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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102342/neural-activity-in-the-dorsal-medial-superior-temporal-area-of-monkeys-represents-retinal-error-during-adaptive-motor-learning
#1
Aya Takemura, Tomoyo Ofuji, Kenichiro Miura, Kenji Kawano
To adapt to variable environments, humans regulate their behavior by modulating gains in sensory-to-motor processing. In this study, we measured a simple eye movement, the ocular following response (OFR), in monkeys to study the neuronal basis of adaptive motor learning in the visuomotor processing stream. The medial superior temporal (MST) area of the cerebral cortex is a critical site for contextual gain modulation of the OFR. However, the role of MST neurons in adaptive gain modulation of the OFR remains unknown...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097811/fc-silent-anti-cd154-domain-antibody-effectively-prevents-non-human-primate-renal-allograft-rejection
#2
Steven C Kim, Walter Wakwe, Laura B Higginbotham, David V Mathews, Cynthia P Breeden, Allison C Stephenson, Joe Jenkins, Elizabeth Strobert, Karen Price, Laura Price, Robert Kuhn, Haiqing Wang, Aaron Yamniuk, Suzanne Suchard, Alton B Farris, Thomas C Pearson, Christian P Larsen, Mandy L Ford, Anish Suri, Steven Nadler, Andrew B Adams
The advent of costimulation blockade provides the prospect for targeted therapy with improved graft survival in transplant patients. Perhaps the most effective costimulation blockade in experimental models is the use of reagents to block the CD40/CD154 pathway. Unfortunately, successful clinical translation of anti-CD154 therapy has not been achieved. In an attempt to develop an agent that is as effective as previous CD154 blocking antibodies but lacks the risk of thromboembolism, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel anti-human CD154 domain antibody (dAb, BMS-986004)...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092013/sharpening-the-cutting-edge-additional-considerations-for-the-uk-debates-on-embryonic-interventions-for-mitochondrial-diseases
#3
Erica Haimes, Ken Taylor
In October 2015 the UK enacted legislation to permit the clinical use of two cutting edge germline-altering, IVF-based embryonic techniques: pronuclear transfer and maternal spindle transfer (PNT and MST). The aim is to use these techniques to prevent the maternal transmission of serious mitochondrial diseases. Major claims have been made about the quality of the debates that preceded this legislation and the significance of those debates for UK decision-making on other biotechnologies, as well as for other countries considering similar legislation...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087145/-computerised-sepsis-protocol-management-description-of-an-early-warning-system
#4
Begoña de Dios, Marcio Borges, Timothy D Smith, Alberto Del Castillo, Antonia Socias, Leticia Gutiérrez, Jordi Nicolás, Bartolomé Lladó, Jose A Roche, Maria P Díaz, Yolanda Lladó
INTRODUCTION: New strategies need to be developed for the early recognition and rapid response for the management of sepsis. To achieve this purpose, the Multidisciplinary Sepsis Team (MST) developed the Computerised Sepsis Protocol Management (PIMIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the convenience of using PIMIS, as well as the activity of the MST. METHODS: An analysis was performed on the data collected from solicited MST consultations (direct activation of PIMIS by attending physician or telephone request) and unsolicited ones (by referral from the microbiology laboratory or an automatic referral via the hospital vital signs recording software [SIDCV]), as well as the hospital department, source of infection, treatment recommendation, and acceptance of this...
January 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077266/asp0028-in-combination-with-suboptimal-dose-of-tacrolimus-in-cynomolgus-monkey-renal-transplantation-model
#5
Hao Dun, Lijun Song, Anlun Ma, Yanxin Hu, Lin Zeng, Jieying Bai, Guangzhou Zhang, Liangyan Zhang, Kumi Koide, Yohei Okada, Kaori Hanaoka, Rie Yamamoto, Jun Hirose, Tatsuaki Morokata, Pierre Daloze, Huifang Chen
FTY720, a S1P-receptor modulator, has shown to be effective in several transplant and autoimmune disease models, via modulating lymphocyte homing into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), and thereby reducing these cells in peripheral blood. ASP0028, a newly developed S1P1/S1P5-selective agonist, presented comparable efficacy to FTY720 and wider safety margins than FTY720. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of ASP0028 co-administered with suboptimal-dose of tacrolimus in the Cynomolgus monkey renal transplantation model...
