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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#1
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722755/the-potential-of-anti-infectives-and-immunomodulators-as-therapies-for-asthma-and-asthma-exacerbations
#2
Michael R Edwards, Ross P Walton, David J Jackson, Wojciech Feleszko, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Tuomas Jartti, Heidi Makrinoti, Alexandra Nikonova, Igor Shilovskiy, Jurgen Schwarze, Sebastian L Johnston, Musa Khaitov
Asthma is responsible for approximately 25,000 deaths annually in Europe despite available medicines that maintain asthma control and reduce asthma exacerbations. Better treatments are urgently needed for the control of chronic asthma and reduction of asthma exacerbations, the major cause of asthma mortality. Much research spanning >20 years shows a strong association between microorganisms including pathogens in asthma onset, severity and exacerbation, yet with the exception of antibiotics, few treatments are available that specifically target the offending pathogens...
July 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722660/glypican-3-induces-oncogenicity-by-preventing-igf-1r-degradation-a-process-that-can-be-blocked-by-grb10
#3
Wei Cheng, Po-Chun Huang, Hsiao-Mei Chao, Yung-Ming Jeng, Hey-Chi Hsu, Hung-Wei Pan, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Yu-May Lee
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that glypican-3 (GPC3) is highly expressed in HCC, and that GPC3 induces oncogenicity and promotes the growth of cancer cells through IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of GPC3-mediated enhancement of IGF-1R signaling. We demonstrated that GPC3 decreased IGF-1-induced IGF-1R ubiquitination and degradation and increased c-Myc protein levels...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722621/health-care-access-during-the-ebola-virus-epidemic-in-liberia
#4
Patricia A McQuilkin, Kanagasabai Udhayashankar, Michelle Niescierenko, Louise Maranda
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, which began in West Africa in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, with more than 4,800 of these deaths occurring in Liberia. The epidemic had an additional effect of paralyzing the health-care systems in affected countries, which led to even greater mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the impact that the epidemic had on the provision of basic health care. During the period from March to May 2015, we undertook a nationwide, community-based survey to learn more about health-care access during the EVD epidemic in Liberia...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722018/a-pro-survival-role-for-the-intracellular-granzyme-b-inhibitor-serpinb9-in-natural-killer-cells-during-poxvirus-infection
#5
Matthew S Mangan, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Jennii Luu, Catherina H Bird, Aulikki Koskinen, Alexandra Rizzitelli, Monica Prakash, Katrina L Scarff, Arno Müllbacher, Matthias Regner, Phillip I Bird
Intracellular serpins are proposed to inactivate proteases released from lysosome-related organelles into the host cell interior, preventing cell death. Serpinb9 opposes the immune cytotoxic protease, granzyme B, and in a number of settings protects cells against granzyme B-mediated cell death. Using a knockout mouse line engineered to express green fluorescent protein under the serpbinb9 promoter, we demonstrate that serpinb9 is vital for host survival during Ectromelia virus infection by maintaining both mature NK cells, and activated CD8(+) T cells...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721431/depressive-symptoms-falls-and-fear-of-falling-in-old-korean-adults-the-korean-longitudinal-study-on-health-and-aging-klosha
#6
Y Park, N-J Paik, K W Kim, H-C Jang, J-Y Lim
Fall is a common cause of disability and death in old adults, and much research has been focused on identifying risk factors and developing preventive measures. Yet the majority of preceding research has been focused on physical performance. This study aims to evaluate the association between fall and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional data of 431 men and 546 women was collected from old Korean adults living in Seongnam, Korea. Geriatric fall assessment was conducted by self-report questionnaires...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721212/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-ventricular-tachyarrhythmias
#7
REVIEW
Syeda Atiqa Batul, Brian Olshansky, John D Fisher, Rakesh Gopinathannair
Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in those with structural heart disease, inherited cardiomyopathies, and channelopathies. The goals of ventricular arrhythmia management include symptom relief, improving quality of life, reducing implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks, preventing deterioration of left ventricular function, reducing risk of arrhythmic death, and potentially improving overall survival. Guideline-directed medical therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation remain the mainstay of therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death in patients with ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720798/neuroprotective-effect-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-against-low-inorganic-phosphate-in-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#8
Naoko Takase, Masatoshi Inden, Shin-Ichiro Sekine, Yumi Ishii, Hiroko Yonemitsu, Wakana Iwashita, Hisaka Kurita, Yutaka Taketani, Isao Hozumi
PiT-1 (encoded by SLC20A1) and PiT-2 (encoded by SLC20A2) are type-III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters (NaPiTs). Recently, SLC20A2 mutations have been found in patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and were predicted to bring about an inability to transport Pi from the extracellular environment. Here we investigated the effect of low Pi loading on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and the human glioblastoma A172 cell lines. The results show a different sensitivity to low Pi loading and differential regulation of type-III NaPiTs in these cells...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720697/inhibition-of-complement-c5-protects-against-organ-failure-and-reduces-mortality-in-a-baboon-model-of-escherichia-coli-sepsis
#9
Ravi Shankar Keshari, Robert Silasi, Narcis Ioan Popescu, Maulin Mukeshchandra Patel, Hala Chaaban, Cristina Lupu, K Mark Coggeshall, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Steven J DeMarco, Florea Lupu
Bacterial sepsis triggers robust activation of the complement system with subsequent generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C5a) and the terminal complement complex (TCC) that together contribute to organ failure and death. Here we tested the effect of RA101295, a 2-kDa macrocyclic peptide inhibitor of C5 cleavage, using in vitro whole-blood assays and an in vivo baboon model of Escherichia coli sepsis. RA101295 strongly inhibited E. coli-induced complement activation both in vitro and in vivo by blocking the generation of C5a and the soluble form of TCC, sC5b-9...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720693/catastrophic-cervical-spinal-injury-in-an-amateur-college-wrestler
#10
Jayakrishnan Kelamangalathu Narayana Kurup, Ravitheja Jampani, Simanchal P Mohanty
A young amateur wrestler presented with a burst fracture of the seventh cervical vertebra with complete paraplegia. He was treated with surgery for spine stabilisation and was actively rehabilitated. Adolescents and teenagers are indulging in high-contact sports like wrestling, without proper training and technical know-how, which can lead to severe injuries and possibly, permanent handicap or death. Trainers, assistants and institutions should be well equipped to diagnose and provide initial care of people with a spinal injury to prevent a partial injury from progressing to complete injury...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720671/the-impact-of-ventilator-associated-events-in-critically-ill-subjects-with-prolonged-mechanical-ventilation
#11
Hidetsugu Kobayashi, Shigehiko Uchino, Masanori Takinami, Shoichi Uezono
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a surveillance definition for respiratory complications in ventilated patients, ventilator-associated events (VAE), to replace ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAE consists of ventilator-associated conditions (VAC), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC), and possible VAP. A duration of mechanical ventilation of at least 4 d is required to diagnose VAE. However, the observed duration of mechanical ventilation was < 4 d in many previous studies...
