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Nicole A Aluwi, Bon-Jae Gu, Gaurav S Dhumal, Ilce G Medina-Meza, Kevin M Murphy, Girish M Ganjyal
Extrusion of 2 quinoa varieties, Cherry Vanilla and Black (scarified and unscarified) and a mixed quinoa variety, Bolivian Royal (scarified and degermed) were studied for their extrusion characteristics. A corotating twin-screw extruder with a 3 mm round die was used. Feed moisture contents of 15%, 20%, and 25% (wet basis) were studied. The extruder barrel temperature was kept constant at 140 °C and screw speeds were varied from 100, 150, and 200 revolutions per minutes. Process responses (specific mechanical energy, back pressure, and torque) and product responses (expansion ratio, unit density, and water absorption index/water solubility index) were evaluated...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Hui Ren, Nigel P Birch, Vinod Suresh
Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2...
2016: PloS One
Neena Prasad, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian
We report, the enhanced photocatalytic behaviour of Cu doped ZnS micro crystals. ZnS and different concentrations of Cu doped ZnS microcrystals were prepared. X-ray diffraction confirms the crystalline and phase of the particles. Morphology and sizes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Recorded optical absorption spectra show a band for around 365nm for pure ZnS, but there is a broad band in the near infrared regime for the Cu-doped ZnS microcrystals which are attributed to the d-d transitions of Cu(2+) ions...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Essam Hammam, Jalal Basahi, Iqbal Ismail, Ibrahim Hassan, Talal Almeelbi
The excited state hydrogen bonding dynamics of BBVN in hydrogen donating methanol solvent was explored at the TD-BMK/cc-pVDZ level of theory with accounting for the bulk environment effects at the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The heteroatoms of the BBVN laser dye form hydrogen bonds with four methanol molecules. In the formed BBVN-(MeOH)4 complex, the A-type hydrogen bond (N…HO), of an average strength of 25kJmol(-1), is twofold stronger than the B-type (O…HO) one. Upon photon absorption, the total HB binding energy increases from 78...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Scott T Akin, Vicente Zamudio-Bayer, Kaining Duanmu, Georg Leistner, Konstantin Hirsch, Christine Buelow, Arkadiusz Lawicki, Akira Terasaki, Bernd von Issendorff, Donald G Truhlar, J Tobias Lau, Michael A Duncan
Cobalt-benzene cluster ions of the form Co3(bz)n+ (n = 0-3) were produced in the gas-phase, mass-selected, and cooled in a cryogenic ion trap held at 34 K. To explore ligand effects on cluster magnetic moments, these species were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy. XMCD spectra yield both the spin and orbital angular momenta of these clusters. Co3+ has a spin magnetic moment of S = 6 µB and an orbital magnetic moment of L = 3 µB...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Daniel Ricardo Nascimento, A Eugene DePrince
We report an explicitly time-dependent approach to the generation of linear absorption spectra for molecular systems within the framework of equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster (CC) theory. While most time-dependent CC approaches consider the perturbation and time-evolution of a CC wave function, the present work considers the time-evolution of a CC dipole function. The dipole function formalism introduces no approximations and requires the evolution of only one time-dependent quantity, either the left or the right dipole function...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Soji Shimizu
Subporphyrinato boron (subporphyrin) was elusive until the syntheses of tribenzosubporphine in 2006 and meso-aryl-substituted subporphyrin in 2007. These novel contracted analogues possess a 14π-electron conjugated system embedded in a bowl-shaped structure. They exhibit absorption and fluorescence in the UV/vis region and nonlinear optical properties due to their octupolar structures. The unique coordination geometry around the central boron atom in the structure of subporphyrin enabled investigation of rare boron species, such as borenium cations, boron hydrides, and boron peroxides...
October 25, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jipeng Fu, Su Zhang, Ran Pang, Yonglei Jia, Wenzhi Sun, Haifeng Li, Lihong Jiang, Chengyu Li
Infrared (IR) light-emitting materials have wide applications. However, variety and economical accesses to obtain IR materials and devices are still limited, because the IR-emitting materials are always suffering from two obstacles, namely, lower absorption and lower emission efficiency. In this work, using a modified high-temperature solid-state reaction an efficient short-wavelength IR luminescent material is successfully synthesized. On the basis of the excellent luminescent properties, a convenient IR light-emitting diode (LED) device is fabricated by combining the novel IR material with a commercial UV LED chip...
October 25, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Simone A Winkler, Paul A Picot, Michael M Thornton, Brian K Rutt
PURPOSE: To develop a new method capable of directly measuring specific absorption rate (SAR) deposited in tissue using the thermoacoustic signal induced by short radiofrequency (RF) pulse excitation. THEORY: A detailed model based on the thermoacoustic wave generation and propagation is presented. METHODS: We propose a new concept for direct measurement of SAR, to be used as a safety assessment/monitoring tool for MRI. The concept involves the use of short bursts of RF energy and the measurement of the resulting thermoacoustic excitation pattern by an array of ultrasound transducers, followed by image reconstruction to yield the 3D SAR distribution...
