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Nathan Punwani, Noah Merin, Ann Mohrbacher, George Yaghmour, Allison Sano, Laleh Ramezani, Preet M Chaudhary, Giridharan Ramsingh
Microtransplantation (MST), a type of HLA-mismatched allogeneic cellular therapy, is a promising, cellular therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MST transfuses granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized, HLA-mismatched donor peripheral blood stem cells into patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy. MST, using haploidentical donors, has been shown to yield clinical benefit without any permanent marrow engraftment in AML. Consequently, graft-versus-host disease concerns are rendered irrelevant with no need for immunosuppression...
2018: Leukemia Research Reports
Huanchen Zhai, Anastassia N Alexandrova
Sub-nano surface-supported catalytic clusters, can be generally characterized by many low-energy isomers accessible at elevated temperatures of catalysis. The most stable isomer may not be the most catalytically active. Additionally, isomers may interconvert across barriers, i.e. exhibit fluxionality, during catalysis. To study the big picture of the cluster fluxional behavior, we model such a process as isomerization graph using bipartite matching algorithm, harmonic transition state theory, and paralleled nudged elastic band method...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Pengfei Chu, Libo He, Lv Xiong, Lifei Luo, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Yongming Li, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
The mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) family, which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase superfamily, has five members that can be found in mammals: STK3 (also called MST2), STK4 (MST1), STK24 (MST3), STK25 (YSK1 or SOK1), and STK26 (MST4). The MST kinases have key roles in apoptosis, immune regulation, inflammatory responses, cancer, and cell proliferation in mammals, whereas the roles and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of these kinases in teleost fish are still unclear. In this study, four STK genes (CiSTK3, CiSTK24, CiSTK25, and CiSTK26) were cloned and analyzed in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
March 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Luis R Peraza, Ruth Cromarty, Xenia Kobeleva, Michael J Firbank, Alison Killen, Sara Graziadio, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) require differential management despite presenting with symptomatic overlap. Currently, there is a need of inexpensive DLB biomarkers which can be fulfilled by electroencephalography (EEG). In this regard, an established electrophysiological difference in DLB is a decrease of dominant frequency (DF)-the frequency with the highest signal power between 4 and 15 Hz. Here, we investigated network connectivity in EEG signals acquired from DLB patients, and whether these networks were able to differentiate DLB from healthy controls (HCs) and associated dementias...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle, Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mst Ishrat Jahan, Ryuta Tobe, Hisaaki Mihara
The extI gene in Geobacter sulfurreducens encodes a putative outer membrane channel porin, which resides within a cluster of extHIJKLMNOPQS genes. This cluster is highly conserved across the Geobacteraceae and includes multiple putative c -type cytochromes. In silico analyses of the ExtI sequence, together with Western blot analysis and proteinase protection assays, showed that it is an outer membrane protein. The expression level of ExtI did not respond to changes in osmolality and phosphate starvation. An extI -deficient mutant did not show any significant impact on fumarate or Fe(III) citrate reduction or sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics, as compared with those of the wild-type strain...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shu-Fang Zheng, Rong-Kun Bao, Qiao-Jian Zhang, Sheng-Chen Wang, Hong-Jin Lin
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an endogenous gasotransmitter, plays an important role in apoptosis. Exudative diathesis (ED) disease is associated with dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in broilers. The liver is one of the target organs of Se deficiency; however, little is known about the effect of H2 S on apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways in the livers of broilers with ED disease. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between endogenous H2 S and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in the livers of broilers with ED disease, as induced by Se deficiency...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ria Maxine Rühl, Thomas Bauermann, Marianne Dieterich, Peter Zu Eulenburg
The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is the most prominent aftereffect in the visual system. Regarding its function, Psychophysical studies suggest its function to be a form of sensory error correction, possibly also triggered by incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. Several observational imaging experiments have deducted an essential role for region MT+ in the perception of a visual MAE but not provided conclusive evidence. Potential confounders with the MAE such as ocular motor performance, attention, and vection sensations have also never been controlled for...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Shweta Lawania, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera, Siddharth Sharma
The present study investigated the role of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk and its association with overall survival in North Indians. 370 cases and 370 controls were investigated to evaluate association between XPA polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk using logistic regression analysis. A follow-up study was also conducted for 291 lung cancer cases illustrating correlation between overall survival in lung cancer patients and XPA variants...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Kun Li, Jiwei Guo, Yan Wu, Dan Jin, Hong Jiang, Chengxia Liu, Chengyong Qin
Colon cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer that often has a poor prognosis. Combined with the development of drug resistance to cancer treatment agents the treatment efficacy of colon cancer can be limited. Activation of the oncogene YAP has been shown to be related to colon cancer progression and is associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and metastasis, even under treatment. Cisplatin (DDP) is a commonly used drug that can control carcinoma progression, although its mechanisms are poorly understood...
