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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325895/simulation-assisted-design-of-microfluidic-sample-traps-for-optimal-trapping-and-culture-of-non-adherent-single-cells-tissues-and-spheroids
#1
Nassim Rousset, Frédéric Monet, Thomas Gervais
This work focuses on modelling design and operation of "microfluidic sample traps" (MSTs). MSTs regroup a widely used class of microdevices that incorporate wells, recesses or chambers adjacent to a channel to individually trap, culture and/or release submicroliter 3D tissue samples ranging from simple cell aggregates and spheroids, to ex vivo tissue samples and other submillimetre-scale tissue models. Numerous MST designs employing various trapping mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, spurring the development of 3D tissue models for drug discovery and personalized medicine...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323400/stepwise-loop-insertion-strategy-for-active-site-remodeling-to-generate-novel-enzyme-functions
#2
Md Anarul Hoque, Yong Zhang, Liuqing Chen, Guang-Yu Yang, Mst Afroza Khatun, Hai-Feng Chen, Liu Hao, Yan Feng
The remodeling of active sites to generate novel biocatalysts is an attractive and challenging task. We developed a stepwise loop insertion strategy (StLois), in which randomized residue pairs are inserted into active site loops. The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus (GkaP-PLL) was used to investigate StLois's potential for changing enzyme function. By inserting 6 residues into active site loop7, the best variant ML7-B6 demonstrated a 16 fold further increase in catalytic efficiency toward ethyl-paraoxon compared with its initial template, that is a 609-fold higher, >107 fold substrate specificity shift relative to that of wild-type lactonase...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321823/cardiovascular-disease-and-resuscitated-septic-shock-lead-to-the-downregulation-of-the-h2s-producing-enzyme-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-the-porcine-coronary-artery
#3
Tamara Merz, Tatjana Stenzel, Benedikt Nußbaum, Martin Wepler, Csaba Szabo, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Oscar McCook
BACKGROUND: Downregulation of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing enzymes cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and/or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is associated with chronic cardiovascular pathologies. Nevertheless, equivocal data are available on both the expression and function of these enzymes in coronary arteries (CA). We recently reported that atherosclerotic pigs subjected to sepsis developed impaired cardiac function, which coincided with decreased myocardial CSE expression and increased nitrotyrosine formation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319418/autologous-cartilage-chip-transplantation-improves-repair-tissue-composition-compared-with-marrow-stimulation
#4
Bjørn Borsøe Christensen, Morten Lykke Olesen, Martin Lind, Casper Bindzus Foldager
BACKGROUND: Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. PURPOSE: To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318752/cystathionine-gamma-lyase-deficient-mice-are-protected-against-the-development-of-multiorgan-failure-and-exhibit-reduced-inflammatory-response-during-burn
#5
Akbar Ahmad, Nadiya Druzhyna, Csaba Szabo
Considering the role of H2S in critical illness, the aim of this study was to compare the outcome of burn in wild-type mice and in mice deficient in CSE, one of the principal mammalian H2S-generating enzymes. Animals were subjected to scald burn. Outcome variables included indices of organ injury, clinical chemistry parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Plasma levels of H2S significantly increased in response to burn in wild-type mice, but remained unchanged in CSE(-/-) mice. Expression of the three H2S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS and 3-MST) in the lung and liver, and the capacity of tissue homogenates to produce H2S, however, was not affected by burn...
March 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315074/placement-and-delinquency-outcomes-among-system-involved-youth-referred-to-multisystemic-therapy-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#6
Sarah Vidal, Christine M Steeger, Colleen Caron, Leanne Lasher, Christian M Connell
Multisystemic therapy (MST) was developed to help youth with serious social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Research on the efficacy and effectiveness of MST has shown positive outcomes in different domains of development and functioning among various populations of youth. Nonetheless, even with a large body of literature investigating the treatment effects of MST, few studies have focused on the effectiveness of MST through large-scale dissemination efforts. Utilizing a large sample of youth involved in a statewide dissemination of MST (n = 740; 43% females; 14% Black; 29% Hispanic; 49% White; Mage = 14...
