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Veronica R Moorman, Kathleen G Valentine, Sabrina Bédard, Vignesh Kasinath, Jakob Dogan, Fiona M Love, A Joshua Wand
Human cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42Hs) is a small, Rho-type guanosine triphosphatase involved in multiple cellular processes through its interactions with downstream effectors. The binding domain of one such effector, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating p21-activated kinase 3, is known as PBD46. Nitrogen-15 backbone and carbon-13 methyl NMR relaxation was measured to investigate the dynamical changes in activated GMPPCP·Cdc42Hs upon PBD46 binding. Changes in internal motion of the Cdc42Hs, as revealed by methyl axis order parameters, were observed not only near the Cdc42Hs-PBD46 interface but also in remote sites on the Cdc42Hs molecule...
October 23, 2014: Journal of Molecular Biology
T Yokoyama, T Kobayashi, K Yamamoto, A Yamagata, K Oofusa, H Yoshie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils are essential in host defense against periodontopathic bacteria. Immunoglobulin G Fc receptor IIIb (FcγRIIIb) is a neutrophil-specific receptor for immunoglobulin G and bears the functional NA1-NA2 polymorphism. Accumulating evidence suggests a significant association between FcγRIIIb gene polymorphism and periodontitis. In this study, we employed a proteomic approach to evaluate the relevance of FcγRIIIb polymorphism to protein expression profiles of neutrophils...
December 2010: Journal of Periodontal Research
Julhash U Kazi, Jae-Won Soh
TPA is known to cooperate with an activated Ras oncogene in the transformation of rodent fibroblasts, but the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been established. In the present study we used c-fos promoter-luciferase constructs as reporters, in transient transfection assays, in NIH3T3 cells to assess the mechanism of this cooperation. We found a marked synergistic interaction between TPA and a transfected v-Ha-ras oncogene in the activation of c-fos promoter and SRE. SRE has binding sites for TCF and SRF...
November 30, 2008: Molecules and Cells
Paul D Adams, Robert E Oswald
Cdc42Hs(F28L) is a single-point mutant of Cdc42Hs, a member of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, that facilitates cellular transformation brought about by an increased rate of cycling between GTP and GDP [Lin, R., et al. (1997) Curr. Biol. 7, 794-797]. Dynamics studies of Cdc42Hs(F28L)-GDP have shown increased flexibility for several residues at the nucleotide-binding site [Adams, P. D., et al. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 9968-9977]. The solution structure of Cdc42Hs-GDP (wild type) has previously been determined by NMR spectroscopy [Feltham, J...
February 28, 2006: Biochemistry
M Luisa Saníger, Ricardo Oya, David Macías, Jorge N Domínguez, Amelia Aránega, Francisco Luque
Tumour angiogenesis is mediated by increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have studied the mechanism by which endogenous activation of Rho oncoproteins regulates VEGF expression in COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells. We carried out transient and stable transfection with constitutively activated rhoA, rac1, and cdc42 mutants in COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells, respectively in the absence of external stimuli. Western blot and inmunohistochemistry assays of those cells revealed increased VEGF protein expression...
June 1, 2006: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Arthur S Alberts, Huajun Qin, Heather S Carr, Jeffrey A Frost
Rho family small G-protein activity is controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors that stimulate the release of GDP, thus allowing GTP binding. Once activated, Rho proteins control cell signaling through interactions with downstream effector proteins, leading to changes in cytoskeletal organization and gene expression. The ability of Rho family members to modulate the activity of other Rho proteins is also intrinsic to these processes. In this work we show that the Rac/Cdc42hs-regulated protein kinase PAK1 down-regulates the activity of the RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor NET1...
April 1, 2005: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Paul D Adams, Adrienne P Loh, Robert E Oswald
Cdc42Hs, a member of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding signal transduction proteins, binds guanine nucleotides, and acts as a molecular-timing switch in multiple signal transduction pathways. The structure of the wild-type protein has been solved (Feltham et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 8755-8766), and the backbone dynamics have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy (Loh et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 12547-12557). The F28L mutation of Cdc42Hs is characterized by an increased rate of cycling between the GTP and GDP-bound forms leading to cell transformation (Lin et al...
