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Pulmonary vascular resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810584/evaluation-of-two-dimensional-strain-echocardiography-for-quantifying-right-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Yong Liu, Yong Wang, Yingying Wang, Zhe Wen
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the use of two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DS) in quantifying right ventricular (RV) function in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A total of 41 patients with PAH and 40 healthy control patients were recruited to the study. 2DS was used to determine the strain (ε) and strain rate (SR) of basal, middle and apical segments of the RV free wall. The aforementioned indicators were compared with measurements of RV function taken by conventional ultrasound and right heart catheterization...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798257/aquaporin-1-mediated-changes-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-and-proliferation-involve-%C3%AE-catenin
#2
Xin Yun, Haiyang Jiang, Ning Lai, Jian Wang, Larissa A Shimoda
Exposure to hypoxia induces migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), leading to vascular remodeling and contributing to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The mechanisms controlling PASMC growth and motility are incompletely understood, although aquaporin 1 plays an important role. In tumor, kidney and stem cells, AQP1 has been shown to interact with β-catenin, a dual function protein that activates the transcription of crucial target genes (i.e., c-Myc and cyclin D1) related to cell migration and proliferation...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793822/dose-response-head-to-head-comparison-of-inodilators-dobutamine-milrinone-and-levosimendan-in-chronic-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Marta Tavares-Silva, Mohamed Alaa, Sara Leite, José Oliveira-Pinto, Lucas Lopes, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, André P Lourenço
The choice of inodilator drug in the acute management of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) having right ventricular (RV) failure remains unsettled and challenging. Comprehensive experimental evaluations may provide further insight and fundamental translational research clues to support inodilator selection and clinical trial design. Our aim was to compare acute dose-response hemodynamic effects of inodilators dobutamine (DOB), milrinone (MIL), and levosimendan (LEV) in chronic experimental PH. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly injected with 60 mg·kg(-1) monocrotaline (MCT) or vehicle (Ctrl, n = 7) and underwent systemic and pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and RV pressure-volume (PV) hemodynamic evaluation under halogenate anesthesia 24 to 30 days after injection...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789830/sphingosine-kinase-1-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Nigel J Pyne, Susan Pyne
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) knockout mice are protected against pulmonary hypertension and expression levels of the enzyme are increased in the lungs of pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) patients. Moreover, sphingosine 1-phosphate can promote vascular remodeling/vasoconstriction in rodent and human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell models. Therefore, SphK1 might be a novel target for treatment of PAH. However, in our opinion, more refined strategies to target SphK1 are needed because this enzyme is protective against endothelial dysfunction and can become resistant to SphK1 inhibitors in vascular smooth muscle, thereby potentially limiting their effectiveness in PAH...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782911/simulation-of-aortopulmonary-collateral-flow-in-fontan-patients-for-use-in-prediction-of-interventional-outcomes
#5
Petter Frieberg, Pia Sjöberg, Johan Revstedt, Einar Heiberg, Petru Liuba, Marcus Carlsson
PURPOSE: Patients with complex congenital heart disease may need to be converted to a Fontan circulation with systemic venous return surgically connected to the pulmonary circulation. These patients frequently form aortopulmonary collaterals (APC), that is arterial inflows to the pulmonary artery vascular tree. The aim of this study was to develop a method to calculate the effect of APC on the pulmonary flow distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to enable prediction of interventional outcomes in Fontan patients...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782712/effects-of-fasudil-on-pulmonary-hypertension-in-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Yiqing Zhang, Shangjie Wu
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathophysiologic disorder that may involve multiple clinical conditions and can complicate the majority of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The presence of PH is associated with worse outcomes, but the efficacy of current therapy is still unsatisfactory. Because Rho-kinase (ROCK) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PH, the ROCK inhibitor fasudil is expected to contribute to PH treatment. In animal models of PH, fasudil reduced pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and improved survival...