October 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Ismail Fidan, Emel Önal, Yusuf Yerli, Dominique Luneau, Vefa Ahsen, Catherine Hirel
The synthesis of a homogeneous neutral hexaradical architecture consisting of six imino nitroxide radical moieties covalently bonded on a cyclotriphosphazene scaffold was reported. The synthesis of hexaradical imino nitroxide compounds follows the Ullman procedure involving the condensation of 2,3-bis(hydroxylamino)-2,3-dimethylbutane with hexa-(4-formylphenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (3) followed by oxidation of the condensation product hexa-[4-(1-hydroxy-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-imidazoline-2-yl)phenoxy]cyclotriphosphazene (2) by NaIO4...
October 25, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Joy M Dawes, Erin M Cooke, Jacqueline A Hannam, Katherine A Brand, Pamela Winton, Ricardo Jimenez-Mendez, Katarina Aleksa, Gillian R Lauder, Bruce C Carleton, Gideon Koren, Michael J Rieder, Brian J Anderson, Carolyne J Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. METHODS: Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) )...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
J L Baker, D Shriner, A R Bentley, C N Rotimi
As the common birthplace of all human populations, modern humans have lived longer on the African continent than in any other geographical region of the world. This long history, along with the evolutionary need to adapt to environmental challenges such as exposure to infectious agents, has led to greater genetic variation in Africans. The vast genetic variation in Africans also extends to genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of pharmaceuticals. Ongoing cataloging of these clinically relevant variants reveals huge allele-frequency differences within and between African populations...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
K M Meiburger, S Y Nam, E Chung, L J Suggs, S Y Emelianov, F Molinari
Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Arthur Lalonde, Hugo Bouchard
To develop a general method for human tissue characterization with dual- and multi-energy CT and evaluate its performance in determining elemental compositions and quantities relevant to radiotherapy Monte Carlo dose calculation. Ideal materials to describe human tissue are obtained applying principal component analysis on elemental weight and density data available in literature. The theory is adapted to elemental composition for solving tissue information from CT data. A novel stoichiometric calibration method is integrated to the technique to make it suitable for a clinical environment...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yutaka Maeda, Yuya Takehana, Jing-Shuang Dang, Mitsuaki Suzuki, Michio Yamada, Shigeru Nagase
Alkylated SWNTs were thermally treated to determine the influence of the substituents and the degree of functionalization on their thermal stability and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Alkylated SWNTs were prepared using sodium naphthalenide and alkyl bromide. The defunctionalization of alkylated SWNTs was monitored by absorption and Raman spectra. A selective recovery of the characteristic absorption and RBM peaks were observed during the thermal treatment, which indicates that the thermal stability of alkylated SWNTs decreased with an increase in SWNT diameter and with an increase in the degree of functionalization...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Garold Murdachaew, Gilbert M Nathanson, R Benny Gerber, Lauri Halonen
Deprotonation of organic acids at aqueous surfaces has important implications in atmospheric chemistry and other disciplines, yet it is not well-characterized or understood. This article explores the interactions of formic acid (FA), including ionization, in collisions at the air-water interface. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with dispersion-corrected density functional theory were used. The 8-50 picosecond duration trajectories all resulted in the adsorption of FA within the interfacial region, with no scattering, absorption into the bulk or desorption into the vapor...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emmanuel Amabebe, Steven Reynolds, Victoria Stern, Graham Stafford, Martyn Paley, Dilly O C Anumba
Changes in vaginal microbiota that is associated with preterm birth (PTB) leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) using metabolomics techniques. In this study, we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL) by both (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly, and in combination, with current clinical screening tools - cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN) and ultrasound cervical length (CL)...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Meltem Savran Karadeniz, Erdem Bayazit, Omur Aksoy, Emine Aysu Salviz, Tzevat Tefik, Oner Sanli, Mukadder Orhan Sungur, Kamil Mehmet Tugrul
BACKGROUND: Bipolar and monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) are both widely used for surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Systemic absorption of irrigation fluids during TURP operations leads to variations in blood chemistry. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to compare two different surgical techniques and the systemic effects of irrigation solutions (5 % mannitol vs. 0.9 % sodium chloride) under standardized anesthesia care. METHODS: Fifty-two patients who were scheduled for elective TURP were enrolled in the study...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kirara Yamaguchi, Toshiaki Murai, Jing-Dong Guo, Takahiro Sasamori, Norihiro Tokitoh
Solutions of 5-N-arylaminothiazoles containing pyridyl groups exhibited clear halochromism and halofluorism upon addition of Brønsted and Lewis acids. The addition of triflic acid to solutions of 5-N-arylaminothiazoles in Et2O induced bathochromic shifts of the absorption and emission bands. DFT calculations suggested that the spectral changes arise from the protonation of the pyridyl group of the thiazoles in Et2O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a thiazole and its protonated form revealed the change of the conformation around the thiazole ring...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Kirara Yamaguchi, Toshiaki Murai, Jing-Dong Guo, Takahiro Sasamori, Norihiro Tokitoh
The front cover artwork is provided by the group of Toshiaki Murai at Gifu University (Japan). The image shows structures of the key compounds and the change of the fluorescence. Although electron-donating and -accepting groups are not in the same plane, they show relatively strong fluorescence from blue to orange. For more details, read the full text of the Communication at 10.1002/open.201600059.
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
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