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"substance P"

Marc G J Feuilloley
By its size and diversity, the cutaneous microbial flora is the second of the human body and there is a growing body of research showing its key role in cutaneous homeostasis. However, skin is also the first neuroendocrine organ and it is now demonstrated that bacteria can sense a multitude of human hormones and neurotransmitters. Then, besides of the intrinsic effect of their virulence factors on cutaneous neurogenic activity, recent data demonstrate that the virulence, invasion potential, and biofilm formation activity of some of the principal species of the cutaneous bacteria flora are directly controlled by neuropeptides released by sensory nerve endings including substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
March 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Antonietta Messina, Ilaria Bitetti, Francesco Precenzano, Diego Iacono, Giovanni Messina, Michele Roccella, Lucia Parisi, Margherita Salerno, Anna Valenzano, Agata Maltese, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Giuseppe Davide Albano, Rosa Marotta, Ines Villano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Francesco Lavano, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Serena Marianna Lavano, Beatrice Gallai, Roberto Toraldo, Vincenzo Monda, Marco Carotenuto
Introduction: Sleep and migraine share a common pathophysiological substrate, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems are both involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle, and numerous studies show that both are involved in the migraine etiopathogenesis. These two systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected. Our hypothesis is that in migraine a dysfunction of orexinergic projections on the median raphe (MR) nuclei, interfering with serotonergic regulation, may cause Non-Rapid Eye Movement parasomnias, such as somnambulism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kenneth D Clevenger, Rosa Ye, Jin Woo Bok, Paul M Thomas, Md Nurul Islam, Galen P Miley, Matthew Robey, Cynthia Chen, KaHoua Yang, Michael Swyers, Edward Wu, Peng Gao, Chengcang Wu, Nancy P Keller, Neil L Kelleher
The benzodiazepine benzomalvin A/D is a fungal-derived specialized metabolite and inhibitor of the substance P receptor NK1, biosynthesized by a three-gene non-ribosomal peptide synthetase cluster. Here, we utilize <u>f</u>ungal <u>a</u>rtificial <u>c</u>hromosomes with <u>m</u>etabolomic <u>s</u>coring (FAC-MS) to carry out molecular genetic pathway dissection and targeted metabolomics analysis to assign the in vivo role of each domain in the benzomalvin biosynthetic pathway...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Nicola Salvarese, Barbara Spolaore, Selena Marangoni, Anna Pasin, Alessandro Galenda, Sergio Tamburini, Gianfranco Cicoria, Fiorenzo Refosco, Cristina Bolzati
An assessment study involving the use of the transglutaminase (TGase) conjugation method and the nitride-technetium-99m labelling on a bis(thiosemicarbazone) (BTS) bifunctional chelating agent is presented. The previously described chelator diacetyl-2-(N4 -methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-(N4 -amino-3-thiosemicarbazone), H2 ATSM/A, has been functionalized with 6-aminohexanoic acid (ε-Ahx) to generate the bifunctional chelating agent diacetyl-2-(N4 -methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-[N4 -(amino)-(6-aminohexanoic acid)-3-thiosemicarbazone], H2 ATSM/A-ε-Ahx (1), suitable for conjugation to glutamine (Gln) residues of bioactive molecules via TGase...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
M C Carvalho, A C Veloni, K Genaro, M L Brandão
A single threatening experience may change the behavior of an animal in a long-lasting way and elicit generalized behavioral responses to a novel threatening situation that is unrelated to the original aversive experience. Electrical stimulation (ES) of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces a range of defensive reactions, characterized by freezing, escape, and post-stimulation freezing (PSF). The latter reflects the processing of ascending aversive information to prosencephalic structures, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which allows the animal to evaluate the consequences of the aversive situation...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Suiyi Wu, Ximing Xu, Yao Zhang, Peng Liu, Kaiqiang Sun, Tianming Xu, Jiangang Shi
Spinal fusion is widely used for patients with spinal disorders; however, patients often suffer from back pain following fusion surgery. Substance P (SP) acts as a pain neurotransmitter via the sensory nerve afferent fibres up to the spinal cord, and is involved in the conduction and modulation of pain. The use of specific SP neurokinin receptor (NKR) antagonists may decrease postoperative pain. In the present study, the effects of alterations in the quantity of SP and NKRs in the early spinal fusion process were investigated...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
D M Meléndez, S Marti, E A Pajor, D Moya, D Gellatly, E D Janzen, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