March 6, 2018: Oncology Reports
Tatsuaki Sumiyoshi, Yasuo Shima, Takehiro Okabayashi, Yuji Negoro, Yasuhiro Shimada, Jun Iwata, Manabu Matsumoto, Yasuhiro Hata, Yoshihiro Noda, Kenta Sui, Taijiro Sueda
OBJECTIVE: Surgical resection is the only available treatment for achieving long-term survival in cholangiocarcinoma. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the utility of chemoradiotherapy for initially unresectable locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Unresectable locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma was defined as those in which radical surgery could not be achieved even with aggressive surgical procedure. Fifteen candidates (7 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 8 hilar cholangiocarcinomas) underwent chemoradiotherapy...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Pietro Francia, Matteo Ziacchi, Paolo De Filippo, Stefano Viani, Antonio D'Onofrio, Vincenzo Russo, Carmen Adduci, Mauro Biffi, Paola Ferrari, Valter Bianchi, Ernesto Ammendola, Francesca Palano, Jessica Frisoni, Sergio Valsecchi, Mariolina Lovecchio, Maria Grazia Bongiorni
PURPOSE: Since subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) introduction, the pre-implant screening based on a dedicated manual ECG tool (MST) was required to assure adequate sensing by the S-ICD. A novel automated screening tool (AST) has been recently developed. We assessed and compared the pass rate with AST and MST, and we measured the agreement between screening tools. METHODS: Three electrodes were positioned at locations mimicking the placement of the S-ICD, and ECG recordings were collected in the supine and standing postures at rest...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Siri B Winther, Olav A Foss, Otto S Husby, Tina S Wik, Jomar Klaksvik, Vigdis S Husby
Background and purpose - Total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients have reduced muscle strength after rehabilitation. In a previous efficacy trial, 4 weeks' early supervised maximal strength training (MST) increased muscle strength in unilateral THA patients <65 years. We have now evaluated muscle strength in an MST and in a conventional physiotherapy (CP) group after rehabilitation in regular clinical practice. Patients and methods - 60 primary THA patients were randomized to MST or CP between August 2015 and February 2016...
March 1, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Ricky N Bluthenthal, Daniel Chu, Lynn D Wenger, Philippe Bourgois, Thomas Valente, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: Heroin use is increasing in the US. Heroin use may predispose users towards injection routes of drug administration as compared to other illicit substances. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between heroin use and drug injection, we compared time from first use to first injection (referred to as time to injection onset by drug [TTIOD]) of heroin, methamphetamine/speed, cocaine, and crack cocaine among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Age of first use and first injection by drug was collected from 776 PWID...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Edwin van Dellen, Iris E Sommer, Marc M Bohlken, Prejaas Tewarie, Laurijn Draaisma, Andrew Zalesky, Maria Di Biase, Jesse A Brown, Linda Douw, Willem M Otte, René C W Mandl, Cornelis J Stam
One of the challenges of brain network analysis is to directly compare network organization between subjects, irrespective of the number or strength of connections. In this study, we used minimum spanning tree (MST; a unique, acyclic subnetwork with a fixed number of connections) analysis to characterize the human brain network to create an empirical reference network. Such a reference network could be used as a null model of connections that form the backbone structure of the human brain. We analyzed the MST in three diffusion-weighted imaging datasets of healthy adults...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jia Xue, Yucheng Feng
AIMS: Free DNA and its adsorption by sediment in the aquatic environment lead to ambiguity in the identification of recent fecal pollution sources. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms of DNA adsorption and desorption on aquatic sediment under various conditions using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Both raw sewage (RS) DNA and purified PCR product (PPP) were used in adsorption and desorption experiments; autoclaved freshwater and marine sediments served as sorbents...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Julie M Rainard, George C Pandarakalam, Stuart P McElroy
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a proven method for discovering new lead matter for drug discovery and chemical biology. To maximize the likelihood of identifying genuine binders to a molecular target, and avoid wasting resources following up compounds with unproductive/nonspecific mechanisms of action, it is important to employ a range of assays during an HTS campaign that build confidence of target engagement for hit compounds. Biophysical methods that measure direct target/compound engagement have established themselves as key techniques in generating this confidence, and they are now integral to the latter stages of HTS triage at the European Lead Factory (ELF)...
March 2018: SLAS Discovery
Soo Young Lee, Mi Ran Jung, Chang Hyun Kim, Young Jin Kim, Hyeong Rok Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nutritional risk screening (NRS) score has been reported as a predictor of postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery, although the correlation between NRS and anastomotic leakage (AL) after rectal cancer surgery is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the association between NRS score and AL following rectal cancer surgery. SUBJECT/METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of rectal cancer patients from a tertiary referral center in South Korea, and included 1063 patients with primary rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2011 and December 2015...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yiwen Zhang, Zhimei Li, Qiuxia Min, Abulizi Palida, Yiyuan Zhang, Ruotian Tang, Lixia Chen, Hua Li
8-Chrysoeriol, a bioactive flavanoid, was firstly identified to bind directly to BCL-2 as BH3 mimetics by structure-based virtual ligand screening. And 3D docking model revealed the molecular basis of 8-Chrysoeriol targeting to BCL-2. The interaction between 8-Chrysoeriol and BCL-2 was further confirmed using Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) technique. Meanwhile, high expression level of antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 was detected in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells and 8-Chrysoeriol showed obvious proapoptosis effect against SW1990 in vitro...
February 2, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Emma Mitidieri, Teresa Tramontano, Danila Gurgone, Valentina Citi, Vincenzo Calderone, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Antonia Katsouda, Noriyuki Nagahara, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Giuseppe Cirino, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Raffaella Sorrentino
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is produced by the action of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). 3-MST converts 3-mercaptopyruvate (MPT) to H2 S and pyruvate. H2 S is recognized as an endogenous gaseous mediator with multiple regulatory roles in mammalian cells and organisms. In the present study we demonstrate that MPT, the endogenous substrate of 3-MST, acts also as endogenous H2 S donor. Colorimetric, amperometric and fluorescence based assays demonstrated that MPT releases H2 S in vitro in an enzyme-independent manner...
February 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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