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"substance P"

A-Ram Jung, Sang-Hyun Ahn, In-Sik Park, Sun-Young Park, Seung-Il Jeong, Jin-Hong Cheon, Kibong Kim
BACKGROUND: Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) is produced from fermented soybeans, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated whether Douchi attenuates protein kinase C (PKC) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. METHODS: To induce AD-like skin lesions, D. farinae antigen was applied to the dorsal skin of 3-week-old NC/Nga mice. After inducing AD, Douchi extract was administered 20 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks to the Douchi-treated mice group...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Baohan Pan, Kelly Byrnes, Mary Schwartz, C David Hansen, Claudia M Campbell, Malvina Krupiczojc, Michael J Caterina, Michael Polydefkis
We compared patterns of intraepidermal nerve fibers and mechanoreceptors from affected and unaffected plantar skin from patients with pachyonychia congenita (PC) and control subjects. Plantar biopsies from 10 genetically confirmed patients with PC (with a mutation in KRT6A) were performed at the ball of the foot (affected skin) and the arch (unaffected) and were compared to biopsies from corresponding locations in 10 control subjects. Tissue was processed to visualize intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) (PGP9...
October 20, 2016: Pain
Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
Nuray Erin, Tümay İpekçi, Bahar Akkaya, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Mehmet Baykara
Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Substance P (SP) are sensory neuropeptides which may alter cancer growth through modulation of chronic inflammation. We recently reported that SP suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through neuroimmune modulation. These neuropeptides are hydrolyzed by Neprilysin (NEP) to bioactive fragments. Decreased activity of NEP was reported in clear cell and chromophobe type renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is however not known how the levels of neuropeptides hydrolyzed with NEP changes in RCC...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Pranav Prasoon, Shivani Gupta, Rahul Kumar, Mayank Gautam, Saroj Kaler, Subrata Basu Ray
OBJECTIVES: Opioids such as morphine form the cornerstone in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, opioids also produce serious side effects such as tolerance. Fosaprepitant is a substance P (SP) receptor antagonist, which is used for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. SP is an important neuropeptide mediating transmission of pain at the spinal level. Thus, it was hypothesized that combining morphine with fosaprepitant would increase the antinociceptive effect of morphine...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Chrysanthi Fergani, Victor Navarro
Reproductive function is driven by the hormonal interplay between the gonads and brain-pituitary axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released in a pulsatile manner, which is critical for the attainment and maintenance of fertility, however, GnRH neurons lack the ability to directly respond to most regulatory factors, and a hierarchical upstream neuronal network governs its secretion. We and others proposed a model in which Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), so called KNDy neurons, release kisspeptin (a potent GnRH secretagogue) in a pulsatile manner to drive GnRH pulses under the coordinated autosynaptic action of its cotransmitters, the tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB, stimulatory) and dynorphin (inhibitory)...
October 17, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hyun Sook Hong, Dae Yeon Hwang, Ju Hyeong Park, Suna Kim, Eun Jung Seo, Youngsook Son
Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, regulation of inflammation is regarded as the ultimate therapy for intestinal disease. Substance-P (SP) is known to mediate proliferation, migration, and cellular senescence in a variety of cells. SP was found to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow to the site of injury and to suppress inflammatory responses by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Hongbo Hu, Baohui Yang, Yumin Li, Subin Zhang, Zheng Li
P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R) is known to play a significant role in inflammation and pain-causing diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms of action of P2X7R and its role in OA remain unclear. The articular cartilage is the crucial region in which pathological changes occur in OA, involving the dysregulation of degradation and maintenance mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of action of P2X7R in articular cartilage in OA-induced pain and inflammation by using AZD9056, an antagonist of P2X7R...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hyoseung Shin, Soon-Jin Choi, A-Ri Cho, Dong Young Kim, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. METHODS: Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Awa R N'Diaye, Camille Leclerc, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Cecile Duclairoir Poc, Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Sylvie Chevalier, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (<10(-12 )M) whereas Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Youn Yi Jo, Ji Yeon Lee, Chul-Kyu Park
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a "pain" neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)-an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons-and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Jared B Shaw, Tzu-Yung Lin, Franklin E Leach, Aleksey V Tolmachev, Nikola Tolić, Errol W Robinson, David W Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić
We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ali Islek, Aygen Yilmaz, Gulsum Ozlem Elpek, Nuray Erin
AIM: To investigate the roles of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in chronic gastritis and duodenitis in children. METHODS: Biopsy samples from the gastric and duodenal mucosa of 52 patients and 30 control subjects were obtained. Samples were taken for pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme activity measurements and quantitative measurements of tissue peptide levels...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Frances Corrigan, Kimberley A Mander, Anna V Leonard, Robert Vink
BACKGROUND: The neuroinflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be a key secondary injury factor that can drive ongoing neuronal injury. Despite this, treatments that have targeted aspects of the inflammatory pathway have not shown significant efficacy in clinical trials. MAIN BODY: We suggest that this may be because classical inflammation only represents part of the story, with activation of neurogenic inflammation potentially one of the key initiating inflammatory events following TBI...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Huizhen Huang, Marissa S Kuzirian, Xiaoyun Cai, Lindsey M Snyder, Jonathan Cohen, Daniel H Kaplan, Sarah E Ross
The Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1R), which binds Substance P, is expressed in discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system, where it has numerous roles including the modulation of pain and affective behaviors. Here, we report the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreER(T2) replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells. We find that the NK1R-CreER allele mediates recombination in many regions of the nervous system that are important in pain and anxiety including the amygdala, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, raphe nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
October 6, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
W Teng, H Chen, F Guo, X Du, X Fu, Y Fang, H Zhang, M Fang, M Ding
Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is a high affinity Substance P (SP) receptor and plays a key role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress is a significant risk factor in IBS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of neonatal maternal separation on the expression and distribution of SP and its receptor along the brain-gut axis in a neonatal maternally separated rat model with visceral hypersensitivity. Male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, 2-21-day old, were randomly distributed into maternal separation groups of 3 h daily maternal separation (MS) or non-handling (NH)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chrysanthi Fergani, Leanne Mazzella, Lique M Coolen, Richard B McCosh, Steven L Hardy, Nora Newcomb, Pasha Grachev, Michael N Lehman, Robert L Goodman
There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via NK3R to stimulate secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus...
October 5, 2016: Endocrinology
Deepti Ahuja, Sachidanand J Bharati, Nishkarsh Gupta, Ritesh Kumar, Sushma Bhatnagar
Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is one of the most distressing symptoms that adversely affects quality of life (QOL) as well as the ongoing management plan of cancer patients. Although there are protocols for management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) but such guidelines are still lacking for RINV. Various agents like 5-hydroxy tryptophan 3 (5-HT3) antagonist, dexamethasone, metoclopramide and haloperidol are used in clinical practice for RINV but the results are not very encouraging...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
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