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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908332/enhanced-nanoparticle-uptake-into-virus-infected-cells-could-nanoparticles-be-useful-in-antiviral-therapy
#1
Yasmin Abo-Zeid, Richard A Urbanowicz, Brian J Thomson, William L Irving, Alexander W Tarr, Martin C Garnett
Virus infections cause diseases of different severity ranged from mild infection e.g. common cold into life threating diseases e.g. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B. Virus infections represent 44% of newly emerging infections. Although there are many efficient antiviral agents, they still have drawbacks due to accumulation at off target organs and developing of virus resistance due to virus mutation. Therefore, developing a delivery system that can selectively target drug into affected organs and avoid off target accumulation would be a highly advantageous strategy to improve antiviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908065/a-complex-interplay-between-the-extracellular-matrix-and-the-innate-immune-response-to-microbial-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907962/prenatal-diagnosis-of-skeletal-dysplasias-using-a-targeted-skeletal-gene-panel
#3
Xinyao Zhou, Natalie Chandler, Linbei Deng, Jia Zhou, Meizhen Yuan, Luming Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform an accurate and precise diagnosis for foetuses with suspected skeletal anomalies based on an incomplete and limited ultrasound phenotype. METHODS: Proband-only targeted skeletal gene panel sequencing was performed on twelve families who had foetuses with suspected skeletal anomalies based on ultrasound evaluations at a mean gestational age of 24 weeks and 3 days. The foetuses all had normal standard genetic testing yield (karyotyping and microarray)...
June 15, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907789/place-cell-like-activity-in-the-primary-sensorimotor-and-premotor-cortex-during-monkey-whole-body-navigation
#4
A Yin, P H Tseng, S Rajangam, M A Lebedev, M A L Nicolelis
Primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (PMd) cortical areas of rhesus monkeys previously have been associated only with sensorimotor control of limb movements. Here we show that a significant number of neurons in these areas also represent body position and orientation in space. Two rhesus monkeys (K and M) used a wheelchair controlled by a brain-machine interface (BMI) to navigate in a room. During this whole-body navigation, the discharge rates of M1, S1, and PMd neurons correlated with the two-dimensional (2D) room position and the direction of the wheelchair and the monkey head...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907774/carbon-nitride-supported-fe-2-cluster-catalysts-with-superior-performance-for-alkene-epoxidation
#5
Shubo Tian, Qiang Fu, Wenxing Chen, Quanchen Feng, Zheng Chen, Jian Zhang, Weng-Chon Cheong, Rong Yu, Lin Gu, Juncai Dong, Jun Luo, Chen Chen, Qing Peng, Claudia Draxl, Dingsheng Wang, Yadong Li
Sub-nano metal clusters often exhibit unique and unexpected properties, which make them particularly attractive as catalysts. Herein, we report a "precursor-preselected" wet-chemistry strategy to synthesize highly dispersed Fe2 clusters that are supported on mesoporous carbon nitride (mpg-C3 N4 ). The obtained Fe2 /mpg-C3 N4 sample exhibits superior catalytic performance for the epoxidation of trans-stilbene to trans-stilbene oxide, showing outstanding selectivity of 93% at high conversion of 91%...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907762/duplication-of-a-germline-promoter-downstream-of-the-igh-3-regulatory-region-impairs-class-switch-recombination
#6
Joana M Santos, Fatima-Zohra Braikia, Chloé Oudinet, Dania Haddad, Caroline Conte, Audrey Dauba, Ahmed Amine Khamlichi
During an adaptive immune response, B cells can change their surface immunoglobulins from IgM to IgG, IgE or IgA through a process called class switch recombination (CSR). Switching is preceded by inducible non-coding germline transcription (GLT) of the selected constant gene(s), which is largely controlled by a super-enhancer called the 3' regulatory region (3'RR). Despite intense efforts, the precise mechanisms that regulate GLT are still elusive. In order to gain additional insights into these mechanisms, we analyzed GLT and CSR in mutant B cells carrying a duplication of the promoter of the α constant gene (Iα) downstream of 3'RR...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907734/the-chemical-topology-of-a-bacterial-swarm
#7
Neha Garg, Marvin Whiteley
Microbes respond to antibiotics by initiating a suite of defense mechanisms, including the production of small-molecule effectors. However, it is not well-known how these defenses vary according to the particular effector or antibiotic and bacterial state, due in part to the challenges of monitoring small molecules in complex environments. A new study uses state-of-the-art imaging techniques to track the location of secreted small molecules produced by a bacterial swarm in response to different antibiotics, providing unexpected insights into the spatial heterogeneity of bacterial stress responses...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907623/unexpected-benefits-of-aging-for-favorable-responses-to-pd-1-blockade-in-melanoma
#8
Graham Pawelec
Immunosenescence might be expected to reduce the efficacy of checkpoint blockade, which depends on a functionally intact immune system. However, it seems that older melanoma patients may respond better to anti-PD1 treatment than younger patients, possibly due to their having fewer regulatory T-cells relative to CD8+ T-cells within tumour deposits.
