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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817674/new-insights-into-the-distribution-protein-abundance-and-subcellular-localisation-of-the-endogenous-peroxisomal-biogenesis-proteins-pex3-and-pex19-in-different-organs-and-cell-types-of-the-adult-mouse
#1
Claudia Colasante, Jiangping Chen, Barbara Ahlemeyer, Rocio Bonilla-Martinez, Srikanth Karnati, Eveline Baumgart-Vogt
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles mainly involved in ROS and lipid metabolism. Their abundance, protein composition and metabolic function vary depending on the cell type and adjust to different intracellular and environmental factors such as oxidative stress or nutrition. The biogenesis and proliferation of these important organelles are regulated by proteins belonging to the peroxin (PEX) family. PEX3, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and the cytosolic shuttling receptor PEX19 are thought to be responsible for the early steps of peroxisome biogenesis and assembly of their matrix protein import machinery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814573/conserved-dynamics-of-chloroplast-cytoskeletal-ftsz-proteins-across-photosynthetic-lineages
#2
Allan D Terbush, Joshua S MacCready, Cheng Chen, Daniel C Ducat, Katherine W Osteryoung
The cytoskeletal FtsZ ring is critical for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in photosynthetic eukaryotes. While bacterial FtsZ rings are composed of a single FtsZ, except in the basal glaucophytes chloroplast division involves two heteropolymer-forming FtsZ isoforms--FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in the green lineage and FtsZA and FtsZB in red algae. FtsZ1 and FtsZB probably arose by duplication of the more ancestral FtsZ2 and FtsZA, respectively. We expressed fluorescent fusions of FtsZ from diverse photosynthetic organisms in a heterologous system to compare their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties...
August 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814516/baculovirus-molecular-evolution-via-gene-turnover-and-recurrent-positive-selection-of-key-genes
#3
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Hosts and viruses are locked in an evolutionary arms race. Hosts are constantly evolving to suppress virulence and replication, while viruses, reliant on host machinery for survival and reproduction, develop counter-strategies to escape this immune defense. Viruses must also adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in a host species. Both processes provide strong selection for viral adaptation. Understanding adaptive evolution in insect viruses can help us better understand adaptive evolution in general, and is important due to their use as biocontrol agents, and for protecting ecologically or economically important species from outbreaks...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813441/cross-over-endocytosis-of-claudins-is-mediated-by-interactions-via-their-extracellular-loops
#4
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811863/long-noncoding-rnas-and-rna-binding-proteins-in-oxidative-stress-cellular-senescence-and-age-related-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Chongtae Kim, Donghee Kang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jae-Seon Lee
Cellular senescence is a complex biological process that leads to irreversible cell-cycle arrest. Various extrinsic and intrinsic insults are associated with the onset of cellular senescence and frequently accompany genomic or epigenomic alterations. Cellular senescence is believed to contribute to tumor suppression, immune response, and tissue repair as well as aging and age-related diseases. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long, poorly conserved, and transcribed in a manner similar to that of mRNAs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807982/c-ebp%C3%AE-is-required-for-survival-of-ly6c-monocytes
#7
Akihiro Tamura, Hideyo Hirai, Asumi Yokota, Naoka Kamio, Atsushi Sato, Tsukimi Shoji, Takahiro Kashiwagi, Yusuke Torikoshi, Yasuo Miura, Daniel G Tenen, Taira Maekawa
The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. However, its roles in monopoiesis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of C/EBPβ in monopoiesis. Further subdivision of monocytes revealed that Cebpb mRNA was highly upregulated in Ly6C(-) monocytes in bone marrow. Accordingly, Ly6C(-) monocytes were significantly reduced in Cebpb(-/-) mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments and Mx1-Cre-mediated deletion of Cebpb revealed the cell-intrinsic and monocyte-specific requirement for C/EBPβ in monopoiesis...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807897/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-pabpc2-critically-regulates-epidermal-maintenance-and-turnover-in-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#8
Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Kavana Nadahalli, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Jini Geo, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Renu Pasricha, Akash Gulyani, Srikala Raghavan, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is critical for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic Poly A binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown (KD) of Smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807259/is-osteocyte-klotho-bad-for-bone-health
#9
Rosa M A Moysés, Adriana Dusso
The recent identification of αKlotho protein (Klotho) in osteocytes led to the generation of an experimental mouse model with osteocyte-specific Klotho ablation. This enabled Komaba et al. to assess the contribution to bone structure and function of osteocyte Klotho per se as compared with that of the systemic fibroblast growth factor 23-Klotho axis. Surprisingly, unlike the osteopenia and low bone turnover of systemic Klotho deletion, osteocyte-specific Klotho ablation resulted in increased osteoblastic activity and bone formation rate...