August 10, 2004: Biochemistry
Vinita Wadhawan, Zubair A Karim, Saikat Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Gupta, Madhu Dikshit, Debabrata Dash
Platelets are cleared from circulation after a life span of 8-10 days. The molecular mechanisms underlying platelet senescence remain poorly characterized. Here we report that, progressive functional impairment in the platelets incubated in vitro in a plasma-free isotonic medium for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C is associated with release of cytochrome c from platelet mitochondria and cleavage of procaspase-9, but without evidence of caspase-3 activation. Concomitantly, there was proteolysis of survival proteins like focal adhesion kinase, Src, gelsolin, and specific cytoskeleton-associated peptides, in a manner regulated by extracellular calcium and calpain activity...
February 15, 2004: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Markus Essler, Stefan Linder, Barbara Schell, Katharina Hüfner, Agnès Wiedemann, Katharina Randhahn, James M Staddon, Martin Aepfelbacher
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF-1) is an exotoxin of Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the GTPases Rho, Rac, and CDC42. Stimulation of Rho was shown to enhance myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation via Rho kinase-mediated inhibition of MLC phosphatase in endothelial cells. Here we report that 3 h after CNF stimulation of endothelial cells, RhoA was activated and MLC phosphorylation was increased in a Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent manner, but no decrease in MLC phosphatase activity could be detected...
September 2003: Infection and Immunity
Martin Aepfelbacher, Claudia Trasak, Gottfried Wilharm, Agnès Wiedemann, Konrad Trulzsch, Kristina Krauss, Peter Gierschik, Jurgen Heesemann
Pathogenic yersiniae employ a type III secretion system for translocating up to six effector proteins (Yersinia outer proteins (Yops)) into eukaryotic target cells. YopT is a cysteine protease that was shown to remove the C-terminal isoprenoid group of RhoA, Rac, and CDC42Hs. Here we characterized the cell biological and biochemical activities of YopT in cells infected with pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Bacterially injected YopT located to cell membranes from which it released RhoA but not Rac or CDC42Hs...
August 29, 2003: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Doreen Ann Cantrell
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins rapidly cycle between a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound and guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound state, and they operate as binary switches that control cell activation in response to environmental cues. GTPases adopt different conformations when binding GTP vs. GDP. The GTP-bound state is generally considered to be the active conformation that allows GTPases to interact with downstream effectors and thereby initiate downstream signaling pathways, which regulate many important biological processes...
April 2003: Immunological Reviews
Mayya Meriane, Sophie Charrasse, Franck Comunale, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, the intracellular signaling pathways through which TGFbeta inhibits skeletal myogenesis remain largely undefined. By measuring GTP-loading of Rho GTPases and the organization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, we analyzed the effect of TGFbeta addition on the activity of three GTPases, Rac1, Cdc42Hs and RhoA. We report that TGFbeta activates Rac1 and Cdc42Hs in skeletal muscle cells, two GTPases previously described to inhibit skeletal muscle cell differentiation whereas it inactivates RhoA, a positive regulator of myogenesis...
November 2002: Biology of the Cell
Daria Illenberger, Claudia Walliser, Bernd Nurnberg, Maria Diaz Lorente, Peter Gierschik
Phospholipase C-beta(2) (PLC beta(2)) is activated both by heterotrimeric G protein alpha- and beta gamma- subunits and by Rho GTPases. In this study, activated Rho GTPases are shown to stimulate PLC beta isozymes with the rank order of PLC beta(2) > PLC beta(3) > or = PLC beta(1). The sensitivity of PLC beta isozymes to Rho GTPases was clearly different from that observed for G protein beta gamma dimers, which decreased in the following order: PLC beta(3) > PLC beta(2) > PLC beta(1) for beta(1)gamma(1/2) and PLC beta(2) > PLC beta(1) > PLC beta(3) for beta(5)gamma(2)...