In Western-Canada, approximately half of the calves produced are castrated before 1 wk of age. Therefore, it is important to identify effective analgesic drugs to mitigate pain associated with castration and consequently improve animal welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single s.c. dose of meloxicam at mitigating pain associated with knife and band castration in 1 wk old calves. Seventy-two Angus crossbred bull calves (47.3 ± 6.70 kg of BW, 1 wk old) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design where main factors included castration method-sham (CT), band (BA) or knife (KN) castration-and medication-lactate ringer (NM) or 0...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Chunhui Ruan, Lisha Liu, Qingbing Wang, Xinli Chen, Qinjun Chen, Yifei Lu, Yu Zhang, Xi He, Yujie Zhang, Qin Guo, Tao Sun, Chen Jiang
An ideal gene-carrying vector is supposed to exhibit outstanding gene condensing capability with positively charged macromolecules to protect the carried gene during in vivo circulation, and a rapid dissociation upon microenvironmental stimuli at the aimed sites to release the escorted gene. Currently, it still remains a challenge to develop an ideal gene carrier with efficient transfection ability and meanwhile low toxicity for clinical applications. Herein, we innovatively introduced a ROS-biodegradable boric acid ester linkage in elaborating the design of gene carrier...
March 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Erika Polgár, Andrew M Bell, Marine Herau, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II) of the spinal cord contains numerous excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, and recent studies have shown that each of these groups can be divided into several neurochemically distinct populations. Although it has long been known that some neurons in this region have intersegmental (propriospinal) axonal projections, there have been conflicting reports concerning the number of propriospinal cells and the extent of their axons. In addition, little is known about the neurochemical phenotype of propriospinal neurons or about the termination pattern of their axons...
March 1, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Fabio Martinez Santos, Joyce Teixeira Silva, Igor Rafael Correia Rocha, Daniel Oliveira Martins, Marucia Chacur
Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve elicits changes in neuropeptide expression on the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The neural mobilization (NM) technique is a noninvasive method that has been proven clinically effective in reducing pain. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of substance P, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and opioid receptors in the DRG of rats with chronic constriction injury and to compare it to animals that received NM treatment. CCI was performed on adult male rats...
February 26, 2018: Brain Research
Anastasia I Petra, Irene Tsilioni, Alexandra Taracanova, Alexandra Katsarou-Katsari, Theoharis C Theoharides
BACKGROUND: Cytokine interleukin (IL) 31 has emerged as an important component of allergic and inflammatory diseases associated with pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and mastocytosis. Mast cells (MC) are stimulated by allergic and nonallergic triggers, and play a critical role in such diseases by secreting histamine and tryptase as well as cytokines and chemokines. IL-33 has been reported to augment MC responses, but its effect on secretion of IL-31 is not known. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether IL-33 can stimulate the secretion of IL-31 from cultured human MCs and whether this response is augmented by either the neuropeptide substance P (SP) or immunoglobulin E (IgE) and anti-IgE in the absence or presence of IL-4...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Hannah D Fulenwider, Britessia M Smith, Anna S Nichenko, Jessica M Carpenter, Sadie E Nennig, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Jesse R Schank
BACKGROUND: Several psychiatric conditions are affected by neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) plays a major role in inflammation and innate immunity. The neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is the primary endogenous target of the neuroactive peptide substance P, and some data suggests that NK1R stimulation may influence NFkB activity. Both NK1R and NFkB have been shown to play a functional role in complex behaviors including stress responsivity, depression, and addiction...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xin Zhao, Peng Sun, Guijie Li, Ruokun Yi, Yu Qian, Kun-Young Park
We conducted the present study to determine the gastric injury preventive effects of polyphenols in Kuding tea (KTPs) in Kunming (KM) mice through the inhibition of gastric-acid secretion and the protection of the gastric mucosa. Mice treated with a high concentration of Kuding tea polyphenols (HKTP) had lower serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), motilin (MOT), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), and higher serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) than did the mice in the control group...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Bin Li, Xiao Han, Xin Ye, Jianbo Ni, Jianghong Wu, Juanjuan Dai, Zengkai Wu, Congying Chen, Rong Wan, Xingpeng Wang, Guoyong Hu
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant and inflammatory mediator involved in multiple inflammatory diseases. Substance P (SP) has been reported to promote production of LTB4 in itch-associated response in vivo and in some immune cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of LTB4 in acute pancreatitis (AP), AP-associated acute lung injury (ALI) and the related mechanisms of LTB4 production in AP. In vivo, murine AP model was induced by caerulein and lipopolysaccharide or L-arginine. The levels of LTB4 and its specific receptor BLT1 were markedly upregulated in both AP models...