January 7, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075052/functional-characterization-and-cell-specificity-of-bvsut1-the-transporter-that-loads-sucrose-into-the-phloem-of-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-source-leaves
#6
P Nieberl, C Ehrl, B Pommerrenig, D Graus, I Marten, B Jung, F Ludewig, W Koch, K Harms, U-I Flügge, E Neuhaus, R Hedrich, N Sauer
• Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the BvSUT1 gene and on the func- tional characterization of the encoded transporter. • In contrast to the recently identified, tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which has evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067769/identification-of-a-potent-allosteric-inhibitor-of-human-protein-kinase-ck2-by-bacterial-surface-display-library-screening
#7
Christian Nienberg, Claudia Garmann, Andreas Gratz, Andre Bollacke, Claudia Götz, Joachim Jose
Human protein kinase CK2 has emerged as promising target for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. The vast majority of kinase inhibitors known today target the ATP binding site, which is highly conserved among kinases and hence leads to limited selectivity. In order to identify non-ATP competitive inhibitors, a 12-mer peptide library of 6 × 10⁵ variants was displayed on the surface of E. coli by autodisplay. Screening of this peptide library on variants with affinity to CK2 was performed by fluorophore-conjugated CK2 and subsequent flow cytometry...
January 5, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063519/comparison-of-two-nutritional-screening-tools-to-detect-nutritional-risk-in-hematologic-inpatients
#8
Lucía Fiol-Martínez, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Rocío Villar-Taibo, Ana Urioste-Fondo, Marta Cuervo, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D Ballesteros-Pomar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare two nutritional screening tools in oncohematologic inpatients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a hematology ward from August to December 2015. Within the first 24 h of admission, the following nutritional screenings were performed: Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Patients who stayed in the hematologic ward were reevaluated with the three screening tools 1 and 2 wk after admission...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062947/low-dose-maintenance-steroid-treatment-could-reduce-the-relapse-rate-in-patients-with-type-1-autoimmune-pancreatitis-a-long-term-japanese-multicenter-analysis-of-510-patients
#9
Kensuke Kubota, Terumi Kamisawa, Kazuichi Okazaki, Shigeyuki Kawa, Kenji Hirano, Yoshiki Hirooka, Kazushige Uchida, Hideyuki Shiomi, Hirotaka Ohara, Kyoko Shimizu, Norikazu Arakura, Atsushi Kanno, Junichi Sakagami, Takao Itoi, Tetsuhide Ito, Toshiharu Ueki, Takayoshi Nishino, Kazuo Inui, Nobumasa Mizuno, Hitoshi Yoshida, Masanori Sugiyama, Eisuke Iwasaki, Atshishi Irisawa, Toru Shimosegawa, Yoshifumi Takeyama, Tsutomu Chiba
BACKGROUND: The effect of maintenance steroid treatment (MST) in reducing the risk of relapse in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains under debate. The aim of this study was to validate the effect of MST on AIP administered in accordance with the 2010 Japanese consensus guidelines. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with (n = 510) from 22 high-volume centers in Japan were studied. The primary endpoints were the relapse rates (RRs) in patients administered MST versus those not administered MST...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057075/the-efficacy-of-prospective-memory-rehabilitation-plus-metacognitive-skills-training-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jennifer Fleming, Tamara Ownsworth, Emmah Doig, Lauren Hutton, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Impairment of prospective memory (PM) is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and negatively impacts on independent living. Compensatory approaches to PM rehabilitation have been found to minimize the impact of PM impairment in adults with TBI; however, poor self-awareness after TBI poses a major barrier to the generalization of compensatory strategies in daily life. Metacognitive skills training (MST) is a cognitive rehabilitation approach that aims to facilitate the development of self-awareness in adults with TBI...
January 5, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039887/the-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-myth
#11
Tina Rulli
This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem...
December 30, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038345/a-bayesian-model-for-estimating-multi-state-disease-progression
#12
Shiwen Shen, Simon X Han, Panayiotis Petousis, Robert E Weiss, Frank Meng, Alex A T Bui, William Hsu
A growing number of individuals who are considered at high risk of cancer are now routinely undergoing population screening. However, noted harms such as radiation exposure, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment underscore the need for better temporal models that predict who should be screened and at what frequency. The mean sojourn time (MST), an average duration period when a tumor can be detected by imaging but with no observable clinical symptoms, is a critical variable for formulating screening policy. Estimation of MST has been long studied using continuous Markov model (CMM) with Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)...
