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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936460/b-cells-present-skewed-profile-and-lose-the-function-of-supporting-t-cell-inflammation-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Xiaojiang Dai, Weiguo Zhao, Junfang Zhan, Songhua Zeng, Dongzhi Ran, Hongbin Zhang, Zhigao Song, Ken H Song, Liangping Wu
Bariatric surgeries, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are currently the best treatment for obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism of bariatric surgeries is not entirely understood. Further investigations are needed to improve the success rate and achieve sustained health benefits. Given that B cell dysregulation is a critical component of etiology in inflammatory diseases, whereas obesity and type 2 diabetes represent two major inflammatory disorders, we investigated the effect of RYGB on B cell inflammation...
December 6, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936435/bilobalide-abates-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-of-angiogenic-factors-induced-by-hypoxia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-controlling-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-activation
#2
A Priyanka, G Sindhu, G L Shyni, M R Preetha Rani, V M Nisha, K G Raghu
Obesity leads to inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Hypoxia, observed in obese adipose tissue is suggested as a major cause of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the role of hypoxia in adipose tissue during obesity and insulin resistance was not well established. Here we mainly explored the crosstalk between hypoxia induced inflammation, and insulin resistance and also secretion of angiogenic factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and possible reversal with bilobalide. Hypoxia for 24h significantly (P≤0...
December 6, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936409/is-body-shame-a-significant-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-mindfulness-skills-and-the-quality-of-life-of-treatment-seeking-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity
#3
Helena Moreira, Maria Cristina Canavarro
This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls...
December 6, 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936223/central-obesity-and-h-pylori-infection-influence-risk-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-an-asian-population
#4
Chih-Cheng Chen, Yao-Chun Hsu, Ching-Tai Lee, Chia-Chang Hsu, Chi-Ming Tai, Wen-Lun Wang, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Chao-Tien Hsu, Jaw-Town Lin, Chi-Yang Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4) from check-up center in same hospital...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936206/abdominal-adiposity-not-cardiorespiratory-fitness-mediates-the-exercise-induced-change-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-older-adults
#5
Gifferd Ko, Lance E Davidson, Andrea M Brennan, Miu Lam, Robert Ross
Abdominal obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with insulin resistance in older adults. Exercise is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether this association is mediated by change in CRF and/or abdominal obesity is unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in Kingston, Ontario. Sedentary older adults (60-80 years) (N = 80) who completed the exercise (N = 59) or control (N = 21) conditions for 6 months were included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936188/risk-factors-for-complications-after-reduction-mammoplasty-a-meta-analysis
#6
Min-Xia Zhang, Chun-Ye Chen, Qing-Qing Fang, Ji-Hua Xu, Xiao-Feng Wang, Bang-Hui Shi, Li-Hong Wu, Wei-Qiang Tan
BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty (RM) is a proven method of treating macromastia, but the risk factors for postoperative complications have not been clearly identified. Through this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to identify the risk factors of RM complications. METHODS: An extensive search of the literature describing complications after RM was performed using the PubMed Central, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The following risk factors were extracted: age, body mass index (BMI), tissue resection weight per breast (TRW), smoking and radiation therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936110/women-s-perceived-reasons-for-their-excessive-postpartum-weight-retention-a-qualitative-interview-study
#7
Anne Christenson, Eva Johansson, Signy Reynisdottir, Jarl Torgerson, Erik Hemmingsson
INTRODUCTION: Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions. METHODS: Qualitative interview study (semi-structured) using an emergent design...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936074/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-cognitive-impairment-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-chinese-population
#8
Pan Li, Wei Quan, Da Lu, Yan Wang, Hui-Hong Zhang, Shuai Liu, Rong-Cai Jiang, Yu-Ying Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for many vascular conditions, is associated with vascular cognitive disorders. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of MetS and its individual components with the risks of cognitive impairment and neurological dysfunction in patients after acute stroke. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 840 patients ranging in age from 53 to 89 years from the Tianjin area of North China...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936021/metabolic-syndrome-and-associated-factors-in-adults-of-the-amazon-region
#9
Sérgio Lobato França, Sandra Souza Lima, José Ricardo Dos Santos Vieira
Metabolic syndrome (MS) plays a key role in the origin of cardiovascular diseases. Studies on the MS in Brazil are recent, and its epidemiology in more isolated regions such as the Amazon is still unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS and associated factors in adults of the Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted in 2012-2013. It is a cross-sectional population-based study, involving 787 adults randomly selected from the urban area of four cities in the state of Pará, in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935975/baseline-body-mass-index-and-the-efficacy-of-hypoglycemic-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#10
Xiaoling Cai, Wenjia Yang, Xueying Gao, Lingli Zhou, Xueyao Han, Linong Ji
AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of hypoglycemic treatments in groups of patients categorized according to the mean baseline body mass indexes (BMIs). METHODS: Studies were identified by a literature search and all the studies were double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials in type 2 diabetes patients; study length of ≥12 weeks with the efficacy evaluated by changes in HbA1c from baseline in groups. The electronic search was first conducted in January 2015 and repeated in June 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935966/the-transcription-factor-nfatc2-regulates-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-and-genes-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-mouse-and-human-islets
#11
Mark P Keller, Pradyut K Paul, Mary E Rabaglia, Donnie S Stapleton, Kathryn L Schueler, Aimee Teo Broman, Shuyun Isabella Ye, Ning Leng, Christopher J Brandon, Elias Chaibub Neto, Christopher L Plaisier, Shane P Simonett, Melkam A Kebede, Gloria M Sheynkman, Mark A Klein, Nitin S Baliga, Lloyd M Smith, Karl W Broman, Brian S Yandell, Christina Kendziorski, Alan D Attie
Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that genetic variation at >130 gene loci is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We asked if the expression of the candidate T2D-associated genes within these loci is regulated by a common locus in pancreatic islets. Using an obese F2 mouse intercross segregating for T2D, we show that the expression of ~40% of the T2D-associated genes is linked to a broad region on mouse chromosome (Chr) 2. As all but 9 of these genes are not physically located on Chr 2, linkage to Chr 2 suggests a genomic factor(s) located on Chr 2 regulates their expression in trans...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935899/-algorithm-for-selection-of-individual-therapy-with-clopidogrel-in-vascular-surgical-practice
#12
A I Shevela, A A Slepukhina, E M Zelenskaya, T A Seredina, G I Lifshits
For treatment of patients with diseases of lower limb arteries and prevention of cardiovascular complications in high-risk patients (those with diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity) permanent antiplatelet therapy is indicated. A problem is variable individual sensitivity to therapeutic agents. For antiplatelet therapy in patients with atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries there has been obtained an evidence-supported base concerning efficacy of long-term administration of clopidogrel preparations, unlike patients with acute coronary syndrome, for whom there has been accumulated an evidence-confirmed base of administering clopidogrel preparations, as well as ticagrelor and prasugrel in various clinical situations...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935822/adipose-tissue-in-control-of-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Liping Luo, Meilian Liu
Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis through its subtle functions at both organ and systemic levels. On one hand, adipose tissue stores energy in the form of lipid and controls the lipid mobilization and distribution in the body. On the other hand, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ and produces numerous bioactive factors such as adipokines that communicate with other organs and modulate a range of metabolic pathways. Moreover, brown and beige adipose tissue burn lipid by dissipating energy in the form of heat to maintain euthermia, and have been considered as a new way to counteract obesity...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935772/anesthetic-implications-of-obesity-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Jennifer Greenwood
The incidence of morbid obesity has tripled within the past 25 years in developed countries, with the highest rate of growth noted among people with body mass index (BMI) greater than 50. The physiologic derangements that accompany obesity affect almost every organ system leading to a vast array of comorbid conditions including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This review focuses on the unique perioperative management considerations that the nurse anesthetist must address when caring for these patients as well as the impact of obesity and OSA on postoperative complications and mortality rates...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935737/low-level-laser-therapy-for-reducing-the-hip-waist-and-upper-abdomen-circumference-of-individuals-with-obesity
#15
Gregory C Roche, Steven Shanks, Robert F Jackson, Laura Jane Holsey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for reducing hip, thigh, and abdomen circumference of individuals with body-mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2). BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LLLT for reducing body circumference in the hips, thighs, and abdomen of nonobese individuals with a BMI <30 kg/m(2). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled study, obese, but otherwise healthy, individuals were randomized to undergo 30-min LLLT (n = 28) or sham treatments (n = 25) three times weekly for 4 weeks...
December 9, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935520/effect-of-fructose-consumption-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-nondiabetic-subjects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diet-intervention-trials
#16
Kasper W Ter Horst, Merle R Schene, Rebecca Holman, Johannes A Romijn, Mireille J Serlie
BACKGROUND: High fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to several features of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, but to our knowledge, no previous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled diet-intervention studies in nondiabetic subjects to determine the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials on the basis of predetermined eligibility criteria...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935519/the-role-of-obesity-in-the-relation-between-total-water-intake-and-urine-osmolality-in-us-adults-2009-2012
#17
Asher Y Rosinger, Hannah G Lawman, Lara J Akinbami, Cynthia L Ogden
BACKGROUND: Adequate water intake is critical to physiologic and cognitive functioning. Although water requirements increase with body size, it remains unclear whether weight status modifies the relation between water intake and hydration status. OBJECTIVE: We examined how the association between water intake and urine osmolality, which is a hydration biomarker, varied by weight status. DESIGN: NHANES cross-sectional data (2009-2012) were analyzed in 9601 nonpregnant adults aged ≥20 y who did not have kidney failure...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935413/stable-core-virome-despite-variable-microbiome-after-fecal-transfer
#18
Felix Broecker, Giancarlo Russo, Jochen Klumpp, Karin Moelling
We recently described the 4.5-year time course of the enteric bacterial microbiota and virome of a patient cured from recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Here, we extended the virome analyses and found the patient's phage population to exhibit highly donor-similar characteristics following FMT, which remained stable for the whole period tested (up to 7 months). Moreover, the detected viral populations of donor and patient exhibited comparable diversity and richness...
December 9, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935216/modulation-of-diet-induced-mechanical-allodynia-by-metabolic-parameters-and-inflammation
#19
Michael A Cooper, Janelle M Ryals, Pau Yen Wu, Kellen D Wright, Katherine R Walter, Douglas E Wright
Dietary-associated diseases have increased tremendously in our current population, yet key molecular changes associated with high-fat diets that cause clinical prediabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, and peripheral neuropathy remain unclear. This study examines molecular and metabolic aspects altered by voluntary exercise and a high-fat diet in the mouse dorsal root ganglion. Mice were examined for changes in mRNA and proteins encoding anti-inflammatory mediators, metabolic-associated molecules, and pain associated ion channels...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935134/strain-and-time-dependent-alterations-in-hepatic-iron-metabolism-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Steven A Bloomer, Alicia K Olivier, Ottar M Bergmann, M Meleah Mathahs, Kimberly A Broadhurst, Hasan Hicsasmaz, Kyle E Brown
: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a common liver disease that is often accompanied by dysregulated iron metabolism. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that aberrant iron metabolism in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is modulated by genetic susceptibility to inflammation and oxidative stress. Hepatic histology and iron content were assessed in 3 inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/HeJ) fed an atherogenic diet (AD). Hepatic expression of genes relevant to iron metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress were quantitated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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