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Wei Gao, Vincent Crosby, Andrew Wilcock, Rachael Burman, Eli Silber, Nilay Hepgul, K Ray Chaudhuri, Irene J Higginson
BACKGROUND: There is no standard palliative care outcome measure for people with progressive long term neurological conditions (LTNC). This study aims to determine the psychometric properties of a new 8-item palliative care outcome scale of symptom burden (IPOS Neuro-S8) in this population. DATA AND METHODS: Data were merged from a Phase II palliative care intervention study in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a longitudinal observational study in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
2016: PloS One
Even Hovig Fyllingen, Anne Line Stensjøen, Erik Magnus Berntsen, Ole Solheim, Ingerid Reinertsen
To facilitate a more widespread use of volumetric tumor segmentation in clinical studies, there is an urgent need for reliable, user-friendly segmentation software. The aim of this study was therefore to compare three different software packages for semi-automatic brain tumor segmentation of glioblastoma; namely BrainVoyagerTM QX, ITK-Snap and 3D Slicer, and to make data available for future reference. Pre-operative, contrast enhanced T1-weighted 1.5 or 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in 20 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for glioblastoma...
2016: PloS One
Lakshmi Chaitanya, Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Susan Walsh, Jože Balažic, Tomaž Zupanc, Manfred Kayser
Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Charlotte J Frise, Alex Pitcher, Lucy Mackillop
The physiological and haemodynamic changes that occur in pregnancy and the postpartum period increase the risk of aortic dissection. Loeys-Dietz syndrome results from mutations in the genes encoding components of the TGF-β signalling pathway; aortic pathology is of particular concern in this condition but other vascular abnormalities can also be present. Significant maternal morbidity and mortality has been described in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, but successful and uncomplicated pregnancies are still possible...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Wesley Eddings, Robert J Glynn, Elisabetta Patorno, Jeremy Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: Data-adaptive approaches to confounding adjustment may improve performance beyond expert knowledge when analyzing electronic healthcare databases and have additional practical advantages for analyzing multiple databases in rapid cycles. Improvements seemed possible if outcome predictors were reliably identified empirically and adjusted. METHODS: In five cohort studies from diverse healthcare databases, we implemented a base-case high-dimensional propensity score algorithm with propensity score decile-adjusted outcome models to estimate treatment effects among prescription drug initiators...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
Emuella M Flood, Kelly F Bell, Marie C de la Cruz, France M Ginchereau-Sowell
OBJECTIVE: To identify which treatment attributes are most influential in determining patient preferences for diabetes treatments and explore patient preferences for diabetes drug classes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: U.S. adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes completed an online adaptive conjoint analysis survey. The survey examined 14 attributes, including efficacy, regimen, and risk of common side effects and rare, but serious adverse events. Respondents selected between hypothetical treatments with different attributes...
October 25, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Declan T Millett, Anne-Marie Glenny, Rye Cr Mattick, Joy Hickman, Nicky A Mandall
BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J Lokkerbol, J Nuijen, S Evers, H Knegtering, P Delespaul, H Kroon, R Bruggeman
BACKGROUND People with serious mental illness (SMI) often suffer high healthcare costs and enduring loss of quality of life. Increasing our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of people with SMI is important when striving for optimal health at affordable costs. AIM To describe aspects that can be important for cost-effectiveness research targeting people with SMI. METHOD These aspects are demonstrated by considering pro-active care, rehabilitation and involuntary treatment RESULTS The possible involvement of a large number of stakeholders outside of healthcare requires cost-effectiveness research to also map the costs and benefits outside of healthcare, preferably for each stakeholder specifically...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
K Shukla, S Shahane, W D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Considering a huge working population in health sector faced with stressful work life, limited autonomy in work and declining work contentment calls for an overemphasis on evaluating and monitoring their satisfaction associated with work-related quality of life (WRQoL). This study evaluates WRQoL of hospital employees and validates the bilingual (English and Marathi) version of WRQoL scale. METHODS: The study was conducted during March-April'2014 on employees of a corporate hospital of Pune, India after ethical approval and informed consent from employees...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
K Ravi, D M Geno, M F Vela, M D Crowell, D A Katzka
BACKGROUND: Baseline impedance measured with ambulatory impedance pH monitoring (MII-pH) and a mucosal impedance catheter detects gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, these tools are limited by cost or patient tolerance. We investigated whether baseline impedance measured during high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) distinguishes GERD patients from controls. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinical HRIM and MII-pH testing were identified. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was defined by esophageal pH <4 for ≥5% of both the supine and total study time, whereas controls had an esophageal pH <4 for ≤3% of the study performed off PPI...