September 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806419/effects-of-short-term-dry-immersion-on-bone-remodeling-markers-insulin-and-adipokines
#10
Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Liubov E Amirova, Mireille Thomas, Myriam Normand, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Arnaud Beck, Marie-Claude Costes-Salon, Christine Bonneau, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Laurence Vico
BACKGROUND: Dry immersion (DI), a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones. METHODS: Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC), daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h), then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805968/protein-turnover-in-the-failing-heart-an-ever-changing-landscape
#11
EDITORIAL
Baljash S Cheema, Hani N Sabbah, Stephen J Greene, Mihai Gheorghiade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#12
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803980/humoral-immune-response-of-galleria-mellonella-after-repeated-infection-with-bacillus-thuringiensis
#13
Paulina Taszłow, Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The insect immune system relies on innate mechanisms only. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting that previous immune challenge with microbial elicitors or a low number of microorganisms can modulate susceptibility after subsequent lethal infection with the same or different pathogen. This phenomenon is called immune priming. Its biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unravelled. Here we present that Galleria mellonella larvae that survived infection induced by intrahemocelic injection of a low dose of Bacillus thuringiensis were more resistant to re-injection of a lethal dose of the same bacteria but not with other bacteria and fungi tested...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803887/a-miniaturized-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase-enzyme-assay
#14
Mirella Vivoli, Julien Renou, Arnaud Chevalier, Isobel H Norville, Suraya Diaz, Christina Juli, Helen Atkins, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Pierre-Yves Renard, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Nicholas J Harmer
Prolyl-peptidyl isomerases (PPIases) are enzymes that are found in all living organisms. They form an essential part of the cellular protein folding homeostasis machinery. PPIases are associated with many important human diseases, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer's. The development of novel PPIase inhibitors has been limited by the lack of a rapid, laboratory-based assay for these enzymes, as their substrates and products are challenging to distinguish. A well described continuous assay, coupled with the hydrolysis of a peptide by chymotrypsin is highly effective, but comparatively slow...
August 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793258/crucial-roles-for-sirt2-and-ampa-receptor-acetylation-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#15
Guan Wang, Shaomin Li, James Gilbert, Howard J Gritton, Zemin Wang, Zhangyuan Li, Xue Han, Dennis J Selkoe, Heng-Ye Man
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the molecular control of AMPAR stability and its neurophysiological significance remain unclear. Here, we report that AMPARs are subject to lysine acetylation at their C termini. Acetylation reduces AMPAR internalization and degradation, leading to increased cell-surface localization and prolonged receptor half-life. Through competition for the same lysine residues, acetylation intensity is inversely related to the levels of AMPAR ubiquitination...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792039/using-an-artificial-tryptophan-wire-in-cytochrome-c-peroxidase-for-oxidation-of-organic-substrates
#16
Mackenzie J Field, Rajneesh K Bains, Jeffrey J Warren
Lignolytic peroxidases use an electron transfer (ET) pathway that involves amino acid-mediated substrate oxidation at the surface of the protein rather than at an embedded heme site. In many of these peroxidases, redox catalysis takes place at a substrate accessible tyrosine or tryptophan (Trp) amino acid. Here, we describe new mutants of cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) that were designed to incorporate a Trp-based "wire" that can move oxidizing equivalents from the heme to the protein surface. Three mutant CcP proteins were expressed and characterized: A193W, Y229W, and A193W/Y229W...
August 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782052/real-time-sensing-of-single-ligand-delivery-with-nanoaperture-integrated-microfluidic-devices
#17
W Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C Patrick Collier, Christine A Trinkle, Christopher I Richards
The measurement of biological events on the surface of live cells at the single-molecule level is complicated by several factors including high protein densities that are incompatible with single-molecule imaging, cellular autofluorescence, and protein mobility on the cell surface. Here, we fabricated a device composed of an array of nanoscale apertures coupled with a microfluidic delivery system to quantify single-ligand interactions with proteins on the cell surface. We cultured live cells directly on the device and isolated individual epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in the apertures while delivering fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor...
July 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781957/indoxyl-sulfate-a-uremic-toxin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-suppresses-both-bone-formation-and-bone-resorption
#18
Kenta Watanabe, Tsukasa Tominari, Michiko Hirata, Chiho Matsumoto, Junya Hirata, Gillian Murphy, Hideaki Nagase, Chisato Miyaura, Masaki Inada
Abnormalities of bone turnover are commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the low-turnover bone disease is considered to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood of patients with CKD. Recently, we have reported that IS exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy (PTX) in adult rats, and suggested that IS directly induces low bone turnover through the inhibition of bone formation by mechanisms unrelated to skeletal resistance to PTH...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780040/long-term-direct-visualization-of-passively-transferred-fluorophore-conjugated-antibodies
#19
Jeffrey R Schneider, Ann M Carias, Arangaserry R Bastian, Gianguido C Cianci, Patrick F Kiser, Ronald S Veazey, Thomas J Hope
The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779843/ssm-based-electrophysiology-for-transporter-research
#20
Andre Bazzone, Maria Barthmes, Klaus Fendler
Functional characterization of transport proteins using conventional electrophysiology can be challenging, especially for low turnover transporters or transporters from bacteria and intracellular compartments. Solid-supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is a sensitive and cell-free assay technique for the characterization of electrogenic membrane proteins. Purified proteins reconstituted into proteoliposomes or membrane vesicles from cell culture or native tissues are adsorbed to the sensor holding an SSM...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
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