August 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782453/issues-related-to-renal-artery-angioplasty-and-stenting
#7
Albeir Y Mousa, Mark C Bates, Mike Broce, Joseph Bozzay, Ramez Morcos, Ali F AbuRahma
Renal artery stenosis may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of secondary hypertension, renal dysfunction, and flash pulmonary edema. Currently correction of renal arterial inflow stenosis is reserved for resistant hypertension patients who have failed maximal medical therapy, have worsening renal function and/or unexplained proximal congestive failure. With the recent advances in minimally invasive percutaneous stent placement techniques, open surgical revascularization has been largely replaced by renal artery stenting...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775043/oestrogen-inhibition-reverses-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-associated-metabolic-defects
#8
Xinping Chen, Eric D Austin, Megha Talati, Joshua P Fessel, Eric H Farber-Eger, Evan L Brittain, Anna R Hemnes, James E Loyd, James West
Increased oestrogen is a strong epidemiological risk factor for development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients, associated with metabolic defects. In addition, oestrogens drive penetrance in mice carrying mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2), the cause of most heritable PAH. The goal of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of oestrogens was effective in the treatment of PAH in these mice.The oestrogen inhibitors fulvestrant and anastrozole were used in a prevention and treatment paradigm in BMPR2 mutant mice, and tamoxifen was used for treatment...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771211/the-fetus-can-teach-us-oxygen-and-the-pulmonary-vasculature
#9
REVIEW
Payam Vali, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Neonates suffering from pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) continue to represent an important proportion of patients requiring intensive neonatal care, and have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The human fetus has evolved to maintain a high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in utero to allow the majority of the fetal circulation to bypass the lungs, which do not participate in gas exchange, towards the low resistance placenta. At birth, oxygen plays a major role in decreasing PVR to enhance pulmonary blood flow and establish the lungs as the organ of gas exchange...
August 3, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762848/healthcare-resource-utilization-and-costs-for-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-real-world-documentation-of-functional-class
#10
Robert Dufour, Janis Pruett, Nan Hu, Cassandra Lickert, Stephen Stemkowski, Yuen Tsang, Daniel Lane, William Drake
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare medical disease in which patients experience increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure that can result in remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and heart and eventually lead to right heart failure and death. As PAH progresses, patients become unable to perform even routine daily tasks without severe shortness of breath (dyspnea), fatigue, dizziness, and fainting (syncope). Treatment strategies largely depend on assessment of an individual patient's WHO Functional Class...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759897/pulmonary-hypertension-in-a-patient-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#11
Dorothy Liu, Kunal Sindhu, Allison Witkin, Lakir Patel, Richard Channick
t Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is characterized by the abnormal development of blood vessels. While the pathophysiology underlying the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with HHT is not fully understood, it is believed to occur by one of two mechanisms: increases in pulmonary vascular resistance or cardiac output. In the following report, we describe an interesting case of a 26-year-old woman with HHT whose right heart catheterization initially demonstrated PH with elements of both pre- and post-capillary PH...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756120/comparison-of-two-strategies-for-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion
#12
Tobias Nilsson, Jan F Gielis, Alexis Slama, Christoffer Hansson, Andreas Wallinder, Sven-Erik Ricksten, Göran Dellgren
BACKGROUND: Two clinically used strategies for ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) were compared in a porcine model with respect to lung function, metabolism, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and cell viability. METHODS: Porcine lungs (n = 20) were preserved, harvested, and kept cooled for 2 hours. After randomization, EVLP was performed using a cellular perfusate and open left atrium (COA group) or an acellular perfusate and a closed left atrium (ACA group). Oxygenation (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen), compliance, dead space, weight, and perfusate oncotic pressure were registered before and after a 4-hour period of reconditioning...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753621/mechanical-versus-humoral-determinants-of-brain-death-induced-lung-injury
#13
Asmae Belhaj, Laurence Dewachter, Sandrine Rorive, Myriam Remmelink, Birgit Weynand, Christian Melot, Emeline Hupkens, Céline Dewachter, Jacques Creteur, Kathleen Mc Entee, Robert Naeije, Benoît Rondelet
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of brain death (BD)-induced lung injury remain incompletely understood, as uncertainties persist about time-course and relative importance of mechanical and humoral perturbations. METHODS: Brain death was induced by slow intracranial blood infusion in anesthetized pigs after randomization to placebo (n = 11) or to methylprednisolone (n = 8) to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), wedged PAP (PAWP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and effective pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP) were measured 1 and 5 hours after Cushing reflex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751413/long-term-outcomes-of-dasatinib-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-population-based-study
#14