February 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Rachel Humeniuk, David A L Newcombe, Victoria Dennington, Robert Ali
This report presents the findings from the Australian component of the Phase III World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a 5-10-min brief intervention (BI) for illicit drug use delivered in primary healthcare (PHC) settings. Participants (n=171) recruited from a South Australian PHC setting (sexual health clinic) who scored in the 'moderate risk' range on the ASSIST were randomly allocated to an intervention group or wait-list control group at baseline and were followed up 3 months later...
February 27, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Daichi Utsumi, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Takuya Tsukahara, Kikuko Amagase, Makoto Tominaga, Shinichi Kato
Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which are non-selective cation channels, play important roles in the sensation of pain. This study investigated the roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. DSS (2%) administered for 7 days caused severe colitis that was significantly less severe in TRPV1-deficient (TRPV1KO) and TRPA1-deficient (TRPA1KO) mice than that in wild-type (WT) mice. Similar colitis attenuations were observed in TRPV1KO and TRPA1KO mice but not in WT mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow cells from WT, TRPA1KO, or TRPV1KO mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Tsugunobu Andoh, Yuta Asakawa, Yasushi Kuraishi
Chronic skin diseases with itch and dry skin show increased peripheral nerve fiber elongation into the epidermis. However, the characteristics of the elongated nerve fibers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of the elongated nerve fibers using a dry skin mouse model with itch. In this mouse model, prepared via repetitive treatments with an acetone/ether mixture and water, the stratum corneum water content was decreased, whereas spontaneous scratching and epidermal hyperplasia were increased...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Dae-Joong Kim, Hai-Quyen Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Jung Hwan Jeong, Jae Kyung Byun, Sung Kwon Ko, Guoying Bing, Jau-Shyong Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that ginsenoside Re (GRe) attenuated against methamphetamine (MA)-induced neurotoxicity via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. We also demonstrated that dynorphin possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials against dopaminergic loss, and that balance between dynorphin and substance P is important for dopaminergic neuroprotection. Thus, we examined whether GRe positively affects interactive modulation between dynorphin and substance P against MA neurotoxicity in mice...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Margaret I Davis, Jill R Crittenden, Austin Y Feng, David A Kupferschmidt, Alipi Naydenov, Nephi Stella, Ann M Graybiel, David M Lovinger
Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R) bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch) and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
2018: PloS One
Gil Yosipovitch, Sonja Ständer, Matthew B Kerby, James W Larrick, Andrew J Perlman, Edward F Schnipper, Xiaoming Zhang, Jean Y Tang, Thomas Luger, Martin Steinhoff
BACKGROUND: The substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1 R) pathway is critical in chronic pruritus; anecdotal evidence suggests antagonism of this pathway can reduce chronic itch. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of the NK1 R antagonist serlopitant in treating chronic pruritus. METHODS: Eligible patients with severe chronic pruritus who were refractory to antihistamines or topical steroids were randomized to serlopitant 0.25, 1, or 5 mg, or placebo, administered once daily for 6 weeks as monotherapy or with midpotency steroids and emollients...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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