January 31, 2003: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kosuke Tsukamoto, Ken-ichi Hirano, Shizuya Yamashita, Naohiko Sakai, Chiaki Ikegami, Zhongyan Zhang, Fumihiko Matsuura, Hisatoyo Hiraoka, Akifumi Matsuyama, Masato Ishigami, Yuji Matsuzawa
OBJECTIVE: Many cell types in atherosclerotic lesions are thought to have various biological abnormalities, such as impaired lipid homeostasis and slow cell proliferation, which may be related to senescence at cellular and individual levels. One of the common characteristics of senescent cells in vitro is the alteration of actin cytoskeletons, which have been reported to be involved in the intracellular transport of lipids. Recently, we raised the hypothesis that Cdc42, which is a member of the Rho-GTPase family and is known to play an important role in actin dynamics, might be important in cellular lipid transport...
November 1, 2002: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
J Bockmann, M R Kreutz, E D Gundelfinger, T M Böckers
The ProSAP/Shank family of multidomain proteins of the postsynaptic density (PSD) can either directly or indirectly interact with NMDA-type and metabotropic glutamate receptors and the actin-based cytoskeleton. In a yeast two hybrid screen utilizing a proline-rich domain that is highly conserved among the ProSAP/Shank family members, we isolated several cDNA clones coding for the insulin receptor substrate IRSp53. The specificity of this interaction was confirmed in transfected COS cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of IRSp53 and ProSAP2 solubilized from rat brain membranes indicates that the interaction occurs in vivo...
November 2002: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sophie Charrasse, Mayya Meriane, Franck Comunale, Anne Blangy, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
N-cadherin, a member of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule family, plays an essential role in skeletal muscle cell differentiation. We show that inhibition of N-cadherin-dependent adhesion impairs the upregulation of the two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, the expression of the muscle-specific genes myogenin and troponin T, and C2C12 myoblast fusion. To determine the nature of N-cadherin-mediated signals involved in myogenesis, we investigated whether N-cadherin-dependent adhesion regulates the activity of Rac1, Cdc42Hs, and RhoA...
September 2, 2002: Journal of Cell Biology
Mayya Meriane, Sophie Charrasse, Franck Comunale, Annabelle Méry, Philippe Fort, Pierre Roux, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
We have previously shown that expression of active Rac1 and Cdc4Hs inhibits skeletal muscle cell differentiation. We show here, by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression, that the expression of active Rac1 and Cdc42Hs but not RhoA impairs cell cycle exit of L6 myoblasts cultured in differentiation medium. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Rac1 and Cdc42Hs elicits the loss of cell contact inhibition and anchorage-dependent growth as measured by focus forming activity and growth in soft agar...
April 25, 2002: Oncogene
Katharina Hüfner, Barbara Schell, Martin Aepfelbacher, Stefan Linder
The acidic (A) region of WASp family proteins is thought to represent a high-affinity binding site for Arp2/3 complex without activating properties. Here we show that GST-fused WASp-A and N-WASP-A, but not a WASP-A/W500S mutant, several truncated WASp-A constructs or WAVE1-A can pull down Arp2/3 complex from cell lysates. Significantly, WASp-A and N-WASP-A synergistically trigger formation of filopodia or lamellipodia when coinjected with sub-effective concentrations of V12CDC42Hs or V12Rac1, respectively, into macrophages...
March 13, 2002: FEBS Letters
D Gizachew, R E Oswald
Cdc42Hs is a member of the Ras superfamily of GTPases which, when active, initiates a cascade beginning with the activation of several kinases, including P(21)-activated kinase (PAK). We previously determined the structure of a complex between a 46 amino acid fragment peptide derived from the PAK binding domain (PBD46) and Cdc42Hs.GMPPCP (Gizachew, D., Guo, W., Chohan, K. K., Sutcliffe, M. J., and Oswald, R. E. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 3963-3971). Previous studies (Loh, A. P., Guo, W., Nicholson, L. K., and Oswald, R...
December 4, 2001: Biochemistry
J J Westendorf
FHOS is a member of the formin homology (FH) family of proteins and is expressed at high levels in splenic cells. FH proteins link cellular signaling pathways to the actin cytoskeleton and serum response factor-dependent transcription. In these studies, the role of FHOS in Rho family GTPase signaling pathways was analyzed. FHOS interacted with the polybasic domain in the Rac1 C terminus in a guanine nucleotide-independent manner but did not interact with RhoA, Cdc42Hs, Rac2, or Rac3. Intramolecular autoinhibitory interactions between the C terminus of FHOS and an N-terminal region partially overlapping the Rac1 interaction domain were also identified...
December 7, 2001: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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