October 24, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Masashi Mizuno, Sosei Yamaguchi, Ayano Taneda, Hiroaki Hori, Ayako Aikawa, Chiyo Fujii
AIM: The study aimed to develop two Japanese versions of King's Stigma Scale, a full version (version.1) and a short version (version.2), through psychometric property testing. METHODS: The sample included 112 people with mental illness. We tested the constructs of the scales using both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested. We examined convergent validity with self-esteem or perceived stigma, and different group validity, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6)...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hun-Jae Jang, Seonggu Yeo, Jack J Yoh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For conventional needless injection, there still remain many unresolved issues such as the potential for cross-contamination, poor reliability of targeted delivery dose, and significantly painstaking procedures. As an alternative, the use of microjets generated with Er:YAG laser for delivering small doses with controlled penetration depths has been reported. In this study, a new system with two stages is evaluated for effective transdermal drug delivery. First, the skin is pre-ablated to eliminate the hard outer layer and second, laser-driven microjet penetrates the relatively weaker and freshly exposed epidermis...
October 25, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Zita Ficko, Kevin Koo, Elias S Hyams
Robotic surgery continues to increase in popularity and prevalence. The adoption of robotic technology has generated controversy and frequent media coverage. We evaluate recent reports of surgical robotics in the lay press to characterize its objectivity. LexisNexis and Factiva consumer news databases were queried for articles pertaining to robotic surgery published during 2010-2015 in the three highest circulation national (US) newspapers as well as New England regional newspapers. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis and assessed headline bias with strong reliability (mean κ = 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Marshall B Jones
BACKGROUND: In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. RESULTS: Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Warren J Cheung, Nancy Dudek, Timothy J Wood, Jason R Frank
BACKGROUND : Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. OBJECTIVE : The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Younghwan Kim, Yo-Han Park, Shin Hwang, Ki-Hun Kim, Chul-Soo Ahn, Deok-Bog Moon, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Dong-Hwan Jung, Gil-Chun Park, Sung-Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (LC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT). MATERIAL AND METHODS During a study period of 10 years, 2074 adult LT recipients were identified. They were divided into 2 groups: HCC (n=970; 46.8%) and non-HCC (n=1104; 53.2%). They were stratified into 5 categories according to model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores: <10 (n=464), ≥10 and <15 (n=632), ≥15 and <20 (n=355), ≥20 and <30 (n=340), and ≥30 (n=283)...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
An S De Vriese, Richard J Glassock, Karl A Nath, Sanjeev Sethi, Fernando C Fervenza
Primary membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease mainly caused by autoantibodies against the recently discovered podocyte antigens: the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A). Assays for quantitative assessment of anti-PLA2R antibodies are commercially available, but a semiquantitative test to detect anti-THSD7A antibodies has been only recently developed. The presence or absence of anti-PLA2R and anti-THSD7A antibodies adds important information to clinical and immunopathologic data in discriminating between primary and secondary MN...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Raminta Daniulaityte, Lu Chen, Francois R Lamy, Robert G Carlson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth
BACKGROUND: To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets...
October 24, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Stefano Longo, Alberto Corradi, Giovanni Michielon, Francesco Sardanelli, Luca Maria Sconfienza
BACKGROUND: Subacromial space (SS) narrowing may result in unsafe contact of rotator cuff tendons and bursa with the acromion, possibly promoting rotator cuff pathologies and pain. We measured SS in asymptomatic subjects after three movements employed for shoulder muscles' training. PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Twenty-five males (age 24±5years; stature 175±8 cm; body mass 74±12 kg) underwent SS ultrasound evaluation while executing with (WL) and without (NL) 4-kg load: 90° shoulder abduction (SA) without humerus rotation (90°neutral); 90° SA maximal humeral external rotation (90°er); maximum SA (above 90°) during upright row (UR)...
August 12, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
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