June 15, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907596/inflammation-leads-through-pge-ep-3-signaling-to-hdac5-mef2-dependent-transcription-in-cardiac-myocytes
#9
András D Tóth, Richard Schell, Magdolna Lévay, Christiane Vettel, Philipp Theis, Clemens Haslinger, Felix Alban, Stefanie Werhahn, Lina Frischbier, Jutta Krebs-Haupenthal, Dominique Thomas, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Metin Avkiran, Hugo A Katus, Thomas Wieland, Johannes Backs
The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulates transcription in cardiac myocytes and adverse remodeling of adult hearts. Activators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been reported to activate MEF2, but a comprehensive analysis of GPCR activators that regulate MEF2 has to our knowledge not been performed. Here, we tested several GPCR agonists regarding their ability to activate a MEF2 reporter in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) strongly activated MEF2...
June 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907586/yap-is-essential-for-treg-mediated-suppression-of-anti-tumor-immunity
#10
Xuhao Ni, Jinhui Tao, Joseph Barbi, Qian Chen, Benjamin V Park, Zhiguang Li, Nailing Zhang, Andriana Lebid, Anjali Ramaswamy, Ping Wei, Ying Zheng, Xuehong Zhang, Xingmei Wu, Paolo D A Vignali, Cuiping Yang, Huabin Li, Drew Pardoll, Ling Lu, Duojia Pan, Fan Pan
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their suppressive function can impede effective anti-tumor immune responses. Foxp3 is a transcription factor expressed in Tregs that is required for their function. However, the pathways and microenvironmental cues governing Foxp3 expression and Treg function are not completely understood. Herein, we report that Yes-associated protein (YAP), a co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is highly expressed in Tregs and bolsters Foxp3 expression and Treg function in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907454/unexpected-neighborhood-sources-of-food-and-drink-implications-for-research-and-community-health
#11
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Jason L Seitchik, Dong Hum Yoon, Luisa E Sperry, Clyde B Schechter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neighborhood food environments typically focus on select stores (especially supermarkets) and/or restaurants (especially fast-food outlets), make presumptions about healthfulness without assessing actual items for sale, and ignore other kinds of businesses offering foods/drinks. The current study assessed availability of select healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks from all storefront businesses in an urban environment and considered implications for food-environment research and community health...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907106/activation-and-polarization-of-circulating-monocytes-in-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
William D Cornwell, Victor Kim, Xiaoxuan Fan, Marie Elena Vega, Frederick V Ramsey, Gerard J Criner, Thomas J Rogers
BACKGROUND: The ability of circulating monocytes to develop into lung macrophages and promote lung tissue damage depends upon their phenotypic pattern of differentiation and activation. Whether this phenotypic pattern varies with COPD severity is unknown. Here we characterize the activation and differentiation status of circulating monocytes in patients with moderate vs. severe COPD. METHODS: Blood monocytes were isolated from normal non-smokers (14), current smokers (13), patients with moderate (9), and severe COPD (11)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906829/dynamics-of-topological-solitons-knotted-streamlines-and-transport-of-cargo-in-liquid-crystals
#13
Hayley R O Sohn, Paul J Ackerman, Timothy J Boyle, Ghadah H Sheetah, Bengt Fornberg, Ivan I Smalyukh
Active colloids and liquid crystals are capable of locally converting the macroscopically supplied energy into directional motion and promise a host of new applications, ranging from drug delivery to cargo transport at the mesoscale. Here we uncover how topological solitons in liquid crystals can locally transform electric energy to translational motion and allow for the transport of cargo along directions dependent on frequency of the applied electric field. By combining polarized optical video microscopy and numerical modeling that reproduces both the equilibrium structures of solitons and their temporal evolution in applied fields, we uncover the physical underpinnings behind this reconfigurable motion and study how it depends on the structure and topology of solitons...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906757/transport-of-oxaliplatin-species-in-water-saturated-natural-soil
#14
Natalia Goykhman, Ishai Dror, Brian Berkowitz
