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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245157/dynamic-cellular-complexity-of-anoxygenic-phototrophic-sulfur-bacteria-in-the-chemocline-of-meromictic-lake-cadagno
#1
Francesco Danza, Nicola Storelli, Samuele Roman, Samuel Lüdin, Mauro Tonolla
The meromictic Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and green sulfur bacteria (GSB). The co-occurrence of phylogenetically distant bacterial groups such as PSB and GSB in the same ecological niche, makes the chemocline of Lake Cadagno an ideal system for studying the conditions and consequences of coexistence of photosynthetic bacteria populations. In this study, we applied flow cytometry (FCM) as a fast tool to identify metabolic changes due to the production and consumption of inclusion bodies such as sulfur globules (SGBs), and follow population dynamics of closely related anoxygenic photosynthetic sulfur bacteria in their natural environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245063/background-levels-of-male-dna-in-the-vaginal-cavity
#2
Patricia P Albani, Jayshree Patel, Rachel I Fleming
In alleged sexual assault investigations, the detection of male DNA on female intimate swabs can be established through Y-STR profiling. However, in cases where the defendant lives in the same dwelling as the complainant, the defendant may argue that his DNA was transferred through normal social contact, and dispute that intimate contact occurred. This study aimed to determine whether or not male DNA could be detected in samples collected from the vaginal cavity after everyday activities. A total of 300 samples from eight individuals were subjected to DNA quantification and Y-STR amplification...
December 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245026/ketogenic-diet-induced-extension-of-longevity-in-epileptic-kcna1-null-mice-is-influenced-by-gender-and-age-at-treatment-onset
#3
Kyoung-Chul Chun, Shun-Chieh Ma, Hyoungil Oh, Jong M Rho, Do Young Kim
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244783/using-a-commonly-down-regulated-cytomegalovirus-cmv-promoter-for-high-level-expression-of-ectopic-gene-in-a-human-b-lymphoma-cell-line
#4
Xiaojun Yu, Wei Geng, Hongchuan Zhao, Guobin Wang, Yijun Zhao, Zhe Zhu, Xiaoping Geng
BACKGROUND Vectors are widely used to drive gene expression using a promoter. However, not all promoters are able to drive ectopic gene expression efficiently, including CMV promoter. Here, we report our data using CMV promoter for high-level gene expression in a B lymphoma cell line DG75. MATERIAL AND METHODS A plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) containing the CD21 gene driven under CMV promoter was constructed. The plasmid was stably transfected into a human B lymphoma cell line DG75 for cellular surface CD21 expression, and flow cytometry was used to monitor CD21 expression...
December 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244775/spatial-temporal-and-dietary-variables-associated-with-elevated-mercury-exposure-in-peruvian-riverine-communities-upstream-and-downstream-of-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining
#5
Lauren Wyatt, Ernesto J Ortiz, Beth Feingold, Axel Berky, Sarah Diringer, Ana Maria Morales, Elvis Rojas Jurado, Heileen Hsu-Kim, William Pan
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244742/fibrinogen-gamma-chain-mutations-provoke-fibrinogen-and-apolipoprotein-b-plasma-deficiency-and-liver-storage
#6
Francesco Callea, Isabella Giovannoni, Sinan Sari, Esendagli Guldal, Buket Dalgic, Gulen Akyol, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini, Giuseppe Maggiore, Andrea Bartuli, Renata Boldrini, Paola Francalanci, Emanuele Bellacchio
p.R375W (Fibrinogen Aguadilla) is one out of seven identified mutations (Brescia, Aguadilla, Angers, Al du Pont, Pisa, Beograd, and Ankara) causing hepatic storage of the mutant fibrinogen γ. The Aguadilla mutation has been reported in children from the Caribbean, Europe, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and China. All reported children presented with a variable degree of histologically proven chronic liver disease and low plasma fibrinogen levels. In addition, one Japanese and one Turkish child had concomitant hypo-APOB-lipoproteinemia of unknown origin...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244725/exploring-the-glycans-of-euglena-gracilis
#7
Ellis C O'Neill, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Martin Rejzek, Jonatan U Fangel, Kathirvel Alagesan, Daniel Kolarich, William G T Willats, Robert A Field
Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an unexpectedly high capacity for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates for a single-celled organism. Here, we present an analysis of some of the carbohydrates synthesised by Euglena gracilis. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool showed that there are the substrates necessary for synthesis of complex polysaccharides, including the unusual sugar galactofuranose...
