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Pulmonary vascular resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546068/commentary-on-vascular-distensibilities-have-minor-effects-on-intracardiac-shunt-patterns-in-reptiles-by-filogonio-et-al-2017
#1
Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick, Zachary F Kohl
The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature...
May 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543813/inhaled-pulmonary-vasodilator-therapy-for-management-of-right-ventricular-dysfunction-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-placement-and-cardiac-transplantation
#2
Leah A Sabato, David M Salerno, Jeremy D Moretz, Douglas L Jennings
Right ventricular failure (RVF) after cardiac transplant (CTX) or implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) is associated with significant post-operative morbidity and mortality. A variety of modalities have been used to treat post-operative RVF, including management of volume status, intravenous inotropes and vasodilators, and right-sided mechanical support. Inhaled vasodilator agents are a unique treatment option aimed at minimizing systemic absorption by delivering therapy directly to the pulmonary vasculature...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540841/lung-or-heart-lung-transplant-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-what-is-the-impact-of-systemic-sclerosis
#3
Shruti K Gadre, Omar A Minai, Xiao-Feng Wang, Qi Zhang, Marie Budev, Adriano R Tonelli
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about recipient characteristics and outcomes of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing lung transplant, particularly those with systemic sclerosis-associated disease. Here, we describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing lung transplant, focusing on systemic sclerosis-associated disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included pulmonary arterial hypertension patients undergoing lung or heart-lung transplant between July 1992 and August 2013 at a single center...
May 22, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539568/clinical-and-hemodynamic-effects-of-endothelin-receptor-antagonists-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#4
Bo Xiong, Dan Nie, Yin Cao, Yanke Zou, Yuanqing Yao, Jie Tan, Jun Qian, Shunkang Rong, Chunbin Wang, Jing Huang
The clinical benefit of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) for the management of heart failure (HF) remains controversial. To examine this question, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical and hemodynamic effects of ERA in HF patients.We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to March 20, 2016 to identify the pertinent studies. Risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated using a fixed or random effect model...
May 23, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536427/role-of-foxo1-and-apoptosis-in-pulmonary-vascular-remolding-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Chaosheng Deng, Zhanghua Zhong, Dawen Wu, Yunfei Chen, Ningfang Lian, Haibo Ding, Qiaoxian Zhang, Qichang Lin, Shuang Wu
To explore the role of FoxO1 and apoptosis in a rat model of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n = 45) and an experimental group (n = 45). Autologous blood clots were injected into rats three times to induce CTEPH. Rats were further divided into three subgroups: a 1-week subgroup (n = 15), a 2-week subgroup (n = 15), and a 4-week subgroup (n = 15). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and histopathology were evaluated at each time point...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533915/mechanisms-of-ecg-signs-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Marte Strømsnes Larssen, Kjetil Steine, Janne Mykland Hilde, Ingunn Skjørten, Christian Hodnesdal, Knut Liestøl, Knut Gjesdal
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have abnormal ECGs. Our aim was to separate the effects on ECG by airway obstruction, emphysema and right ventricular (RV) afterload in patients with COPD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 101 patients with COPD without left heart disease and 32 healthy age-matched controls. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and pulmonary function tests, ECG, echocardiography and right heart catheterisation (only patients) were performed...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532773/comparison-of-the-incidences-of-complications-after-second-generation-cryoballoon-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-using-vitamin-k-antagonists-versus-novel-oral-anticoagulants
#7
Giacomo Mugnai, Carlo de Asmundis, Saverio Iacopino, Erwin Stroker, Massimo Longobardi, Valentina De Regibus, Hugo Enrique Coutino-Moreno, Ken Takarada, Rajin Choudhury, Juan Pablo Abugattas de Torres, Cesare Storti, Pedro Brugada, Gian-Battista Chierchia
Data evaluating the impact of the periprocedural administration of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on complications in the setting of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation using cryoballoon (CB) is limited. In the present study, our aim was to analyze procedural characteristics and incidence of complications in those patients who underwent CB ablation for atrial fibrillation and the impact of NOACs on adverse events compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Consecutive patients with drug resistant atrial fibrillation who underwent PV isolation by CB as index procedure were retrospectively included in our analysis...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532389/the-use-of-macitentan-in-fontan-circulation-a-case-report
#8
Polyvios Demetriades, Amir Aziz, Robin Condliffe, Sarah E Bowater, Paul F Clift
BACKGROUND: The Fontan circulation, a result of a palliative procedure in patients with single systemic ventricles, is defined by chronically elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. When traditional heart failure therapies fail, pharmacological agents that reduce pulmonary artery pressures may be used. These include endothelial-receptor antagonists, prostanoids and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. We report the first use of macitentan, an endothelin-receptor antagonist, in a patient with a Fontan circulation...
May 22, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528061/real-time-computed-tomography-highlights-pulmonary-parenchymal-evolution-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-reconditioning
#9
Edouard Sage, Julien De Wolf, Philippe Puyo, Pierre Bonnette, Matthieu Glorion, Nicolas Salley, Antoine Roux, Ngai Liu, Alain Chapelier
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has been developed as a method to reassess and recondition marginal lungs. However, evaluation during procedures is limited to a combination of physiologic variables such as gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of real-time computed tomographic (CT) imaging to improve the evaluation of the lung during EVLP procedures.
