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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352655/legume-consumption-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-predimed-study
#1
Christopher Papandreou, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Mònica Bulló, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Fernando Arós, Helmut Schroder, Montserrat Fitó, Lluís Serra-Majem, José Lapetra, Miquel Fiol, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jose V Sorli, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited prospective studies have examined the association between legumes consumption and mortality, whereas scarce, if at all, previous studies have evaluated such associations taking into consideration specific grain legumes. We aimed to investigate the association between total legumes consumption and grain legumes species (dry beans, chickpeas, lentils, and fresh peas) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other-cause mortality among elderly Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352654/resistance-training-during-a-12-week-protein-supplemented-vlcd-treatment-enhances-weight-loss-outcomes-in-obese-patients
#2
Edward Jo, Phillip R Worts, Marcus L Elam, Ann Frost Brown, Andy V Khamoui, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla M Prado, Angelina Cain, Katie Snyder, Jeong-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6)...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352600/placental-control-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-the-mother-for-an-optimal-pregnancy-outcome-what-goes-wrong-in-gestational-diabetes
#3
David J Hill
As pregnancy progresses the placental syncytiotrophoblast increasingly assumes control of maternal glucose homeostasis through the release and counter-balancing effects of placental lactogen (PL) and placental variant growth hormone (GH-V). While local actions of these hormones on placental growth and function are likely to exist, each also exerts indirect actions to ensure fetal nutritional availability through modulation of the maternal insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. Peripheral insulin resistance results from the increasing levels of GH-V in the maternal circulation and is counter-balanced by an increase in insulin availability through an expansion of maternal pancreatic β-cell mass...
January 9, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352524/effects-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-on-brain-response-to-high-calorie-food-cues-in-young-adults
#4
Shan Luo, Sydney G O'Connor, Britni R Belcher, Kathleen A Page
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues. METHODS: Participants (22 lean, 18 with obesity) completed three to five PA recalls over 2 months. Average minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were calculated...
January 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352513/morbid-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-alter-intestinal-fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow
#5
Jukka Koffert, Mia Ståhle, Henry Karlsson, Patricia Iozzo, Paulina Salminen, Anne Roivainen, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to tackle morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms of action are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bariatric surgery on intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 27 morbidly obese subjects of which 10 had type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Intestinal blood flow and fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured during fasting state using positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352501/predictors-of-beef-calf-temperament-at-weaning-and-its-impact-on-temperament-at-breeding-and-reproductive-performance
#6
V R Kasimanickam, R L Abdel Aziz, H M Williams, R K Kasimanickam
Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) factors influencing calf temperament at weaning, (ii) association between heifer-calf temperament at weaning and temperament at breeding and (iii) effect of heifer-calf temperament on pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (P/AI). In experiment 1, beef cows and their calves (n = 285) from three farms were used. Sire docility estimated progeny difference (EPD) score, birth type (normal or assisted), calf gender, calf behaviour (during 1st 4 weeks) and calf health status (until weaning) were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352467/systematic-misclassification-of-gestational-age-by-ultrasound-biometry-implications-for-clinical-practice-and-research-methodology-in-the-nordic-countries
#7
Alkistis Skalkidou, Merit Kullinger, Marios K Georgakis, Helle Kieler, Ulrik S Kesmodel
Historically, pregnancy dating has been based on self-reported information on first day of the last menstrual period. In the 1970s, ultrasound biometry was introduced as an alternative for pregnancy dating, and is now the leading method in Nordic countries. The use of ultrasound led to a reduction of postterm births and fewer inductions and is considered more precise than last menstrual period-based methods for pregnancy dating. Nevertheless, differences in early growth and specific situations, such as maternal obesity, can render its estimates less precise, leading to gestational age misclassification...
January 20, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352447/long-term-endocrine-effects-and-trends-in-body-mass-index-changes-in-patients-with-childhood-onset-brain-tumors
#8
Go Hun Seo, Jin-Ho Choi, Yoon-Myung Kim, Kyung-Nam Koh, Ho Joon Im, Young Shin Ra, Han-Wook Yoo
As survival rates have improved owing to advances in management strategies for pediatric brain tumors, long-term complications such as endocrine dysfunction, have emerged as a major issue. This study investigated the long-term endocrine effects of childhood-onset brain tumors in a large number of patients. This study included 151 patients with brain tumors diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2016. The following data were retrospectively reviewed: tumor location, tumor histology, endocrine abnormalities, hypothalamic involvement on brain imaging, treatment modalities, and trends in body mass index...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352421/predictors-of-insulin-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-the-look-ahead-randomized-trial
#9
Scott J Pilla, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Stephen P Juraschek, Jeanne M Clark, Nisa M Maruthur
BACKGROUND: The decision to initiate insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is a challenging escalation of care that requires an individualized approach. However, the sociodemographic and clinical factors affecting insulin initiation are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify patient factors that were independent predictors of insulin initiation among participants in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a randomized clinical trial...