December 15, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244640/cross-frequency-phase-amplitude-coupling-as-a-mechanism-for-temporal-orienting-of-attention-in-childhood
#8
Giovanni Mento, Duncan E Astle, Gaia Scerif
Temporal orienting of attention operates by biasing the allocation of cognitive and motor resources in specific moments in time, resulting in the improved processing of information from expected compared with unexpected targets. Recent findings have shown that temporal orienting operates relatively early across development, suggesting that this attentional mechanism plays a core role for human cognition. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms allowing children to attune their attention over time are not well understood...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244597/relationship-between-repository-radiographic-findings-and-subsequent-performance-of-quarter-horses-competing-in-cutting-events
#9
Myra F Barrett, C Wayne McIlwraith, Erin K Contino, Richard D Park, Christopher E Kawcak, David D Frisbie, James R zumBrunnen
OBJECTIVE To investigate potential associations between repository radiographic findings and subsequent performance of Quarter Horses competing in cutting events. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SAMPLE Repository radiographs (ie, radiographs obtained at the time of sale) for 343 client-owned horses. PROCEDURES Repository radiographic findings were compared with objective measures of performance, including the likelihood of competing; the likelihood of earning money as a 3-year-old, as a 4-year-old, and as a 3- and 4-year-old combined; and the amount of money earned as a 3-year-old, as a 4-year-old, and as a 3- and 4-year-old combined...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244558/loss-of-color-pigmentation-is-maintained-at-high-frequency-in-a-monkey-flower-population
#10
Alex D Twyford, Aaron M Caola, Pratibha Choudhary, Ramesh Raina, Jannice Friedman
Color polymorphisms have long been of evolutionary interest for their diverse roles, including mate choice, predator avoidance, and pollinator attraction. While color variation is often under strong selection, some taxa demonstrate unexpectedly high frequencies of presumed deleterious color forms. Here we show that a genetic variant underlying complete loss of anthocyanin pigmentation has risen to an unexpectedly high frequency of >0.2 in a natural population of the plant Mimulus guttatus. Decreased expression of MYB5 transcription factor is associated with unpigmented morphs...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244191/the-role-of-oat2-slc22a7-in-the-cyclic-nucleotide-biokinetics-of-human-erythrocytes
#11
Georg Sager, Natalia Smaglyukova, Ole-Martin Fuskevaag
The present study was conducted to characterise the transporter(s) responsible for the uptake of cyclic nucleotides to human erythrocytes. Western blotting showed that hRBC expressed OAT2 (SLC22A7), but detection of OAT1 (SLC22A6) or OAT3 (SLC22A8) was not possible. Intact hRBC were employed to clarify the simultaneous cyclic nucleotide egression and uptake. Both these opposing processes were studied. The Km -values for high affinity efflux was 3.5 ± 0.1 and 39.4 ± 5.7 µM for cGMP and cAMP, respectively...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244181/post-veraison-irreversible-stem-shrinkage-in-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-is-caused-by-periderm-formation
#12
Bart A E Van de Wal, Olivier Leroux, Kathy Steppe
Grapevines are characterized by a period of irreversible stem shrinkage around the onset of ripening of the grape berries. Since this shrinkage is unrelated to meteorological conditions or drought, it is often suggested that it is caused by the increased sink strength of the grape berries during this period. However, no studies so far have experimentally investigated the mechanisms underlying this irreversible stem shrinkage. We therefore combined continuous measurements of stem diameter variations and histology of potted 2-year-old grapevines (Vitis vinifera L...
December 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244150/risk-and-prognostic-factors-for-multiple-primary-carcinomas-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Seiji Hosokawa, Goro Takahashi, Jun Okamura, Atsushi Imai, Daiki Mochizuki, Yoshinori Takizawa, Takashi Yamatodani, Kiyoshi Misawa, Hiroyuki Mineta
Background: Unexpected multiple primary carcinomas (MPCs) that develop in patients with head and neck carcinomas complicate approaches to their management. We therefore investigated the clinical factors associated with survival outcomes after the treatment of MPCs. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of records of 1104 patients who underwent treatment for primary head and neck carcinoma at Hamamatsu University Hospital. We evaluated clinical staging, age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, the primary tumor site (particularly the involvement of the mucosal epithelial lining of the aerodigestive tract), and overall survival (OS) as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis...