This study reports the transport characteristics of the organometallic anticancer compound oxaliplatin and its derivatives in natural soil-water environments. Although pharmaceuticals and their derivatives have for many years been detected in water resources, and linked to toxicological impacts on ecological systems, their transport in soil and groundwater is not fully understood. Specifically, studies that describe transport of organometallic pharmaceuticals in porous media are rare, and the transport characteristics of platinum complexes have received little attention...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906719/behavioral-activation-is-it-the-expectation-or-achievement-of-mastery-or-pleasure-that-contributes-to-improvement-in-depression
#15
Toshi A Furukawa, Hissei Imai, Masaru Horikoshi, Shinji Shimodera, Takahiro Hiroe, Tadashi Funayama, Tatsuo Akechi
BACKGROUND: Behavioral activation (BA) is receiving renewed interest as a stand-alone or as a component of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for depression. However, few studies have examined which aspects of BA are most contributory to its efficacy. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a 9-week randomized controlled trial of smartphone CBT for patients with major depression. Depression severity was measured at baseline and at end of treatment by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906699/causes-of-mortality-in-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Graciane Radaelli, Francisco de Souza Santos, Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Leonardo Pisani, Magda Lahorgue Nunes, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Jaderson Costa da Costa
INTRODUCTION: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906661/loss-of-trem2-in-microglia-leads-to-widespread-disruption-of-cell-coexpression-networks-in-mouse-brain
#17
Guillermo Carbajosa, Karim Malki, Nathan Lawless, Hong Wang, John W Ryder, Eva Wozniak, Kristie Wood, Charles A Mein, Richard J B Dobson, David A Collier, Michael J O'Neill, Angela K Hodges, Stephen J Newhouse
Rare heterozygous coding variants in the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene, conferring increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, have been identified. We examined the transcriptional consequences of the loss of Trem2 in mouse brain to better understand its role in disease using differential expression and coexpression network analysis of Trem2 knockout and wild-type mice. We generated RNA-Seq data from cortex and hippocampus sampled at 4 and 8 months. Using brain cell-type markers and ontology enrichment, we found subnetworks with cell type and/or functional identity...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906616/anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments-in-people-with-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Michael F Knox, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun, Rick J Romero, Paul W M Marshall
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Despite altered anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) being hypothesized to contribute to the onset and persistence of low back pain (LBP), results from studies comparing people with and without LBP are conflicting. PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to determine whether anticipatory (APAs) or compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) are altered in the presence of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP). STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of studies was carried out...
June 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906550/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap1-38-exerts-both-pro-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-on-postnatal-retinal-development-in-rat
#19
Nyisztor Zsolt, Denes Viktoria, Kovacs-Valasek Andrea, Hideg Orsolya, Berta Gergely, Gabriel Robert
PACAP1-38, a ubiquitous and multifunctional regulator has been in the focus of neurotoxicity research due to its impressive neuroprotective potential. Although the literature extensively demonstrated its repressive effect on the apoptotic machinery in neurodegenerative models, there is a striking absence of analysis on its role in normal development. We performed quantitative analyses on caspase activity in developing retina upon 100, 50, 25 or 1 pmol intravitreal PACAP1-38 injection from postnatal day 1 (P1) through P7 in Wistar rats...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906475/prediction-and-prevention-of-urban-arbovirus-epidemics-a-challenge-for-the-global-virology-community
#20
REVIEW
Scott C Weaver
The recent emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus in tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere took arbovirologists and public health officials by surprise, and the earlier transfers of West Nile and chikungunya viruses from the Old to the New World were also unexpected. These pandemics underscore the increasing threat of zoonotic arboviruses, especially those that are capable of entering into human-amplified, urban transmission cycles transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and sometimes other Aedes (Stegomyia) spp...
June 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
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