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Adam D LaMotte, Christopher M Murphy
Objective: Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Heather L Nickrand, Cara M Brock
BACKGROUND: Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Ionara Rabelo, Virginia Lee, Mosoka P Fallah, Moses Massaquoi, Iro Evlampidou, Rosa Crestani, Tom Decroo, Rafael Van den Bergh, Nathalie Severy
INTRODUCTION: A consequence of the West Africa Ebola outbreak 2014-2015 was the unprecedented number of Ebola survivors discharged from the Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs). Liberia alone counted over 5,000 survivors. We undertook a qualitative study in Monrovia to better understand the mental distress experienced by survivors during hospitalization and reintegration into their community. METHODS: Purposively selected Ebola survivors from ELWA3, the largest ETU in Liberia, were invited to join focus group discussions...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Hermann A M Mucke
Among the psychedelic drugs that enjoyed a period of popularity in psychiatric research during the 1950s and 1960s, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most prominent one. Psychiatrists of that time had seen LSD not only as a tool for psychotherapy but also as a potential therapeutic for anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, autism, and even schizophrenia. When it became a quasi-religious epitome of the Hippie counterculture in the mid 1960s, and cases of what we now call hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and acute psychotic "flashbacks" mounted, authorities moved to make LSD illegal...
July 8, 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Marcelo Montagner Rigoli, Gustavo Ramos Silva, Fernando Rainho de Oliveira, Giovanni Kuckartz Pergher, Christian Haag Kristensen
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent disorder with important social consequences. Several models have been developed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying its symptoms. Intrusions are idiosyncratic symptoms that commonly take the form of involuntary recollection of images or flashbacks about the traumatic event. OBJECTIVE: To review how memory is conceptualized in each of these models and the implications for clinical practice...
June 27, 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Andreas Laddis, Paul F Dell, Marilyn Korzekwa
A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Brian K Barber, Clea A McNeely, Eyad El Sarraj, Mahmoud Daher, Rita Giacaman, Cairo Arafat, William Barnes, Mohammed Abu Mallouh
PURPOSE: This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. METHODS: Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30-40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict...
2016: PloS One
C Mole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Psychological Medicine
María F Coronel, Florencia Labombarda, Susana L González
The present review discusses the potential role of neurosteroids/neuroactive steroids in the regulation of nociceptive and neuropathic pain, and recapitulates the current knowledge on the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pain, especially those occurring at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a crucial site for nociceptive processing. We will make special focus on progesterone and its derivative allopregnanolone, which have been shown to exert remarkable actions in order to prevent or reverse the maladaptive changes and pain behaviors that arise after nervous system damage in various experimental neuropathic conditions...
June 2016: Steroids
Jens Knud Larsen
LSD was introduced in psychiatry in the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1973, nearly 400 patients were treated with LSD in Denmark. By 1964, one homicide, two suicides and four suicide attempts had been reported. In 1986 the Danish LSD Damages Law was passed after complaints by only one patient. According to the Law, all 154 applicants received financial compensation for LSD-inflicted harm. The Danish State Archives has preserved the case material of 151 of the 154 applicants. Most of the patients suffered from severe side effects of the LSD treatment many years afterwards...
June 2016: History of Psychiatry
Heather B MacIntosh, Kara Fletcher, Delphine Collin-Vézina
This study was a thematic analysis of transcripts of interviews of child sexual abuse survivors discussing their experiences of recovered memories. This study included 27 English-speaking participants from 3 major Canadian cities: Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa. Seven participants identified as male and 20 as female. Participants ranged in age from 31 to 69 with a mean age of 47. The educational background of participants ranged from 9th grade to doctoral levels. Out of the sample of 27, 21 participants reported some period of amnesia for their CSA experiences...
2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sara A Jahnke, Walker S Carlos Poston, Christopher K Haddock, Beth Murphy
BACKGROUND: Firefighters must be ready to respond to a broad range of emergencies every duty day. In the course of many of these emergencies, firefighters witness events which have the potential to induce emotional trauma, such as badly injured people, deceased children, and individuals who are highly distraught. Previous research suggests that repeated exposure to these traumas (RET) may have negative impacts on the emotional and mental health of fire service personnel. Research on the mental health of firefighters has been limited to small surveys reporting the prevalence of specific mental health problems such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among firefighters...
February 15, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Atilla Tekin, Hekim Karadağ, Metin Süleymanoğlu, Merve Tekin, Yusuf Kayran, Gökay Alpak, Vedat Şar
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. METHOD: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Loizos Christodoulou, Lipika Kabiraj, Aditya Saurabh, Nader Karimi
In this paper, it is shown that prior to flashback, small dynamical changes appear in the system. These changes appear as a drift in the recurrence plots and are found to be associated with a gradual increase in the determinism and recurrence rate. Thus, this study indicates that precursors to flame flashback exist and can be detected in the multidimensional phase space reconstructed from pressure measurements acquired during flashback. This observation could have broad academic as well as industrial implications...
January 2016: Chaos
E J Bromet, M J Hobbs, S A P Clouston, A Gonzalez, R Kotov, B J Luft
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being...
March 2016: Psychological Medicine
Gretchen N Neigh, Siara T Rhodes, Arielle Valdez, Tanja Jovanovic
Approximately 30 million people currently live with HIV worldwide and the incidence of stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is elevated among people living with HIV as compared to those living without the virus. PTSD is a severely debilitating, stress-related psychiatric illness associated with trauma exposure. Patients with PTSD experience intrusive and fearful memories as well as flashbacks and nightmares of the traumatic event(s) for much of their lives, may avoid other people, and may be constantly on guard for new negative experiences...
August 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Elaine O'Loughlin, Kieran McDermott
The amygdala contributes to the generation and propagation of epileptiform activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal symptoms such as fear, dreamy states (déjà vu, memory flashbacks, experiential hallucinations), epigastric auras, or sympathetic outflow with cardiovascular changes are often linked to a seizure focus in the amygdala. However, the amygdala may also play a role in comorbid anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms experienced in the interictal phase, especially in pharmacoresistant TLE...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jessie L Frijling, Mirjam van Zuiden, Saskia B J Koch, Laura Nawijn, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, we assessed the effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on seed-based amygdala resting-state FC with emotion regulation areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)), and salience processing areas (insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)) in 37 individuals within 11 days post trauma...
April 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Vincent Roule, Sabri Ailem, Damien Legallois, Ziad Dahdouh, Thérèse Lognoné, Emmanuel Bergot, Gilles Grollier, Paul Milliez, Rémi Sabatier, Farzin Beygui
BACKGROUND: Although rare, complications of right heart catheterization (RHC) are usually related to the access site. Antecubital venous access for RHC allows immediate ambulation and may reduce access-site complications, but data on this approach are scarce. METHODS: Our study prospectively collected comprehensive data from consecutive RHCs performed at our academic center between February 2010 and August 2013. Demographic, procedural, and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patient groups defined by antecubital and femoral approaches...
December 2015: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Julie Hennegan, Maggie Redshaw, Sue Kruske
BACKGROUND: Governments and service providers have consistently acknowledged the importance of support for women and families in the transition to parenthood. Lower levels of satisfaction and concern about postnatal depression have highlighted women's needs at this time. Migrant women may also face relocation, distant family and support networks, language barriers and potentially discriminatory or culturally insensitive care. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the unique contribution of migrant status, comparing the experience of this group to that of native-born English-speaking women...
December 2015: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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