July 18, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720658/ticagrelor-versus-aspirin-in-acute-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source
#12
Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Michael D Hill, Jenny Jonasson, Scott E Kasner, Per Ladenvall, Kazuo Minematsu, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang, K S Lawrence Wong, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% and aortic arch atherosclerosis. METHODS: We randomized 13 199 patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset...
July 18, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720396/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-protects-against-mitoxantrone-induced-cardiac-injury-in-mice
#13
Venkat Subramaniam, Gin Chuang, Huijing Xia, Brendan Burn, Jessica Bradley, Jerome L Maderdrut, David H Coy, Kurt J Varner
Mitoxantrone (MXT) is an androstenedione that is used to treat cancers and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis; however, its use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/vasoactive intestinal peptide family and has many functions, including cytoprotection and immunosuppression. We tested the hypothesis that PACAP can protect against MXT-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Female BALB/c mice were treated once weekly for 4 weeks with saline (n=14) or MXT (3mg/kg, i...
July 15, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720073/heterogeneity-in-national-u-s-mortality-trends-within-heart-disease-subgroups-2000-2015
#14
Stephen Sidney, Charles P Quesenberry, Marc G Jaffe, Michael Sorel, Alan S Go, Jamal S Rana
BACKGROUND: The long-term downward national U.S. trend in heart disease-related mortality slowed substantially during 2011-2014 before turning upward in 2015. Examining mortality trends in the major subgroups of heart disease may provide insight into potentially more targeted and effective prevention and treatment approaches to promote favorable trajectories. We examined national trends between 2000 and 2015 in mortality attributed to major heart disease subgroups including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and all other types of heart disease...
July 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719552/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-organ-transplant-patients
#15
Adam S Kittai, Hayden Oldham, Jeremy Cetnar, Matthew Taylor
Modulation of T-cell activity through blockade of coinhibitory molecules has revolutionized the treatment of various malignancies. Several immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently Food and Drug Administration approved which target various coinhibitory pathways including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1. Clinical trials that lead to the Food and Drug Administration approval of these agents often excluded patients with an organ transplant...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719481/opioid-prescribing-practices-in-pediatric-acute-care-settings
#16
Michelle DePhillips, Jennifer Watts, Jennifer Lowry, M Denise Dowd
OBJECTIVES: Deaths due to prescription opioid overdoses are at record-high levels. Limiting the amount of opioid prescribed has been suggested as a prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to describe the opioid prescribing practices in the emergency departments and urgent care sites of a Midwestern tertiary care children's hospital system. METHODS: This retrospective medical record review examined the visits from the 2 pediatric emergency departments and 2 pediatric urgent care sites in the system from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2013, during which an outpatient opioid prescription was written...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#17
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719326/malaria-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2000-2014
#18
Diana Khuu, Mark L Eberhard, Benjamin N Bristow, Marjan Javanbakht, Lawrence R Ash, Shira C Shafir, Frank J Sorvillo
Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719253/cost-effectiveness-evaluation-of-a-novel-integrated-bite-case-management-program-for-the-control-of-human-rabies-haiti-2014-2015
#19
Eduardo A Undurraga, Martin I Meltzer, Cuc H Tran, Charisma Y Atkins, Melissa D Etheart, Max F Millien, Paul Adrien, Ryan M Wallace
AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014-2015...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719096/the-effect-of-state-laws-designed-to-prevent-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-on-overdose-deaths-and-treatment
#20
Ioana Popovici, Johanna Catherine Maclean, Bushra Hijazi, Sharmini Radakrishnan
Nonmedical use of prescription opioids has reached epidemic levels in the United States and globally. In response, federal, state, and local governments are taking actions to address substantial increases in prescription opioid addiction and its associated harms. This study examines the effect of two state laws specifically designed to curtail access to prescription opioids to nonmedical users: pain management clinic and doctor shopping laws. We use administrative data on overdose deaths and admissions to specialty substance use disorder treatment coupled with a differences-in-differences design...
July 18, 2017: Health Economics
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