March 17, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298300/differential-processing-of-the-direction-and-focus-of-expansion-of-optic-flow-stimuli-in-areas-mst-and-v3a-of-the-human-visual-cortex
#7
Samantha L Strong, Edward H Silson, Andre D Gouws, Antony B Morland, Declan J McKeefry
Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. In order to establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas whilst participants performed behavioural tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293087/hepatic-artery-infusion-with-raltitrexed-or-5-fluorouracil-for-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis
#8
Jian-Hai Guo, Hang-Yu Zhang, Song Gao, Peng-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Ting Li, Hui Chen, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xu Zhu
AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using raltitrexed or 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis (CRCLM). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with unresectable CRCLM who failed systemic chemotherapy and were subsequently treated with HAIC at our institute from May 2013 to April 2015 was performed. A total of 24 patients were treated with 5-fluorouracil, and 18 patients were treated with raltitrexed...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283118/a-protocol-to-develop-practice-guidelines-for-primary-care-medical-service-trips
#9
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu, Henry Lin, William Cherniak, Lawrence C Loh
BACKGROUND: North American clinicians are increasingly participating in medical service trips (MSTs) that provide primary healthcare in Latin America and the Caribbean. Literature reviews have shown that the existence and use of evidence-based guidelines by these groups are limited, which presents potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a 5-step methodology to develop protocols for diagnosis and treatment of conditions encountered by MST clinicians. METHODS: We reviewed the 2010 American College of Physicians guidance statement on guidelines development and developed our own adaptation...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273138/itc-derived-binding-affinity-may-be-biased-due-to-titrant-nano-aggregation-binding-of-halogenated-benzotriazoles-to-the-catalytic-domain-of-human-protein-kinase-ck2
#10
Maria Winiewska, Ewa Bugajska, Jarosław Poznański
The binding of four bromobenzotriazoles to the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 was assessed by two complementary methods: Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). New algorithm proposed for the global analysis of MST pseudo-titration data enabled reliable determination of binding affinities for two distinct sites, a relatively strong one with the Kd of the order of 100 nM and a substantially weaker one (Kd > 1 μM). The affinities for the strong binding site determined for the same protein-ligand systems using ITC were in most cases approximately 10-fold underestimated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272214/genetic-characterization-drives-personalized-therapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-patients-and-survivors-with-metachronous-second-primary-tumor-mst-a-case-report
#11
Xingchen Ding, Linlin Wang, Xijun Liu, Xindong Sun, Jinming Yu, Xue Meng
RATIONALE: The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC)...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270633/-magnetic-stimulation-therapy-for-mood-disorder
#12
Shinsuke Kito
In Japan, approximately one million patients currently receive medical treatment for mood disorders. However, there are only a few available treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression or bipolar depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a neuromodulation technique, has proven to be effective for treatment-resistant depression, and also has a potential therapeutic efficacy in patients with bipolar depression who do not respond to medication. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is an experimental technique for introducing a seizure by using rTMS, which demonstrates a therapeutic efficacy similar to that of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but with fewer cognitive side effects...
