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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327134/the-effect-of-intra-articular-botulinum-toxin-a-on-substance-p-prostaglandin-e2-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-the-canine-osteoarthritic-joint
#1
Helka M Heikkilä, Anna K Hielm-Björkman, John F Innes, Outi M Laitinen-Vapaavuori
BACKGROUND: Recently, intra-articular botulinum toxin A (IA BoNT A) has been shown to reduce joint pain in osteoarthritic dogs. Similar results have been reported in human patients with arthritis. However, the mechanism of the antinociceptive action of IA BoNT A is currently not known. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism of action by investigating the effect of IA BoNT A on synovial fluid (SF) and serum substance P (SP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in osteoarthritic dogs...
March 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326642/neprilysin-inhibition-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-substrates-beyond-modulating-natriuretic-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Emilia D'Elia, Attilio Iacovoni, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ferdinando L Lorini, Stefano Perlini, Michele Senni
The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325510/increased-nuclear-localization-of-substance-p-in-human-gastric-tumor-cells
#3
Miguel Muñoz, Marisa Rosso, Andrés Carranza, Rafael Coveñas
Gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive disease that remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Treatment of advanced or metastatic GC has seen little progress and median overall survival in this group remains <1 year. It is urgent to investigate new mechanisms to understand GC progression. It is known that substance P (SP), after binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, elicits GC proliferation; that GC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that NK-1 receptor antagonists, in a concentration dependent manner, inhibit the proliferation of GC cells and that these cells die by apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#4
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323939/tac1-gene-products-regulate-pituitary-hormone-secretion-and-gene-expression-in-prepubertal-grass-carp-pituitary-cells
#5
Guangfu Hu, Mulan He, Wendy K W Ko, Anderson O L Wong
Tachykinin 1 (TAC1) is known to have diverse functions in mammals but similar information is scarce in lower vertebrates including fish species. Using grass carp as a model, the pituitary actions, receptor specificity and post-receptor signaling of TAC1 gene products, namely substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), were examined. As a first step, TAC1 encoding carp SP and NKA as well as tachykinin receptors NK1R and NK2R were cloned in carp pituitary. Expression studies revealed that the newly cloned receptors were functional and with pharmacological properties similar to mammalian counterparts...
March 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319947/effects-of-capsaicin-on-older-patients-with-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Rui Nakato, Noriaki Manabe, Sayako Shimizu, Kozo Hanayama, Akiko Shiotani, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The standard of care for older patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is poor. Stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 might become a pharmacological strategy for these patients. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of film food containing 0.75 µg of capsaicin in these patients. METHODS: In a crossover, randomized trial, 49 patients with OD were provided capsaicin or identical placebo at least 7 days apart. Patients' reported symptoms during repeated swallowing, the volume, pH and substance P (SP) concentrations in saliva, and cervical esophageal wall motion evaluated by ultrasonographic tissue Doppler imaging were obtained before and after capsaicin or placebo administration...
March 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302100/aprepitant-for-refractory-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-associated-pruritus-4-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Johanna S Song, Marianne Tawa, Nicole G Chau, Thomas S Kupper, Nicole R LeBoeuf
BACKGROUND: Aprepitant is an FDA-approved medication for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. It blocks substance P binding to neurokinin-1; substance P has been implicated in itch pathways both as a local and global mediator. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We report a series of four patients, diagnosed with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, who experienced full body pruritus recalcitrant to standard therapies. All patients experienced rapid symptom improvement (within days) following aprepitant treatment...
