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Optic disc edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058166/imaging-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-optic-disc-drusen
#1
REVIEW
Betül Tuğcu, Hakan Özdemir
Optic disc drusen (ODD) are benign congenital anomalies of the optic nerve characterized by calcified hyaline bodies. While superficial drusen can be diagnosed easily during fundus examination, detecting buried drusen requires the use of additional imaging methods such as B-scan ultrasonography (USG), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), computed tomography (CT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). ODD can be detected by USG with the presentation of highly reflective round structures. ODD appear as hyperautofluorescent areas on FAF and bright spots on CT scans...
October 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058155/bilateral-papillophlebitis-in-a-patient-with-mutation-of-metilenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-enzyme
#2
Hüseyin Güzel, Banu Turgut Öztürk, Şansal Gedik, Berker Bakbak, Abdullah Beyoğlu, Nadir Koçak
Papillophlebitis is known as central retinal vein occlusion seen in young patients. It usually presents as unilateral optic disc edema with cotton wool spots and hemorrhage in the peripapillary region. As it may be due to many autoimmune and inflammatory causes, a thorough systemic evaluation of the patient is warranted. In this case report we describe a bilateral, simultaneous papillophlebitis case thought to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahyrofolate reductase enzyme...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045864/bilateral-central-retinal-vein-occlusions-in-a-young-patient-with-a-history-of-eosinophilic-pneumonia-and-thalamic-stroke
#3
Gina Yu, Peng Sun, Tavé van Zyl, Rachel Tandias, Jorge G Arroyo
PURPOSE: To describe a case of a central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient with a history of eosinophilic pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective case report of a 45-year-old woman with acute painless vision loss for 9 days after multiple episodes of eosinophilic pneumonia and thalamic stroke. Fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and clinical examination were performed. She was then treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and pan-retinal photocoagulations...
December 29, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029908/pathology-of-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#4
Hershel R Patel, Curtis E Margo
Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) describes a state of hypoxic injury of the optic nerve. Clinically, ION is divided into anterior and posterior forms defined by the presence or absence of optic disc swelling, respectively. It is further classified as arteritic when secondary to vasculitis, and nonarteritic when not. The site of vascular occlusion for anterior ION from giant cell arteritis is the short posterior ciliary arteries, but mechanical vascular obstruction does not play a role in most nonarteritic cases...
January 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982219/nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-following-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-macular-hole-treatment-case-report
#5
Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa, Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro
Herein, we report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) following uneventful pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment. A 56-year-old previously healthy woman presented with a full-thickness macular hole in right eye (OD) and small cup-to-disc ratios in both eyes. Five days after surgery, she noticed sudden painless loss of vision in OD and was found to have an afferent pupillary defect and intraocular pressure of 29 mmHg. Fundus examination showed right optic disc edema and the resolution of a macular hole with an inferior altitudinal visual field defect...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940011/pediatric-intracranial-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Shawn C Aylward, Rachel E Reem
Primary (idiopathic) intracranial hypertension has been considered to be a rare entity, but with no precise estimates of the pediatric incidence in the United States. There have been attempts to revise the criteria over the years and adapt the adult criteria for use in pediatrics. The clinical presentation varies with age, and symptoms tending to be less obvious in younger individuals. In the prepubertal population, incidentally discovered optic disc edema is relatively common. By far the most consistent symptom is headache; other symptoms include nausea, vomiting tinnitus, and diplopia...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938350/central-retinal-artery-occlusion-and-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumonia-infection-in-children
#7
Yunguang Bao, Xiaobing Li, Kaixuan Wang, Chan Zhao, Xiumei Ji, Mizu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an arterial ischemic stroke, rarely occurred in children accompanied with asymptomatic cerebral infarction and almost never involved in severe pneumonia related to Mycoplasma pneumonia infection. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy with severe pneumonia related to Mycoplasma pneumonia infection that developed loss of vision in the left eye on the 14(th) day. No light perception and no pupillary reaction to light were found in the left eye...