March 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269178/structural-brain-network-analysis-in-schizophrenia-using-minimum-spanning-tree
#13
Ali Anjomshoa, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Fatemeh Amirkhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which functional and structural brain networks are disrupted. Classical network analysis has been used by many researchers to quantify brain networks and to study the network changes in schizophrenia, but unfortunately metrics used in this classical method highly depend on the networks' density and weight; the comparisons made by this method are biased. The minimum spanning tree (MST) is an alternative method to solve this problem, but its usefulness in studying the schizophrenic brain network has not been examined yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268542/automated-tracing-of-microglia-using-multilevel-thresholding-and-minimum-spanning-trees
#14
Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Frederick Walker, Sarah Johnson
Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system. Good knowledge about their morphology leads us to a better understanding of their functionality. In this article we propose an automated method to trace microglia in microscopy images. Our approach is powered by two main algorithms: multilevel thresholding (MT) and minimum spanning tree (MST). MT quantizes intensities of image pixels to several levels, then we sample each level with different rates to produce seed points. Each seed point belongs to a level and has a specific value, therefore they can be prioritized...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261079/does-motor-simulation-theory-explain-the-cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-motor-imagery-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Helen O'Shea, Aidan Moran
Motor simulation theory (MST; Jeannerod, 2001) purports to explain how various action-related cognitive states relate to actual motor execution. Specifically, it proposes that motor imagery (MI; imagining an action without executing the movements involved) shares certain mental representations and mechanisms with action execution, and hence, activates similar neural pathways to those elicited during the latter process. Furthermore, MST postulates that MI works by rehearsing neural motor systems off-line via a hypothetical simulation process...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253859/a-genetic-variant-in-long-non-coding-rna-malat1-associated-with-survival-outcome-among-patients-with-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-survival-cohort-analysis
#16
Jian-Zhong Wang, Jing-Jun Xiang, Li-Ge Wu, Yan-Sen Bai, Zhuo-Wang Chen, Xiang-Qian Yin, Qing Wang, Wen-Hao Guo, Ying Peng, Huan Guo, Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: Recently studies have demonstrated that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) may participate in the development and progression of lung cancer. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variant of this lncRNA may affect the prognosis of lung cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study for 538 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including 140 early-staged (stage I and II) and 398 advanced staged (stage III and IV) patients...
March 3, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249474/a-multi-channel-capacitive-probe-for-electrostatic-fluctuation-measurement-in-the-madison-symmetric-torus-reversed-field-pinch
#17
Mingsheng Tan, Douglas R Stone, Joseph C Triana, Abdulgader F Almagri, Gennady Fiksel, Weixing Ding, John S Sarff, Karsten J McCollam, Hong Li, Wandong Liu
A 40-channel capacitive probe has been developed to measure the electrostatic fluctuations associated with the tearing modes deep into Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch plasma. The capacitive probe measures the ac component of the plasma potential via the voltage induced on stainless steel electrodes capacitively coupled with the plasma through a thin annular layer of boron nitride (BN) dielectric (also serves as the particle shield). When bombarded by the plasma electrons, BN provides a sufficiently large secondary electron emission for the induced voltage to be very close to the plasma potential...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246964/preoperative-radiographic-vascular-involvement-score-predicts-the-prognosis-of-resected-pancreatic-head-adenocarcinoma
#18
Shunsuke Onoe, Yuji Kaneoka, Atsuyuki Maeda, Yuichi Takayama, Yasuyuki Fukami
BACKGROUND: Operative indications for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (PHC) with vascular invasion remain unclear. We aimed to develop a new prognostic model focusing on preoperative portal/superior mesenteric vein (PV/SMV) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) invasiveness. METHODS: From 2005 to 2012, 103 patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for PHC. The CT findings for both PV/SMV and SMA invasion were evaluated separately [PV/SMV, none (score 0), unilateral narrowing (score 1), bilateral narrowing/stenosis (score 2); SMA, none or <90° (score 0), ≥90° (score 3)]...
March 1, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246445/prevalence-of-colibacillosis-in-chickens-in-greater-mymensingh-district-of-bangladesh
#19
Md Abdul Matin, Md Ariful Islam, Mst Minara Khatun
AIM: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. RESULTS: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237032/sclerotiorin-inhibits-protein-kinase-g-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-impairs-mycobacterial-growth-in-macrophages
#20
Dongni Chen, Shuangshuang Ma, Lei He, Peibo Yuan, Zhigang She, Yongjun Lu
As a eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase, Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulent effector protein kinase G (PknG) mediates mycobacterial survival by regulating bacterial cell metabolic processes and preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion in host macrophages. Targeting PknG is an effective strategy for development of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. In the study, we found that sclerotiorin, derived from marine fungi from the South China Sea, exhibited moderately strong inhibitory effects on recombinant PknG, with an IC50 value of 76...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
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