sexual networks through which pathogens can spread rapidly, especially when partner concurrency is broadly accepted...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382085/multifunctional-tannic-acid-silver-nanoparticle-based-mucoadhesive-hydrogel-for-improved-local-treatment-of-hsv-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#20
Emilia Szymańska, Piotr Orłowski, Katarzyna Winnicka, Emilia Tomaszewska, Piotr Bąska, Grzegorz Celichowski, Jarosław Grobelny, Anna Basa, Małgorzata Krzyżowska
Mucoadhesive gelling systems with tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles were developed for effective treatment of herpes virus infections. To increase nanoparticle residence time after local application, semi solid formulations designed from generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients were investigated for their rheological and mechanical properties followed with ex vivo mucoadhesive behavior to the porcine vaginal mucosa. Particular effort was made to evaluate the activity of nanoparticle-based hydrogels toward herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 infection in vitro in immortal human keratinocyte cell line and in vivo using murine model of HSV-2 genital infection...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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