December 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034410/a-review-of-electronic-medical-record-keeping-on-mobile-medical-service-trips-in-austere-settings
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu
INTRODUCTION: Electronic medical records (EMRs) may address the need for decision and language support for Western clinicians on mobile medical service trips (MSTs) in low resource settings abroad, while providing improved access to records and data management. However, there has yet to be a review of this emerging technology used by MSTs in low-resource settings. The aim of this study is to describe EMR systems designed specifically for use by mobile MSTs in remote settings, and accordingly, determine new opportunities for this technology to improve quality of healthcare provided by MSTs...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032273/heterogeneity-in-response-during-multisystemic-therapy-exploring-subgroups-and-predictors
#14
Esther C A Mertens, Maja Deković, Jessica J Asscher, Willeke A Manders
Multiple studies have shown that Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is, at group level, an effective treatment for adolescents showing serious externalizing problem behavior. The current study expands previous research on MST by, first, examining whether subgroups of participants who respond differently to treatment could be identified. Second, we investigated if the different trajectories of change during MST could be predicted by individual (hostile attributions) and contextual (parental sense of parenting competence and deviant and prosocial peer involvement) pre-treatment factors...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028253/-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-for-peritoneal-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer
#15
Hironori Yamaguchi, Hironori Ishigami, Joji Kitayama
Peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer remains a refractory disease, and the standard treatment strategy is still unclear. Intraperitoneally administered paclitaxel(PTX)remains in the intraperitoneal(IP)cavity for a long time and directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules, thereby producing antitumor effects. We designed an IP chemotherapy regimen of S-1 combined with weekly intravenous(IV)and IP PTXadministration. In our phase I study, the recommended dose of IP PTXwas determined to be 20mg/m2. In our phase II study for patients with P1(macroscopic peritoneal metastasis-positive)or CY1 (cytology-positive)gastric cancer, the 1-year overall survival(OS)rate was 78%and the median survival time(MST)was 23...
December 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008147/outcomes-of-surgery-for-gastric-cancer-with-distant-metastases-a-retrospective-study-from-the-seer-database
#16
Jia-Qi Chen, Yi-Yao Kong, Shan-Shan Weng, Cai-Xia Dong, Li-Zhen Zhu, ZiRu Yang, Jing Zhong, Ying Yuan
BACKGROUND: The role of surgical therapy in gastric cancer patients with distant metastases remains controversial. This retrospective analysis was performed to identify whether gastric cancer patients with distant metastases might benefit from surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 5185 patients from the SEER database who were initially diagnosed with histologically confirmed gastric cancer with distant metastases from 2004 to 2009 were included. Patients were divided into the following three groups: patients who underwent resection of both the primary tumor and distant metastatic tumors ('PMTR' group), patients who only underwent resection of the primary tumor ('PTR' group) and patients who did not undergo any surgery ('No surgery' group)...
December 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004951/age-related-impairment-on-a-forced-choice-version-of-the-mnemonic-similarity-task
#17
Derek J Huffman, Craig E L Stark
Previous studies from our lab have indicated that healthy older adults are impaired in their ability to mnemonically discriminate between previously viewed objects and similar lure objects in the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). These studies have used either old/similar/new or old/new test formats. The forced-choice test format (e.g., "Did you see object A or object A' during the encoding phase?") relies on different assumptions than the old/new test format (e.g., "Did you see this object during the encoding phase?"); hence, converging evidence from these approaches would bolster the conclusion that healthy aging is accompanied by impaired performance on the MST...
December 22, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000464/a-short-nutritional-intervention-in-a-cohort-of-hematological-inpatients-improves-energy-and-protein-intake-and-stabilizes-nutritional-status
#18
Rocío Villar-Taibo, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Begoña Pintor-de-la-Maza, Cecilia Álvarez-Del-Campo, Rosa Arias-García, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D Ballesteros-Pomar
INTRODUCTION: Oncohematological diseases are associated with an important prevalence of malnutrition. AIM: Our aim is to determine if early recognition and treatment of malnourished hematological inpatients can improve their oral intake, nutritional status and reduce the length of hospital stay. METHODS: Prospective 2-year study conducted in a cohort of hematology inpatients. Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) was carried out on the first day of admission...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997618/evaluation-of-a-commercial-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-pathogen-dna-in-blood-from-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#19
Ingrid Ziegler, Anna Fagerström, Kristoffer Strålin, Paula Mölling
The Magicplex Sepsis Real-time Test (MST) is a commercial multiplex PCR that can detect more than 90 different pathogens in blood, with an analysis time of six hours. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this method for the detection of bloodstream infection (BSI). An EDTA whole blood sample for MST was collected together with blood cultures (BC) from patients with suspected sepsis at the Emergency Department of a university hospital. Among 696 study patients, 322 (46%) patients were positive with at least one method; 128 (18%) were BC positive and 268 (38%) were MST positive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988045/multi-spacer-typing-as-an-effective-method-to-distinguish-the-clonal-lineage-of-clostridium-butyricum-strains-isolated-from-stool-samples-during-a-series-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-cases
#20
S Benamar, N Cassir, V Merhej, P Jardot, C Robert, D Raoult, B La Scola
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality that predominantly affects preterm neonates during outbreaks. In a previous study, the present authors identified 15 Clostridium butyricum isolates from stool samples during a series of NEC cases involving four neonatal intensive care units. A clonal lineage of these strains was observed by in-silico multi-locus sequence typing. AIM: To confirm the previous findings by sequencing a larger number of C...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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