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Hyuck Jun Jung, Myoung Jin Ho, Sungwan Ahn, Young Taek Han, Myung Joo Kang
The oral bioavailability of entecavir (EV), an anti-viral agent commonly prescribed to treat hepatitis B infections, is drastically reduced under a post-prandial state. This is primarily due to its low permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. To reduce the food effect on the intestinal absorption of the nucleotide analogue, four lipidic prodrugs were synthesized via the esterification of the primary alcohol of EV with fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, and dodecanoic acid). EV-3-dodecanoate (or EV-C12) exhibited high solubility in a fed state simulated intestinal fluid (78...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xueliang Jiang, Zhen Yang, Zhijie Wang, Fuqing Zhang, Feng You, Chu Yao
Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Altaf Ur Rahman, Gul Rahman, Peter Kratzer
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) GaS are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). 
 After confirming that the pristine 2D GaS is a non-magnetic, indirect band gap semiconductor, we consider N and F as substitutional dopant's or adsorbed atoms. Except for N substituting for Ga (N$_{\rm Ga}$), all considered cases are found to possess a magnetic moment. Fluorine, both in its atomic and molecular form, undergoes a highly exothermic reaction with GaS...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Nicolás A Grosso-Giordano, Christian Schroeder, Alexander Okrut, Andrew Solovyov, Christian Schöttle, Walter Chassé, Nebojsa Marinković, Hubert Koller, Stacey I Zones, Alexander Katz
The effect of outer-sphere environment on alkene epoxidation catalysis using an organic hydroperox-ide oxidant is demonstrated for calix[4]arene-TiIV single-sites grafted on amorphous vs. crystalline delaminated zeotype (UCB-4) silicates as supports. A chelating calix[4]arene macrocycle ligand enforc-es a constant TiIV inner-sphere, as characterized by UV-visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, thus enabling the rigorous comparison of outer-sphere environments across different siliceous supports. These outer-sphere environments are characterized by solid-state1 H NMR spectroscopy to comprise proximally organized silanols confined within 12-membered-ring cups in crystalline UCB-4, and are responsible for up to 5-fold enhance-ments in rates of epoxidation by TiIV centers...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wei Huang, Joyprokash Chakrabartty, Catalin Harnagea, Dawit Gedamu, Ibrahima Ka, Mohamed Chaker, Federico Rosei, Riad Nechache
Perovskite multiferroic oxides are promising materials for the realization of sensitive and switchable photodiodes, due to their favorable band gap (< 3.0 eV), high absorption coefficient and tunable internal ferroelectric polarization. A high speed switchable photodiode based on multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO)/SrRuO3 (SRO) layered heterojunction was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The heterojunction photodiode exhibits a large ideality factor (n = ~5.0) and a response time as fast as 68 ms, thanks to the effective charge carrier transport and collection at the BFCO/SRO interface...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ahmet Alperen Gunay, Hannah Kim, Naveen Nagarajan, Mateusz Lopez, Rajath Kantharaj, Albraa Alsaati, Amy Marconnet, Andrej Lenert, Nenad Miljkovic
Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize re-radiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gökhan Artaş, Şehmus Pala, Tuncay Kuloğlu, Remzi Atilgan, Şeyda Yavuzkir, Alparslan Akyol
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of only aspiration with aspiration and 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) application on ovarian cyst size and ovarian reserve. The ovarian cysts of 14 rats that were divided into two groups randomly were investigated after total salpingectomy procedure. G1 was the group of saline application after cyst aspiration, while in G2, after aspiration 5% TCA at half amount of aspiration volume was injected into the cyst and re-aspirated after five minutes. The abdomens of the rats were closed and re-explored after 1 month...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Luiza Ianny de Lima, Karen Rapp Py-Daniel, Maria Adelaide Guimarães, Luís Alexandre Muehlmann, Ana Carolina Mafud, Yvonne Primerano Mascarenhas, Josué de Moraes, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, João Paulo Figueiró Longo
AIM: To develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system (SNEDDS) able to improve oral absorption of epiisopiloturine (EPI), and test the antischistosomal activity in a mice model. RESULTS: SNEDDS had a nanoscopic size and was able to enhance EPI bioavailability after oral administration, and SNEDDS-EPI (40 ) improved the in vivo antischistosomal activity of EPI, demonstrating that SNEDDS was able to improve the pharmacokinetics of EPI, and to maintain the pharmacodynamic activity against Schistosoma mansoni in vivo...