December 13, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244071/the-glycosyltransferase-eogt-regulates-adropin-expression-in-decidualizing-human-endometrium
#14
Joanne Muter, Mohammad T Alam, Pavle Vrljicak, Flavio S V Barros, Peter T Ruane, Lauren J Ewington, John D Aplin, Melissa Westwood, Jan J Brosens
In pregnancy, resistance of endometrial decidual cells to stress signals is critical for the integrity of the feto-maternal interface and, by extension, survival of the conceptus. O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification that links glucose sensing to cellular stress resistance. Unexpectedly, decidualization of primary endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) was associated with a 60% reduction in O-GlcNAc modified proteins, reflecting downregulation of the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to substrates (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) but not the enzyme that removes the modification (O-GlcNAcase, OGA)...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243868/genetic-diversity-of-small-populations-not-always-doom-and-gloom
#15
Dylan J Fraser
Is a key theory of evolutionary and conservation biology-that loss of genetic diversity can be predicted from population size-on shaky ground? In the face of increasing human-induced species depletion and habitat fragmentation, this question and the study of genetic diversity in small populations are paramount to understanding the limits of species' responses to environmental change and to providing remedies to endangered species conservation. Few empirical studies have investigated to what degree some small populations might be buffered against losses of genetic diversity...
December 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243740/will-oncotype-dx-dcis-testing-guide-therapy-a-single-institution-correlation-of-oncotype-dx-dcis-results-with-histopathologic-findings-and-clinical-management-decisions
#16
Chieh-Yu Lin, Kelly Mooney, Winward Choy, Soo-Ryum Yang, Keegan Barry-Holson, Kathleen Horst, Irene Wapnir, Kimberly Allison
Given the increased detection rates of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the limited overall survival benefit from adjuvant breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery, there is interest in identifying subsets of patients who have low rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence such that they might safely forgo radiation. The Oncotype DCIS score is a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-based assay that was validated to predict which DCIS cases are most likely to recur. Clinically, these results may be used to assist in selecting which patients with DCIS might safely forgo radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery; however, little is currently published on how this test is being used in practice...
December 15, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243287/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-dabrafenib-and-metabolites-on-qtc-interval-in-patients-with-braf-v600-mutant-tumours
#17
Noelia Nebot, H T Arkenau, Jeffrey R Infante, Jason C Chandler, Andrew Weickhardt, Jason D Lickliter, John Sarantopoulos, Michael S Gordon, Gabriel Mak, Annie St-Pierre, Lihua Tang, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Stanley W Carson, Siobhan Hayes, Kenneth F Grossmann
AIMS: The effect of repeat oral supratherapeutic dosing of the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib on QTc interval was assessed in patients with BRAF V600-mutant tumours. METHODS: Part 1 of this phase 1, multicentre, 2-part study (BRF113773/NCT01738451) assessed safety/tolerability of dabrafenib 225 or 300 mg twice daily (BID) to inform part 2 dosing. Patients in part 2 received dabrafenib-matched placebo on day -1, single-dose dabrafenib 300 mg on day 1, 300 mg BID on days 2 to 7, and 300 mg on day 8 (morning), followed by 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic monitoring and pharmacokinetics sample collection each dose day...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243157/why-is-a-prone-sleeping-position-dangerous-for-certain-infants
#18
Roger W Byard, Fiona Bright, Robert Vink
The prone (face down) sleeping position is known to be associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy (sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), however, the reasons for this are unclear. Suggested mechanisms have involved suffocation from occlusion of the external airways by soft bedding/pillows or from flattening of the nose with backward displacement of the tongue, rebreathing of carbon dioxide, blunting of arousal responses with decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation, diaphragmatic splinting or fatigue, lowering of vasomotor tone with tachycardia, nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, overheating, alteration of sleep patterns, compromise of cerebral blood flow and upper airway obstruction from distortion of nasal cartilages...
December 14, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243137/activation-of-ankle-muscles-following-rapid-displacement-of-a-light-touch-contact-during-treadmill-walking
#19
Tania Shiva, John E Misiaszek
The first exposure of a rapid displacement of a light touch reference induces an inappropriate balance corrective response during standing in a proportion of participants that is extinguished with repeated exposures. We hypothesized that if the spatial touch reference was critical to performing of a task the evoked response would be more consistently expressed across participants and observed with repeated exposures to the disturbance. To test this, 20 participants received either forward (N = 10) or backward right-touch displacements at right-heel strike during motorized treadmill walking without visual feedback...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242947/the-position-of-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-epidermo-lysis-bullosa-diagnosis
#20
Cristina Has, Julia Küsel, Antonia Reimer, Julia Hoffmann, Franziska Schauer, Andreas Zimmer, Judith Fischer
The precise classification of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) into 4 main types and more than 30 subtypes is based on the level of skin cleavage, as well as clinical and molecular features, and is crucial for early prognostication, case management, genetic counselling and prenatal or pre-implantation diagnosis. We report here the molecular pathology of 40 consecutive cases of suspected EB, which were investigated by immunofluorescence mapping (IFM) and/or by a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) multi-gene panel...
December 15, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
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