March 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301818/distribution-of-hemokinin-1-in-the-rat-trigeminal-ganglion-and-trigeminal-sensory-nuclear-complex
#8
Kaori Igawa, Hideki Funahashi, Yu Miyahara, Rumi Naono-Nakayama, Hisae Matsuo, Yoshihiro Yamashita, Sumio Sakoda, Toshikazu Nishimori, Yasushi Ishida
OBJECTIVE: A new mammalian tachykinin peptide encoded in a TAC4 gene was identified and designated as hemokinin-1 (HK-1). A representative of the tachykinin peptide family is substance P (SP), and the function of SP has been well characterized as a pain transmitter or modulator, while it is possible that HK-1 is involved in pruriceptive processing, but, as yet, the distribution of HK-1 peptide in the trigeminal sensory system is still unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the distribution of HK-1, while comparing the expression of SP, in the trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal sensory nuclear complex...
March 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301610/the-effects-of-substance-p-and-acetylcholine-on-human-tenocyte-proliferation-converge-mechanistically-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#9
Gloria Fong, Ludvig J Backman, Håkan Alfredson, Alex Scott, Patrik Danielson
Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287437/the-influence-of-low-doses-of-zearalenone-and-t-2-toxin-on-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-ens-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#10
Krystyna Makowska, Kazimierz Obremski, Lukasz Zielonka, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS) can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI) neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286019/methotrexate-causes-acute-hyperplasia-of-enterochromaffin-cells-containing-substance-p-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-rats
#11
Takuji Machida, Yuho Takano, Kenji Iizuka, Maiko Machida, Masahiko Hirafuji
This study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effect of methotrexate on the intestinal substance P metabolism after a single administration to rats. Methotrexate caused a significant increase in the number of substance P-containing cells in the ileal mucosa both at 24 and 96 h. Most of enterochromaffin cells expressing l-tryptophan hydroxylase contained substance P. The expression of Tac1 mRNA was increased by methotrexate at 24 h, but not at 96 h. Thus, methotrexate causes acute hyperplasia of enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa of rats with a transient increase in the production of substance P...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281854/capsaicin-pretreatment-reversed-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-alleviating-inflammation-via-p38mapk-pathway
#12
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Chen Qu
Purpose/aim: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as inflammation. As a kind of tachykinin secreted by nerves and inflammatory cells, substance P (SP) has been proved to be involved in the progression of PAH. Capsaicin can deplete substance P and provide benefits in PAH. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this article, we aim to illustrate the possible mechanism involved in the process of capsaicin alleviating PAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single injection of monocrotaline (MCT) to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was conducted to induce PAH...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281109/neuropeptides-as-a-marker-for-chronic-headache
#13
REVIEW
Nuria Riesco, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Julio Pascual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revise current evidence on trigemino-vascular system (TVS) neuropeptides as potential biomarkers for chronic primary headaches, mainly for chronic migraine (CM). RECENT FINDINGS: Within sensory neuropeptides, released by an activated trigeminal nerve, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels seem to be a good biomarker of acute migraine and somewhat sensitive and specific for CM. CGRP, however, is not increased in 20-30% of CM patients, which suggests that CGRP is not the only neuropeptide involved in migraine pain generation and maintenance...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277905/spontaneous-and-evoked-contractility-of-human-intestinal-lymphatic-vessels
#14
Niklas Telinius, Jens Majgaard, Sheyanth Mohanakumar, Einar Pahle, Jørn Nielsen, Vibeke Hjortdal, Christian Aalkjær, Donna Briggs Boedtkjer
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) from various animal species have been intensively studied. We aimed to establish the viability and basic contractile characteristics of human MLVs maintained in vitro and to determine the reactivity of MLVs with norepinephrine (NE) and substance P (SP) and to compare with the thoracic duct (TD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated human lymphatic vessels were mounted on a wire myograph under isometric conditions and tension was recorded...