Jason Weatherald, Marie-Camille Chaumais, Laurent Savale, Xavier Jaïs, Andrei Seferian, Matthieu Canuet, Hélène Bouvaist, Pascal Magro, Anne Bergeron, Christophe Guignabert, Olivier Sitbon, Gérald Simonneau, Marc Humbert, David Montani
This study aimed to describe the long-term outcomes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by dasatinib.21 incident, right heart catheterisation-confirmed cases of dasatinib-induced PAH were identified from the French Pulmonary Hypertension Registry. Clinical and haemodynamic variables were compared from baseline to last follow-up (median (range) 24 (1-81) months).Median age was 52 years and 15 patients were female (71%). 19 patients received dasatinib for chronic myelogenous leukaemia for a median (range) duration of 42 (8-74) months before PAH diagnosis...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750642/cmr-fluoroscopy-right-heart-catheterization-for-cardiac-output-and-pulmonary-vascular-resistance-results-in-102-patients
#15
Toby Rogers, Kanishka Ratnayaka, Jaffar M Khan, Annette Stine, William H Schenke, Laurie P Grant, Jonathan R Mazal, Elena K Grant, Adrienne Campbell-Washburn, Michael S Hansen, Rajiv Ramasawmy, Daniel A Herzka, Hui Xue, Peter Kellman, Anthony Z Faranesh, Robert J Lederman
BACKGROUND: Quantification of cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) are critical components of invasive hemodynamic assessment, and can be measured concurrently with pressures using phase contrast CMR flow during real-time CMR guided cardiac catheterization. METHODS: One hundred two consecutive patients underwent CMR fluoroscopy guided right heart catheterization (RHC) with simultaneous measurement of pressure, cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance using CMR flow and the Fick principle for comparison...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749608/prone-position-ventilation-support-for-acute-exacerbation-of-interstitial-lung-disease
#16
Yuanda Xu, Qingwen Sun, Yuheng Yu, Weibo Liang, Xuesong Liu, Chun Yang, Yonghao Xu, Lingbo Nong, Sibei Chen, Weiqun He, Xiaoqing Liu, Yimin Li, Nanshan Zhong
INTRODUCTION: Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve oxygenation and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance and mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether these benefits of PPV occur similarly in acute exacerbations of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is not clear. We retrospectively explored the use of PPV in acute exacerbation with ILD versus those with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (severe ARDS). METHODS: Retrospective study of the application of PPV in 17 patients with acute exacerbations of ILD and in 19 patients with severe ARDS...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743337/-effect-of-multidrug-resistant-associated-protein-4-overexpression-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vascular-endothelial-hyperpermeability-and-its-mechanism
#17
Wenfang Xia, Huanming Zhang, Yanlei Zheng, Qingshan Zhou, Bin Su
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular endothelial hyperpermeability of rat pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) and its molecule mechanism. METHODS: Three to six passages of PMVECs were cultured in vitro, and they were divided into three groups: the cells in LPS group were only challenged by LPS 10 μg/mL after being cultured in serum-free medium for 24 hours; the cells in Ad-shRNA and Ad-MRP4 groups were infected with the empty virus control or recombinant adenovirus expressing MRP4 for 2 hours, and then were cultured in serum-free medium for 24 hours followed by stimulation of LPS 10 μg/mL...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741841/pulmonary-valve-opening-with-two-rotary-left-ventricular-assist-devices-for-biventricular-support
#18
Eric L Wu, Frank Nestler, Matthias Kleinheyer, Michael C Stevens, Jo P Pauls, John F Fraser, Shaun D Gregory
Right ventricular failure is a common complication associated with rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. Currently, there is no clinically approved long-term rotary right ventricular assist device (RVAD). Instead, clinicians have implanted a second rotary LVAD as RVAD in biventricular support. To prevent pulmonary hypertension, the RVAD must be operated by either reducing pump speed or banding the outflow graft. These modes differ in hydraulic performance, which may affect the pulmonary valve opening (PVO) and subsequently cause fusion, valvular insufficiency, and thrombus formation...
July 25, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741664/in-vitro-evaluation-of-an-immediate-response-starling-like-controller-for-dual-rotary-blood-pumps
#19
Andrew F Stephens, Michael C Stevens, Shaun D Gregory, Matthias Kleinheyer, Robert F Salamonsen
Rotary ventricular assist devices (VADs) are used to provide mechanical circulatory support. However, their lack of preload sensitivity in constant speed control mode (CSC) may result in ventricular suction or venous congestion. This is particularly true of biventricular support, where the native flow-balancing Starling response of both ventricles is diminished. It is possible to model the Starling response of the ventricles using cardiac output and venous return curves. With this model, we can create a Starling-like physiological controller (SLC) for VADs which can automatically balance cardiac output in the presence of perturbations to the circulation...
July 25, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739448/hydrocortisone-and-ascorbic-acid-synergistically-prevent-and-repair-lps-induced-pulmonary-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction
#20
Nektarios Barabutis, Vikramjit Khangoora, Paul E Marik, John D Catravas
BACKGROUND: Sepsis refers the dysregulated host immune response elicited by microbial infections resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction. Sepsis represents a medical challenge, since it is associated with a rate of death as high as 60%. Septic shock is strongly associated with vascular dysfunction and elevated pulmonary capillary permeability. We recently reported that the combination of hydrocortisone (HC), ascorbic acid (VitC) and thiamine dramatically improves outcomes and reduces mortality in septic patients...
July 21, 2017: Chest
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