March 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
Clint L Makino, Teresa Duda, Alexandre Pertzev, Rameshwar K Sharma
Our ability to see is based on the activity of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. Rods function when there is very little light, while cones operate at higher light levels. Photon absorption by rhodopsin activates a biochemical cascade that converts photic energy into a change in the membrane potential of the cell by decreasing the levels of a second messenger, cGMP, that control the gating of cation channels. But just as important as the activation of the cascade are the shut-off and recovery processes. The timing of shutoff and recovery ultimately affects sensitivity, temporal resolution and even the capacity for counting single photons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bhubanananda Sahu, Akiko Maeda
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of polarized epithelial cells which plays many important roles for visual function. One of such roles is production of visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle. The visual cycle consists of biochemical processes for regenerating chromophore by a collective action of the RPE and photoreceptor. Photoreceptors harbor the G protein-coupled receptors, opsin which enables to receive light when it bounds to 11-cis-retinal. With absorption of a photon of light, 11-cis-retinal photoisomerizes to all-trans-retinal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoko Miura
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of epithelial cells located between the neural retina and the choroid, plays a significant role in the maintenance of retinal function. Its in vivo imaging is still technically challenging in human eye. With the mouse eye, there is a possibility to look into the RPE through the sclera using two-photon microscopy (TPM). TPM is a two photon-excited nonlinear fluorescence microscopy that enables the observation of deep tissues up to several hundred micrometers. Since the simultaneous absorption of two photons occurs only at the focal plane, spatial resolution of the TPM is quite high, such that pinhole as used in a confocal microscope is not necessary...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
De-Ju Cao, Xun Yang, Geng Geng, Xiao-Chun Wan, Ru-Xiao Ma, Qian Zhang, Yue-Gan Liang
A hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate the Cd absorption and subcellular distribution in tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Increased Cd accumulation potential was observed in the tea plant in a Cd-enriched environment, but most of the Cd was absorbed by the roots of C. sinensis. The Cd in all the root fractions was mostly distributed in the soluble fraction, followed by the cell wall fraction. By contrast, the Cd was least distributed in the organelle fraction. The adsorption of Cd onto the C. sinensis roots was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ashish Agnihotri, Praveen Gupta, Anuj Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Seth
Salicylic acid alleviates lead toxicity in Brassica juncea (L.) by promoting growth under non-stress and activating stress-defense mechanism (s) under lead stress conditions. It also boosts the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and thus helps in minimizing oxidative and DNA damage. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to different concentrations (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 ) of lead (Pb) and subsequently sprayed with 0.5 mM of salicylic acid (SA) to check for morphological and leaf gas exchange parameters like transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (GH2 O), net photosynthetic rate (A) and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv /Fm )...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Carmen Rubio, Cristian Martínez, Soraya Paz, Angel J Gutiérrez, Dailos González-Weller, Consuelo Revert, Antonio Burgos, Arturo Hardisson
Mushrooms are a valuable foodstuff because they are an important source of fiber and essential amino acids, but they have a great capacity to capture metals from substrate. Due to this reason, the content of 14 metals (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Al, Cd, Pb) of 100 samples of canned mushrooms grown in Spain were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fe (9.55 mg/kg) was the most notable trace element, followed by Zn (2.39 mg/kg). The most abundant toxic metal was Al (17...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Olga Cavoura, Christine M Davidson, Nicholas Katsiris, Helen E Keenan
A rapid, inexpensive, colorimetric screening method for mercury (Hg) has been optimized to provide a semi-quantitative measurement of Hg concentration in marine sediment within the range 0.038 to 1.5 mg kg-1 encompassing the interim sediment quality guideline (ISQG) value of 0.13 mg kg-1 (CCME 1999) and the probable effects level (PEL) of 0.7 mg kg-1 for Hg in marine sediment (CCME 1999). Neither salinity (up to 41 practical salinity units (psu)) nor sediment organic matter (ΟΜ) content (up to 10%) affected the performance of the method...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christelle Rodrigues, Stéphanie Chhun, Catherine Chiron, Olivier Dulac, Elisabeth Rey, Gérard Pons, Vincent Jullien
PURPOSE: The objective of this work was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a prolonged-release granule formulation of valproic acid (VPA) in children with epilepsy and to determine the doses providing a VPA trough concentration (Ctrough ) within the target range (50-100 mg/L). METHODS: Ninety-eight children (1-17.6 years, 325 plasma samples) were included in the study. The model was built with NONMEM 7.3. The probability to obtain Ctrough between 50 and 100 mg/L was determined by the Monte Carlo simulations for doses of 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day and body weights between 10 and 70 kg...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Giuseppe Licari, Joseph S Beckwith, Saeideh Soleimanpour, Stefan Matile, Eric Vauthey
A planarizable push-pull molecular probe with mechanosensitive properties was investigated at several biomimetic interfaces, consisting of different phospholipid monolayers located between dodecane and an aqueous buffer solution, using the interface-specific surface-second-harmonic-generation (SSHG) technique. Whereas the SSHG spectra recorded at liquid-disordered interfaces were similar to the absorption spectra in bulk solutions, those measured at liquid-ordered phases exhibited a remarkable shift towards lower energies to an extent depending on the surface pressure of the phospholipid monolayer...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tanveer A Wani, Ahmed H Bakheit, M A Abounassif, Seema Zargar
Binding of therapeutic agents to plasma proteins, particularly to serum albumin, provides valuable information in the drug development. This study was designed to evaluate the binding interaction of neratinib with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Neratinib blocks HER2 signaling and is effective in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer treatment. Spectrofluorometric, UV spectrophotometric, and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and molecular docking experiments were performed to study this interaction. The fluorescence of BSA is attributed to the presence of tryptophan (Trp) residues...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Bhanoo Saulick, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo, Nadeem Nazurally, Bhanooduth Lalljee
Concentrations of heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and trace elements chromium, copper, nickel and zinc were tested in the muscle tissue of four commercial edible lethrinids fish species from different region of Mauritius. Sky emperor ( Lethrinus mahsena ) was collected from coastal regions as well as offshore regions (banks) for this study. Blackspot emperor ( Lethrinus harak ) and spangled emperor ( Lethrinus nebulosus ) were also studied for their popularity in the fish market. Condition factor was calculated for each fish and the highest value obtained was in Lethrinus mahsena collected from offshore regions (2...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Roberto Salvatori
Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in acromegaly, but patients with persistent disease after surgery or in whom surgery cannot be considered require medical therapy. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) octreotide (OCT), lanreotide, and the more recently approved pasireotide, characterized by a broader receptor ligand binding profile, are considered the mainstay in the medical management of acromegaly. However, in the attempt to offer a more efficacious and better tolerated medical approach, recent research has been aimed to override some limitations related to the use of currently approved drugs and novel SRLs therapies, with potential attractive features, have been proposed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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