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527962/resolution-of-mitral-regurgitation-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#10
Matthew Goodwin, Hassan W Nemeh, Jamil Borgi, Gaetano Paone, Jeffrey A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac valve disease is common in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) affects outcomes and hemodynamics in patients after LVAD implantation. METHODS: From March 2006 through May 2015, 238 consecutive patients underwent LVAD implantation. Patient cohorts included less than moderate to severe MR (< moderate-severe, n = 195) and greater than or equal to moderate to severe MR (≥ moderate-severe, n = 43)...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527831/different-efficacy-of-inhaled-and-oral-medications-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Batool J AbuHalimeh, Joseph G Parambil, Adriano R Tonelli
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is progressive disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance that can lead to right heart failure and death. One of the main therapeutic options for PAH are medications targeting the prostacyclin pathway. Treprostinil is a prostacyclin analogue and selexipag is a selective IP receptor agonist. Treprostinil can be delivered by a variety of routes including oral, inhaled, subcutaneous and intravenous. Selexipag is currently approved as an oral formulation...
May 17, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522681/endothelial-nox1-oxidase-assembly-in-human-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-driver-of-gremlin1-mediated-proliferation
#12
Imad Al Ghouleh, Sanghamitra Sahoo, Daniel N Meijles, Jefferson H Amaral, Daniel S de Jesus, John Sembrat, Mauricio Rojas, Dmitry A Goncharov, Elena A Goncharova, Patrick J Pagano
Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly degenerating and devastating disease of increased pulmonary vessel resistance leading to right heart failure. Palliative modalities remain limited despite recent endeavors to investigate the mechanisms underlying increased pulmonary vascular resistance, i.e. aberrant vascular remodeling and occlusion. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms responsible for endothelial proliferation, a root cause of PAH-associated vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521893/pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-children-and-young-adults
#13
REVIEW
Georg Hansmann
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults is a complex condition that can be associated with several cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases contributing to morbidity and mortality. The underlying pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease (PHVD) is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and angio-obliteration leading to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance, right ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular compression, and subsequent heart failure...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521513/astragalus-polysaccharides-attenuate-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#14
Lin-Bo Yuan, Chun-Yan Hua, Sheng Gao, Ya-Ling Yin, Mao Dai, Han-Yan Meng, Piao-Piao Li, Zhong-Xin Yang, Qing-Hua Hu
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions in a number of diseases. However, their function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is still unknown. Rats received APS (200[Formula: see text]mg/kg once two days) for 2 weeks after being injected with monocrotaline (MCT; 60[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The pulmonary hemodynamic index, right ventricular hypertrophy, and lung morphological features of the rat models were examined, as well as the NO/eNOS ratio of wet lung and dry lung weight and MPO...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516393/plasma-mmp2-timp4-ratio-at-follow-up-assessment-predicts-disease-progression-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Veronika Wetzl, Svenja Lena Tiede, Lothar Faerber, Norbert Weissmann, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Henning Gall
PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are of particular interest in the remodeling processes of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate MMP/TIMP ratios of selected biomarkers (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP4) at follow-up examination (V2) and their prognostic value in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from iPAH patients during right heart catheterization at diagnosis (V1, from 2003 to 2012) and first follow-up examination (V2)...
May 17, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515936/pulse-dose-steroids-in-severe-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-secondary-to-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
Cody Lee, Jean Elwing
OBJECTIVE: The pulmonary vascular targeted treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension is similar to other connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. In addition, there also appears to be a role for immunosuppression in the overall management. However, the optimal immunosuppressive regimen and what patients will respond to treatments are currently not clearly elucidated given the lack of randomized controlled trials on the subject...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514266/pulmonary-vascular-function-and-aerobic-exercise-capacityat-moderate-altitude
#17
Vitalie Faoro, Gael Deboeck, Marco Vicenzi, Anne-Fleur Gaston, Bamodi Simaga, Grégory Doucende, Ilona Hapkova, Emma Roca, Enric Subirats, Fabienne Durand, Robert Naeije
PURPOSE: There has been suggestion that a greater "pulmonary vascular reserve" defined by a low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a high lung diffusing capacity (DL) allows for a superior aerobic exercise capacity. How pulmonary vascular reserve might affect exercise capacity at moderate altitude is not known. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation, combined with measurements of DL for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) and a cardio-pulmonary exercise test at sea level and at the altitude of 2250m...
May 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514116/changes-in-main-pulmonary-artery-diameter-during-follow-up-have-prognostic-implications-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Adriano R Tonelli, Scott Johnson, Laith Alkukhun, Ruchi Yadav, Raed A Dweik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A dilated pulmonary artery (PA) is a common finding in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Little is known on the variations in PA size over time and whether these changes track with disease severity and/or predict long-term survival. METHODS: We included patients with PAH who had at least two computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest done on different visits. Both scans matched the use of i.v. contrast. RESULTS: Pairs of CT scans were compared in 113 PAH patients...
May 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507431/targeted-drugs-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-network-meta-analysis-of-32-randomized-clinical-trials
#19
Xiao-Fei Gao, Jun-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Min Jiang, Zhen Ge, Zhi-Mei Wang, Bing Li, Wen-Xing Mao, Shao-Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease and ultimately leads to right heart failure and premature death. A total of four classical targeted drugs, prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator (sGCS), have been proved to improve exercise capacity and hemodynamics compared to placebo; however, direct head-to-head comparisons of these drugs are lacking. This network meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these targeted drugs for PAH...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507310/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-bmpr2-gene-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Guillermo Pousada, Vincenzo Lupo, Sheila Cástro-Sánchez, María Álvarez-Satta, Ana Sánchez-Monteagudo, Adolfo Baloira, Carmen Espinós, Diana Valverde
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that causes the obstruction of precapillary pulmonary arteries and a sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim was to analyze functionally the variants found in the BMPR2 gene and to establish a genotype-phenotype correlation. mRNA expression studies were performed using pSPL3 vector, studies of subcellular localization were performed using pEGFP-N1 vector and luciferase assays were performed using pGL3-Basic vector. We have identified 30 variants in the BMPR2 gene in 27 of 55 patients...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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