January 19, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352404/mechanisms-linking-obesity-and-thyroid-cancer-development-and-progression-in-mouse-models
#10
REVIEW
Won Gu Kim, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Recent compelling epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of obesity with thyroid cancer. Obesity has been shown to promote thyroid cancer progression and exacerbate poor outcome in thyroid cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases thyroid cancer risk and facilitates cancer progression are not completely understood. Obesity induces complex pathological changes including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, adipokines, and inflammatory responses...
January 19, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#11
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352290/correction-association-of-physical-capacity-with-heart-rate-variability-based-on-a-short-duration-measurement-of-resting-pulse-rate-in-older-adults-with-obesity
#12
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Dun-Jen Hsiao, Tsan-Hon Liou, Shih-Wei Huang, Li-Fong Lin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189150.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352218/nutritional-deficiencies-and-bone-metabolism-after-endobarrier-in-obese-type-2-patients-with-diabetes
#13
Nuria Vilarrasa, Alexandra Fabregat, Silvia Toro, Amador García Gordejuela, Anna Casajoana, Mónica Montserrat, Pilar Garrido, Rafael López-Urdiales, Núria Virgili, Alejandra Planas-Vilaseca, Andreu Simó-Servat, Jordi Pujol
Endobarrier® is a minimally invasive, reversible endoscopic treatment for obesity. It provokes malabsorption along 60 cm of the small intestine, which can contribute to the development of vitamin deficiencies and to changes in bone mineral density (BMD). To determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies, changes in body composition and BMD during the first year after Endobarrier® placement. Twenty-one patients with type 2 diabetes met inclusion criteria. Levels of vitamins, micro and macronutrients were assessed prior and at 1, 3 and 12 months post-operatively...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352024/neuropharmacology-of-compulsive-eating
#14
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Julia I Panciera, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351957/understanding-and-removing-barriers-to-physical-activity-one-key-in-addressing-child-obesity
#15
EDITORIAL
Lisa Murphy, Alessandro R Demaio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351902/targeting-the-sphk1-s1p-s1pr1-axis-that-links-obesity-chronic-inflammation-and-breast-cancer-metastasis
#16
Masayuki Nagahashi, Akimitsu Yamada, Eriko Katsuta, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Wei-Ching Huang, Krista P Terracina, Nitai C Hait, Jeremy C Allegood, Junko Tsuchida, Kizuki Yuza, Masato Nakajima, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Sheldon Milstien, Toshifumi Wakai, Sarah Spiegel, Kazuaki Takabe
Although obesity with associated inflammation is now recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer and distant metastases, the functional basis for these connections remain poorly understood. Here we show that in breast cancer patients and in animal breast cancer models, obesity is a sufficient cause for increased expression of the bioactive sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) which mediates cancer pathogenesis. A high fat diet was sufficient to upregulate expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that produces S1P, along with its receptor S1PR1 in syngeneic and spontaneous breast tumors...
January 19, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351768/overweight-in-adult-cats-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Malin Öhlund, Malin Palmgren, Bodil Ström Holst
BACKGROUND: Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351738/oscillometric-blood-pressure-by-age-and-height-for-non-overweight-children-and-adolescents-in-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-congo
#18
Emmanuel Kiyana Muyumba, Dophra Ngoy Nkulu, Clarence Kaut Mukeng, Jacques Mbaz Musung, Placide Kambola Kakoma, Christian Ngama Kakisingi, Oscar Numbi Luboya, Françoise Kaj Malonga, Justin Kalungwe Kizonde, Olivier Mukuku, Weili Yan
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complex because based on normative values by sex, age and height, and these values vary depending on the environment. Available BP references used, because of the absence of local data, do not correspond to our pediatric population. Accordingly, our study aimed to provide the BP threshold for children and adolescents in Lubumbashi (DRC) and to compare them with German (KIGGS study), Polish (OLAF study) and Chinese (CHNS study) references...
January 19, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351715/the-impact-of-migration-background-on-the-health-outcomes-of-preschool-children-linking-a-cross-sectional-survey-to-the-school-entrance-health-examination-database-in-bavaria-germany
#19
Thu Giang Le Thi, Annette Heißenhuber, Thomas Schneider, Rebekka Schulz, Caroline Eva Wella Herr, Uta Nennstiel-Ratzel, Gabriele Hölscher
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the impact of migration background on the health outcomes of preschool children from families of various social status levels. METHODS: During the school entrance health examination (Schuleingangsuntersuchung (SEU)) from October 2012 to August 2013, the parents of 5052 preschool children (62% response rate) participated in a cross-sectional health survey within the framework of health-monitoring units (Gesundheits-Monitoring-Einheiten (GME)) in Bavaria, Germany...
January 19, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351660/behavior-change-is-not-one-size-fits-all-psychosocial-phenotypes-of-childhood-obesity-prevention-intervention-participants
#20
Marissa Burgermaster, Isobel Contento, Pamela Koch, Lena Mamykina
Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention...
January 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
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