December 9, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843238/optic-neuritis-with-secondary-retinal-venous-stasis-in-a-case-of-abdominal-tuberculosis
#8
Harshika Chawla, Vishal Vohra, Praveen Malik
The authors report a case of unilateral optic neuritis along with secondary retinal venous stasis in a patient diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis. Patient presented with diminished visual acuity, colour perception and Marcus Gunn pupillary response, pointing towards optic nerve involvement. Associated findings of disc edema, dilated and tortuous veins, along with hemorrhages on disc and superotemporal quadrant made diagnosis of retinal venous stasis secondary to optic neuritis imperative. The visual outcome of the patient paralleled that expected with optic neuritis...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800278/orbital-metastasis-of-multiple-myeloma-case-report
#9
Mustafa Vatansever, Fatma Merve Bozkurt, Erdem Dinç, Eda Bengi Yılmaz, Erdinç Nayir, Ayşe Ayça Sarı, Özlem Yıldırım, Tuba Kara
A 68-year-old woman with a history of multiple myeloma presented to the clinic with pain and vision loss in her right eye. Proptosis was observed in her right eye and eye movements were restricted in all directions. Best corrected visual acuity was 3/10 in her right eye. On biomicroscopic examination, hyperemia and subconjunctival hemorrhage were present. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed optic disc edema and choroidal folds. In magnetic resonance imaging two orbital masses were detected. Based on the patient's history and ocular examination, we evaluated the masses as orbital metastasis of multiple myeloma...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769343/acute-myelogenous-leukemia-presenting-with-uveitis-optic-disc-edema-and-granuloma-annulare-case-report
#10
Kevin Shen, Stacy V Smith, Andrew G Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759576/paraneoplastic-optic-neuropathy-associated-with-purkinje-cell-antibody-2-in-a-patient-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Jonathan A Micieli, Edward A Margolin
Paraneoplastic optic neuropathy (PON) is a rare cause of vision loss usually associated with small cell lung cancer. Patients with this condition usually test positive for anti-collapsin response mediating protein-5 (CRMP-5). We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman with bilateral vision loss with the characteristic features of CRMP-5 PON including bilateral optic disc edema and vitreous cells. However, she was negative for anti-CRMP-5 including a negative Western blot on two occasions, but positive for Purkinje Cell Antibody (PCA)-2...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725883/clinical-features-and-visual-outcomes-of-optic-neuritis-in-chinese-children
#12
Huanfen Zhou, Wei Wang, Quangang Xu, Shaoying Tan, Shuo Zhao, Mo Yang, Chunxia Peng, Shihui Wei
Purpose. Although optic neuritis (ON) in children is relatively common, visual outcomes and factors associated with the condition have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. Methods. Patients with a first episode of ON at a tertiary neuroophthalmic centre in China were assessed and followed up for at least three months. Visual outcomes and clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. In patients with bilateral ON, only the eyes with worse visual acuity (VA) at presentation were used for statistical analysis...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664701/ocular-hypotony-in-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-associated-uveitis
#13
Michael R R Böhm, Christoph Tappeiner, Marc A Breitbach, Beatrix Zurek-Imhoff, Carsten Heinz, Arnd Heiligenhaus
PURPOSE: To analyze occurrence, risk factors, and course of ocular hypotony (OH) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIAU). DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Epidemiologic and ophthalmologic data at baseline and during follow-up of JIAU patients with and without ocular hypotony were evaluated. RESULTS: OH developed in 57 of the 365 JIAU patients during the follow-up (mean 4.5 ± 3.5 years). In 40 patients with follow-up ≥12 months, OH was unrelated to previous ocular surgery: risk factors at baseline (univariate logistic regression analysis) included longer total duration of uveitis (odds ratio [OR] 1...
January 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662354/lipid-subhyaloid-maculopathy-and-exposure-to-high-altitude
#14
Roberta Rosas Petrocinio, Elga Dias Gomes
BACKGROUND: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660803/automated-and-simultaneous-fovea-center-localization-and-macula-segmentation-using-the-new-dynamic-identification-and-classification-of-edges-model
#15
Sinan Onal, Xin Chen, Veeresh Satamraju, Maduka Balasooriya, Humeyra Dabil-Karacal
Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621919/pseudo-foster-kennedy-syndrome-as-a-rare-presentation-of-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#16
Peyman Petramfar, Farideh Hosseinzadeh, S Saeed Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608700/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-presenting-as-neuroretinitis
#17
Gouranga Santra, Indrani Das
Neuroretinitis is the inflammation of retina and optic nerve. It is associated with optic disc edema accompanied by peripapillary or macular hard exudates. A 17 yr old female presented with headache and nausea of five days duration. She had periorbital edema and mild splenomegaly. Neurological assessment was non-contributory. She was found to have pancytopenia, albuminuria and a high ESR. Thereafter she developed blurring of vision of both eyes. Opthalmological examination showed it to be due to bilateral neuroretinitis...
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580594/choroidal-thickness-in-chinese-patients-with-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#18
Libin Jiang, Lanlan Chen, Xiujuan Qiu, Ran Jiang, Yaxing Wang, Liang Xu, Timothy Y Y Lai
BACKGROUND: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is one of the most common types of ischemic optic neuropathy. Several recent studies suggested that abnormalities of choroidal thickness might be associated with NA-AION. The main objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether choroidal thickness is an ocular risk factor for the development of NA-AION by evaluating the peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in affected Chinese patients. METHODS: Forty-four Chinese patients with unilateral NA-AION were recruited and compared with 60 eyes of 60 normal age and refractive-error matched control subjects...
August 31, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560849/central-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated-with-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Yuri Seo, Min Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Jae Jun Park, Sung Chul Lee
PURPOSE: To report a case of central retinal vein occlusion without macular edema associated with ulcerative colitis and its novel treatment with intravitreal dexamethasone. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old man with ulcerative colitis presented with sudden visual disturbances. An initial fundus examination showed subtle yellow-to-white patches within the inner retina of the right eye superotemporal to the fovea. There were intraretinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots within the superior vascular arcade and nasal to the optic disc...
December 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516038/clinical-and-color-doppler-imaging-features-of-one-patient-with-occult-giant-cell-arteritis-presenting-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#20
Dragoş Cătălin Jianu, Silviana Nina Jianu, Ligia Petrica, Andrei Gheorghe Marius Motoc, Traian Flavius Dan, Dorela CodruŢa Lăzureanu, Mihnea Munteanu
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathies (AIONs) represent a segmental infarction of the optic nerve head (ONH) supplied by the posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs). Blood supply blockage can occur with or without arterial inflammation. For this reason, there are two types of AIONs: non-arteritic (NA-AION), and arteritic (A-AION), the latter is almost invariably due to giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA is a primary vasculitis that predominantly affects extracranial medium-sized arteries, particularly the branches of the external carotid arteries (including superficial temporal arteries - TAs)...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
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