March 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273833/protective-effects-of-ferulic-acid-against-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-swallowing-dysfunction-in-rats
#15
Takashi Asano, Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Naohiro Iwata, Meiyan Xuan, Shinya Kamiuchi, Yasuhide Hibino, Takeshi Sakamoto, Mari Okazaki
Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats. In 2VO rats, topical administration of water or citric acid to the pharyngolaryngeal region evoked a diminished number of swallowing events with prolonged latency compared to sham-operated control rats. 2VO rats had an increased level of superoxide anion radical, and decreased dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels in the striatum, suggesting that 2VO augmented cerebral oxidative stress and impaired the striatal dopaminergic system...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270193/cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammation-in-the-sensitized-acupoints-induced-by-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#16
Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Hong Shi, Wan-Zhu Bai, Bin Cheng, Yang-Shuai Su, Xiao-Chun Yu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Bing Zhu
BACKGROUND: In acupuncture practice, the most important step is to confirm the location of a sensitized acupoint which reflects a diagnosis and can be stimulated with a specialized needle to treat the disease. Abnormal symptoms such as hyperalgesia or allodynia at the sensitized acupoints in patients with visceral disorders are considered to be in relation with referred pain and neurogenic inflammation. Yet, limited study has investigated the cutaneous neurochemical changes of the sensitized acuponits...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263849/chemical-profiles-and-pharmacological-activities-of-chang-kang-fang-a-multi-herb-chinese-medicinal-formula-for-treating-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Qian Mao, Lei Shi, Zhi-Gang Wang, Yu-Hui Luo, Yin-Yu Wang, Xue Li, Min Lu, Jian-Min Ju, Jin-Di Xu, Ming Kong, Shan-Shan Zhou, Min-Qin Shen, Song-Lin Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chang-Kang-Fang formula (CKF), a multi-herb traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been clinically used for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms of CKF for treating IBS and the components that are responsible for the activities were still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the chemical profiles and effects of CKF on IBS model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical profiles of CKF were investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256736/substance-p-increases-liver-fibrosis-by-differential-changes-in-senescence-of-cholangiocytes-and-hepatic-stellate-cells
#18
Ying Wan, Fanyin Meng, Nan Wu, Tianhao Zhou, Julie Venter, Heather Francis, Lindsey Kennedy, Trenton Glaser, Francesca Bernuzzi, Pietro Invernizzi, Shannon Glaser, Qiaobing Huang, Gianfranco Alpini
Substance P (SP) is involved in the proliferation of cholangiocytes in bile duct ligated (BDL) mice and human cholangiocarcinoma growth by interacting with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To identify whether SP regulates liver fibrosis during cholestasis, wild type (WT) or NK-1R knockout (NK-1R(-/-) ) mice that received BDL or sham surgery and Mdr2(-/-) mice treated with either an NK-1R antagonist (L-733,060) or saline were used. Additionally, WT mice were treated with SP or saline intraperitoneally. In vivo, there was increased expression of TAC1 (coding SP) and NK-1R in both BDL and Mdr2(-/-) mice compared to WT mice...
March 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256032/localization-of-the-5-hydroxytryptamine-4-receptor-in-equine-enteric-neurons-and-extrinsic-sensory-fibers
#19
F Giancola, A M Rambaldi, F Bianco, S Iusco, N Romagnoli, C Tagliavia, C Bombardi, P Clavenzani, R De Giorgio, R Chiocchetti
BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating gut motility, visceral sensitivity, and fluid secretion via specific receptors. Among these receptors, 5-HT4 exerts a prominent control on gut motor function. Although the prokinetic effect exerted by 5-HT4 agonists is well known, the cellular sites of 5-HT4 expression remain poorly understood in large mammals, e.g., horses. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of 5-HT4 in the horse intestine and in foals with enteric aganglionosis, reminiscent of human Hirschsprung's disease...
March 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251309/relationship-between-biochemical-factors-and-skin-symptoms-in-chronic-venous-disease
#20
Yasushi Takai, Keiichi Hiramoto, Yoshiyuki Nishimura, Kazuya Ooi
Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common venous disease of the lower extremities and patients often develop symptoms of itching and skin roughness. An easy to use and objective skin examination was recently developed that allows measurement of the level of stratum corneum content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), which can indicate the status of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Previous studies demonstrated that histamine production from mast cells, and tryptase and matrix metalloprotease-9 levels were associated with skin inflammation...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
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